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    Why is endosymbiosis important?

    Endosymbiosis is important because it is a theory that explains the origin of chloroplast and mitochondria. It is also a theory that explains how eukaryotic cells came to be. The evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes. A long time ago, a photosynthetic prokaryote was ingested by a larger one but it was not digested. It somehow survived and it was trapped in the cytoplasm. This is called endosymbiosis, endo = inside, sym = together, bio = life, life living together inside. 5 Evidence: 1) Chloroplast / Mitochondria have their own separate circular DNA similar to bacteria 2) Both Chloroplast / Mitochondria have their own 2 membranes. The inner membrane came from the original cell, the outer came from the host 3) Mitochondria are about the same size as bacteria 4) Mitochondria came from purple bacteria and chloroplast came from the photosynthetic bacteria 5) Mitochondria and chloroplast reproduce from binary fission

    Why is endosymbiosis important?

    Biology Origin of Life on Earth Endosymbiosis

    1 Answer

    sorocraft Apr 28, 2016

    Endosymbiosis is important because it is a theory that explains the origin of chloroplast and mitochondria. It is also a theory that explains how eukaryotic cells came to be.

    Explanation:

    The evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes. A long time ago, a photosynthetic prokaryote was ingested by a larger one but it was not digested. It somehow survived and it was trapped in the cytoplasm. This is called endosymbiosis, endo = inside,

    sym = together, bio = life, life living together inside.

    5 Evidence:

    1) Chloroplast / Mitochondria have their own separate circular DNA similar to bacteria

    2) Both Chloroplast / Mitochondria have their own 2 membranes. The inner membrane came from the original cell, the outer came from the host

    3) Mitochondria are about the same size as bacteria

    4) Mitochondria came from purple bacteria and chloroplast came from the photosynthetic bacteria

    5) Mitochondria and chloroplast reproduce from binary fission

    Answer link

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    7.8: The Endosymbiotic Theory

    The endosymbiotic theory states that mitochondria and chlopoplasts in today's eukaryotic cells were once separate prokaryotic microbes.

    7.8: The Endosymbiotic Theory

    Last updated Apr 9, 2022

    7.7: Flagella and Cilia

    7.E: The Eukaryotic Cell (Exercises)

    Gary Kaiser

    Community College of Baltimore Country (Cantonsville)

    Learning Objectives

    Briefly describe what is meant by the endosymbiotic theory.

    Give some evidence supporting the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts may have arisen from prokaryotic organisms.

    It is thought that life arose on earth around four billion years ago. The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in today's eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes. In this theory, the first eukaryotic cell was probably an amoeba-like cell that got nutrients by phagocytosis and contained a nucleus that formed when a piece of the cytoplasmic membrane pinched off around the chromosomes. Some of these amoeba-like organisms ingested prokaryotic cells that then survived within the organism and developed a symbiotic relationship. Mitochondria formed when bacteria capable of aerobic respiration were ingested; chloroplasts formed when photosynthetic bacteria were ingested. They eventually lost their cell wall and much of their DNA because they were not of benefit within the host cell. Mitochondria and chloroplasts cannot grow outside their host cell.

    Evidence for this is based on the following:

    Chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells, divide by binary fission, and, like bacteria, have Fts proteins at their division plane. The mitochondria are the same size as prokaryotic cells, divide by binary fission, and the mitochondria of some protists have Fts homologs at their division plane.

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA that is circular, not linear.

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own ribosomes that have 30S and 50S subunits, not 40S and 60S.

    Several more primitive eukaryotic microbes, such as Giardia and Trichomonas have a nuclear membrane but no mitochondria.

    Although evidence is less convincing, it is also possible that flagella and cilia may have come from spirochetes.

    Figure 7.8.1 7.8.1

    : One model for the origin of mitochondria and plastids. This model has an amitochondriate eukaryote engulfing an aerobe and then a cyanobacterium. from Kelvinsong

    Example 7.8.1 7.8.1

    Briefly describe what is meant by the endosymbiotic theory.

    Give three points of evidence supporting the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts may have arisen from prokaryotic organisms.

    Solutions

    The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes.

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells and divide by binary fission.

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circular, not linear.

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own ribosomes which have 30S and 50S subunits, not 40S and 60S.

    Summary

    The endosymbiotic theory states that mitochondria and chlopoplasts in today's eukaryotic cells were once separate prokaryotic microbes.

    Source : bio.libretexts.org

    Endosymbiotic Theory Flashcards

    Start studying Endosymbiotic Theory. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Endosymbiotic Theory

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    Endosymbiotic Theory

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    Evolutionary theory which explains the origin of eukaryotes from ancestral prokaryotes.

    Proposes that some organelles (Mitochondria and Chloroplasts), evolved from free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed and subsequently became obligate endosymbionants.

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    1. Size and Morphology

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    Chloroplasts and Mitochondria are roughly the same size and shape as prokaryotic cells.

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    1/6 Created by stephaniegirardd

    Terms in this set (6)

    Endosymbiotic Theory

    Evolutionary theory which explains the origin of eukaryotes from ancestral prokaryotes.

    Proposes that some organelles (Mitochondria and Chloroplasts), evolved from free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed and subsequently became obligate endosymbionants.

    1. Size and Morphology

    Chloroplasts and Mitochondria are roughly the same size and shape as prokaryotic cells.

    2. Replication

    Chloroplasts and Mitochondria divide by binary fission, the way prokaryotes do.

    3. DNA

    Chloroplasts and Mitochondria have their own DNA and their genome is circular like prokaryotes.

    4. Membranes

    Two membranes around Chloroplasts and Mitochondria and these are different in composition.

    5. Antibiotic Sensitivity

    Some antibiotics that affect bacteria also inhibit the function of mitochondria and chloroplasts but not nuclear transcription or translation.

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