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    you find what you believe is a new species of animal. which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?


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    Bio Exam 4 Flashcards

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    Bio Exam 4

    Which of the following animal groups is entirely aquatic?

    Nematoda Crustacea Echinodermata Mollusca

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    Some species of rotifers consist solely of females. Their method of reproduction is described as _____.

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    parthenogenesis (The females lay unfertilized eggs that develop into females.)

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    Which of the following animal groups is entirely aquatic?

    Nematoda Crustacea Echinodermata Mollusca Echinodermata

    Some species of rotifers consist solely of females. Their method of reproduction is described as _____.

    parthenogenesis (The females lay unfertilized eggs that develop into females.)

    The animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animal kingdom is _____.


    Which of the following is a characteristic of cnidarians?

    gastrovascular cavity

    A marine biologist dredges up a small animal from the bottom of the ocean. It is uniformly segmented, with short, stiff appendages and soft, flexible skin. It has a complete digestive system and a closed circulatory system, plus multiple true coeloms. Based on this, you determine that the animal must be a(n) _____.


    Which of the following is true of annelids?

    They perform gas exchange across their skin. (Cutaneous respiration occurs across their skins. Polychaetes have lateral extensions, called parapodia, which provide even more surface area for cutaneous respiration.)

    Members of the phylum Mollusca _____.

    are soft-bodied and often covered by a shell (Members of the phylum Mollusca are soft-bodied and are often covered by a shell.)

    Ectoprocts and brachiopods are collectively referred to as __________.

    lophophorates (The lophophore is a structure common to these two phyla that bear ciliated tentacles.)

    Which of the following is characteristic of the phylum Platyhelminthes?

    They are dorsoventrally flattened. (This is why they are also called flatworms.)

    Nematodes and arthropods are the largest ecdysozoan phyla. Which of the following statements are true?

    -Nematodes possess a closed circulatory system.

    -Some nematodes are parasitic on humans.

    -Both nematodes and arthropods have segmented body plans.

    -Nematodes are acoelomate, whereas arthropods are coelomate.

    -Both nematodes and arthropods possess an external covering, or cuticle.

    -Arthropods possess an open circulatory system.

    -Arthropods are named for their jointed appendages.

    -The cuticle in nematodes lengthens as the animal grows.

    -Both nematodes and arthropods must molt in order to increase in size.

    -Some nematodes are parasitic on humans.

    -Both nematodes and arthropods possess an external covering, or cuticle.

    -Arthropods possess an open circulatory system.

    -Arthropods are named for their jointed appendages.

    -Both nematodes and arthropods must molt in order to increase in size.

    Which of the following are thought to be most closely related to humans?

    Sea Stars (Humans and sea stars are deuterostomes.)

    Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is incorrect?

    -Platyhelminthes-flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate

    -Cnidaria-radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms

    -Nematoda-roundworms, pseudocoelomate

    -Porifera-gastrovascular cavity, coelom present

    -Echinodermata-bilateral symmetry as a larva, coelom present

    Porifera-gastrovascular cavity, coelom present

    Which phylum is characterized by animals that have a segmented body?


    Which of the following is most likely to be aquatic?

    Filter Feeder

    Which characteristic is shared by cnidarians and flatworms?

    a digestive system with a single opening

    Large animals need specialized organs for gas exchange because ________.

    volume increases more rapidly than surface area as size increases

    Which one of these mollusk groups can be classified as suspension feeders?

    bivalves chitons cephalopods gastropods Bivalves

    Which of the following organisms would you expect to have the largest surface-area-to-volume ratio? Assume that all of the following are the same total length.

    a mollusc an annelid an arthropod a platyhelminth a platyhelminth

    What would be the best anatomical feature to look for to distinguish a gastropod from a chiton?

    dorsal plates

    You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?

    It has no coelom.

    It has a mouth and an anus.

    It is a suspension feeder.

    It is shaped like a worm.

    It has no coelom

    The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?


    Nematodes and arthropods both ________.

    grow in conjunction with shedding of their cuticle layer/exoskeleton

    Arthropod exoskeletons and mollusc shells both ________.

    Source : quizlet.com


    A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host. Parasites can cause disease in humans.

    What Every Pet Owner Should Know About Roundworms & Hookworms

    What Every Pet Owner Should Know About Roundworms & Hookworms

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    Protecting Your Pets Protects Your Family

    Worms that infect pets…

    What are roundworms & hookworms?

    You may already have heard that worms often infect puppies and kittens as well as older pets. The most common types of these parasitic worms are roundworms and hookworms. They live and grow inside the intestine of your pet. Roundworms* and hookworms develop from eggs into larvae (immature worms). The larvae later grow into adult worms.

    Most pets show no signs of infection with these worms, but some may vomit, stop eating their food, or lose weight. Heavy infections in young puppies and kittens may lead to death.

    * The word “roundworms” refers here to a group of worms known as ascarids. The word is sometimes used to include both ascarids and hookworms.

    How do pets get worms?

    Dogs and cats of any age may get roundworms and hookworms, but they are most vulnerable when they are very young. In fact, puppies of only 2–3 weeks of age can have many worms. That is because these worms are often passed from a mother to her puppies before the puppies are born. Sometimes they are passed shortly after the puppies are born, through a mother’s milk. Dogs and cats infected with these worms contaminate an area by passing worm eggs or larvae in their feces (poop). A dog or cat can be infected when they swallow dirt with dog or cat feces that has worm eggs or larvae.

    …can infect people, too.

    Can roundworms and hookworms infect people?

    Yes. These worms, like other infections that humans can get from animals, are called zoonotic (zoe-o-NOT-ick) infections or zoonoses (zoe-o-NO-sees). By learning about these infections and how to prevent them, you can help protect your pets, yourself, and your family.

    How do these worms infect people?

    Dogs and cats with these worms pass worm eggs or larvae in their feces (poop). Because pets will pass feces anywhere, these eggs may contaminate a large area quickly. These worm eggs and larvae can survive for weeks and even years in areas such as parks, playgrounds, and yards.

    Roundworm infections usually happen when soil, sand, or plants that have been contaminated with infected animal feces are accidentally put in the mouth and ingested.

    Hookworm infections happen when larvae penetrate the skin. This usually happens when people sit or walk on contaminated soil or sand with bare feet.

    Children are more vulnerable to infection than adults because they play on the ground, may put dirty objects in their mouths, and may even eat dirt (eating non-nutritional items, like dirt, is sometimes referred to as “pica”).

    How do roundworms harm people?

    Roundworms enter the body when ingested as worm eggs that soon hatch into larvae. These larvae travel through the liver, lungs, and other organs. In most cases, these “wandering worms” cause no symptoms or obvious damage. However, in some cases they can cause damage to tissue. Sometimes they affect the nerves or even make their way to the eyes. In some cases, they may cause permanent nerve or eye damage, even blindness.

    How do hookworms harm people?

    Hookworm larvae typically move around within the skin causing inflammation and red, itchy tracks in the affected skin. This is called cutaneous (skin) larva migrans. One type of hookworm can make its way into deeper tissues and cause more serious damage to the intestines and other organs.

    How can I protect my pets—and my family and myself—against worm infections?

    Have puppies and kittens dewormed by a veterinarian at an early age. Puppies and kittens may need to be dewormed more than once. Follow the veterinarian’s advice on how frequently puppies and kittens need to be tested and treated.

    Start or keep your pets on a drug program that prevents, treats, and controls these worms. A veterinarian can recommend treatments to eliminate and help prevent these worm infections. Since these products are available in many forms, you and the veterinarian can choose which one works best for your dog or cat. Ask for the product that is most effective against the worms that are most common in your area.

    Wash your and your children’s hands with soap and water after playing with pets or other animals, after outdoor activities, and before handling food or eating.

    Avoid touching soil, sand, plants, and other objects that might be contaminated by animal feces.

    Keep play areas, lawns, and gardens around your home free of animal feces.

    Bag and throw away pet feces at least once a week.

    Cover sandboxes when not in use.

    Obey leash laws.

    More information about safe and healthy pet ownership.

    More information on hookworms.

    More information on roundworms.

    Source : www.cdc.gov

    Molluscs and Annelids

    Molluscs are amazingly diverse, with 110,000 named species, second only to the arthropods among all phyla of animals. Molluscs include such familiar creatures as clams, oysters, snails, and octopi. They share a distant common ancestor with the annelid worms, an evolutionary heritage suggested by their larval form, called a trochophore larva, found in all molluscs and in certain marine annelids called polychaete worms. It's hard to imagine that a clam could be a close cousin to the earthworm, because most familiar molluscs have a highly modified body type. The ancestral mollusc probably resembled a chiton, a flattened worm like animal protected by a dorsal shell.

    Both molluscs and annelids probably evolved from free-living flatworms. Both flatworms and molluscs are triploblastic, bilaterally symmetric, and cephalized. But molluscs have developed a true coelom, an internal body cavity enclosed by mesodermal membranes. The coelom in molluscs, however, is strangely reduced to a small space around the heart, sometimes called a hemocoel. Is this the rudimentary beginning of the more elaborate coelom found in higher animals? Or did ancestral molluscs abandon a more active life style for a sedentary existence (like the clam), no longer needing a fully developed coelom? Primitive molluscs also show a rudimentary type of segmentation, an important feature of the annelid worms. Are molluscs descended from annelids, or is it the other way around? The evolution of this group remains a source of great controversy.

    Molluscs are mostly aquatic, and are named from the Latin , meaning "soft". Their soft bodies are enclosed in a hard shell made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which functions as an exoskeleton. This shell is secreted by a thin sheet of tissue called the mantle, which encloses the internal organs like a glove. The mantle creates a small empty space called a mantle cavity, which is modified for different functions in different groups of molluscs.

    Within the mantle cavity hang the gills, highly complex and greatly folded sheets of tissue. Gills are used to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in respiration. Cilia on the gills create a flow of oxygenated water through the mantle cavity, carrying off carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes. Bivalves like oysters and clams, have greatly enlarged gills that they use for both respiration and filter feeding. Land snails use the mantle cavity as a rudimentary lung. Squid and octopi use the mantle and mantle cavity as an escape mechanism. Molluscs feed by means of a peculiar rasping tongue called a radula, a tiny little chainsaw-like structure made of chitin. Chitin is basically a cellulose polymer with an added nitrogenous group, and is widely found as a structural element in nature, for example in the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods.

    Within the body of the mollusc, the internal organs are embedded in a solid mass of tissue called the visceral mass. Protruding from the bottom of the animal is a muscular foot, used by the bivalve to dig in the sand, used by the snail to creep along rocks, and (divided into tentacles) used by the octopus to catch prey. Molluscs have an open circulatory system - only part of the blood flow is contained in vessels. Molluscs have a three-chambered heart. Two auricles collect oxygenated blood from the gills, and the ventricle forces it from the aorta into small vessels which finally bathe the tissues directly. The blood pools in small chambers or sinuses, where it is collected and carried back to the gills. The oxygenated blood is then returned to the auricles. This is the same the way oil circulates in your car. The oil pump collects the oil as it drips into the oil pan, then carries it back to the top of the engine and pumps it out to run down over the motor.

    Molluscs also have a well-developed excretory system, using tubular nephridia organized as kidneys, that collect liquid wastes from the coelom and dump them in the mantle cavity, where they are pumped out of the shell. Sexes are separate (dioecious), except for bivalves and some snails, which are hermaphroditic.

    The molluscan nervous system consists of a pair of ganglia and nerve cords, with statocysts (balance organs) and eyes as major sense organs. Molluscs include the largest invertebrates (giant squid) and the smartest invertebrates (the octopus). There are eight or more classes of molluscs, and many fossil classes, but we will focus on the four most familiar classes of living molluscs.

    Molluscs are protostomes, one of the two main evolutionary pathways taken by the eucoelomate animals. Remember that protostome means "first mouth". The small opening into the embryonic ball of cells that appears early in animal development is called the blastopore. In protostomes, the blastopore becomes the mouth, and the anus appears later on the opposite side. Protostomes like molluscs, annelids, and arthropods develop by spiral cleavage, and their embryonic cells are determinate, the fate of the embryonic cells is fixed very early on in development. The protostome coelom forms from a split within the mesoderm tissue, so they are sometimes refereed to as schizocoels. Contrast this with the deuterostome animals (starfish, chordates), in which the blastopore becomes the anus and the mouth opens elsewhere. Deuterostomes have radial cleavage and their embryonic cells are indeterminate. Deuterostomes are enterocoels, their coelom forms as out-pockets along the gut.

    Source : www.tulane.edu

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