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    you are going to be writing to reagan in the spirit of detente to explain to him your new policies of glasnost and perestroika. choose from the dropdown menus to show your understanding of these policies. a policy meaning restructuring, leading to political and economic reform a word describing the loosening of tension and conflict between the united states and ussr a policy meaning openness that allows people to express their opinions and vote

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    End of the Cold War: Assignment Flashcards

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    End of the Cold War: Assignment

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    A policy meaning "restructuring," leading to political and economic reform: "perestroika"

    A word describing the loosening of tension and conflict between the United States and USSR: "detente"

    A policy meaning "openness" that allows people to express their opinions and vote: "glasnost"

    Click card to see definition 👆

    ...

    Click again to see term 👆

    Now you will write the opening paragraph of your letter. Your opening should greet the reader, appeal to the emotion you want the reader to feel, and explain why you are writing.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Dear President Reagan:

    I hope you will be excited to hear this news from the Soviet Union. It is time for some serious reforms in our country, and I am thrilled to tell you that I am the one who will institute these reform

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/4 Created by Francisco_Vosburg

    Terms in this set (4)

    A policy meaning "restructuring," leading to political and economic reform: "perestroika"

    A word describing the loosening of tension and conflict between the United States and USSR: "detente"

    A policy meaning "openness" that allows people to express their opinions and vote: "glasnost"

    ...

    Now you will write the opening paragraph of your letter. Your opening should greet the reader, appeal to the emotion you want the reader to feel, and explain why you are writing.

    Dear President Reagan:

    I hope you will be excited to hear this news from the Soviet Union. It is time for some serious reforms in our country, and I am thrilled to tell you that I am the one who will institute these reform

    Now write a paragraph to tell President Reagan about perestroika and glasnost. Remember to define each term and explain its effects on the Soviet Union.

    My program of perestroika means restructuring. I will give the government an overhaul and focus on giving the Soviet people more economic freedom. That means businesses will be able to grow. My other program, glasnost, will focus on openness. Through this program, citizens will be able to access Western ideas and products, and they will be able to speak and write more freely.

    Now write a paragraph to conclude your letter to President Reagan. Remember to explain why these reforms are good for the United States.

    Thank you for taking time to consider how these reforms will impact the Soviet-US relationship. I think you will be pleased to see how they will help smooth relations between our countries. We will now be more open to Western ideas, and we hope you will be more open to Soviet ideas as well.

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    Perestroika and Glasnost

    Perestroika (Russian for "restructuring") refers to a series of political and economic reforms meant to kickstart the stagnant 1980s economy of the Soviet Union, devised by President Mikhail Gorbachev. Glasnost (Russian for "openess") refers to Gorbachev's policy of a more open government and culture.

    Perestroika

    Author: History.com Editors Updated: Nov 14, 2019 Original: Apr 14, 2010

    Contents

    Early Attempts at Reform

    Perestroika Outrages Soviet Bureaucrats

    Gorbachev Relaxes Trade Restrictions

    Economic Reforms Backfire

    Political Reforms Under Perestroika

    Opponents of Perestroika Counterattack

    International Events Under Perestroika

    Result of Perestroika: Soviet Bloc Collapses

    Sources

    Perestroika (“restructuring” in Russian) refers to a series of political and economic reforms meant to kick-start the stagnant 1980s economy of the Soviet Union. Its architect, President Mikhail Gorbachev, would oversee the most fundamental changes to his nation’s economic engine and political structure since the Russian Revolution. But the suddenness of these reforms, coupled with growing instability both inside and out of the Soviet Union, would contribute to the collapse of the U.S.S.R. in 1991.

    Early Attempts at Reform

    In May 1985, two months after coming to power, Mikhail Gorbachev delivered a speech in St. Petersburg (then known as Leningrad), in which he publicly criticized the inefficient economic system of the Soviet Union, making him the first Communist leader to do so.

    This was followed by a February 1986 speech to the Communist Party Congress, in which he expanded upon the need for political and economic restructuring, or perestroika, and called for a new era of transparency and openness, or glasnost.

    But by 1987, these early attempts at reform had achieved little, and Gorbachev embarked on a more ambitious program.

    Perestroika Outrages Soviet Bureaucrats

    Gorbachev loosened centralized control of many businesses, allowing some farmers and manufacturers to decide for themselves which products to make, how many to produce, and what to charge for them.

    This incentivized them to aim for profits, but it also went against the strict price controls that had been the bedrock of Soviet economic policies. It was a move that rankled many high-ranking officials who had previously headed these powerful central committees.

    In May 1988, Gorbachev introduced a new policy that allowed for the creation of limited co-operative businesses within the Soviet Union, which led to the rise of privately owned stores, restaurants and manufacturers. Not since the short-lived New Economic Policy of Vladimir Lenin, instituted in 1922 after the Russian civil war, had aspects of free-market capitalism been permitted in the U.S.S.R.

    But even here, Gorbachev tread lightly. As William Taubman, historian and author of Gorbachev: His Life and Times, notes, “This was a way of introducing private enterprise without calling it that.”

    In fact, the term “private property” was never even used. Many of these new co-ops became the basis of the oligarchical system that continues to control power in Russia today.

    Gorbachev Relaxes Trade Restrictions

    Gorbachev also peeled back restrictions on foreign trade, streamlining processes to allow manufacturers and local government agencies to bypass the previously stifling bureaucratic system of the central government.

    He encouraged Western investment, although he later reversed his original policy, which called for these new business ventures to be majority Russian-owned and operated.

    He also showed initial restraint when laborers began to push for increased protections and rights, with thousands protesting the wild inefficiencies of the Soviet coal industry. But he again reversed course when faced with pressure from hardliners after a massive strike by 300,000 miners in 1991.

    Economic Reforms Backfire

    While Gorbachev had instituted these reforms to jumpstart the sluggish Soviet economy, many of them had the opposite effect. The agricultural sector, for example, had provided food at low cost thanks to decades of heavy government subsidies.

    Now, it could charge higher prices in the marketplace – prices many Soviets could not afford. Government spending and Soviet debt skyrocketed, and pushes by workers for higher wages led to dangerous inflation.

    If Gorbachev faced opposition from the entrenched hardliners that he was moving too far, too fast, he was criticized for doing just the opposite by others. Some liberals called for full-fledged abolishment of central planning committees entirely, which Gorbachev resisted.

    As Taubman notes, “His more radical critics would say he didn’t move fast enough to create a market economy, but the reason he didn’t was that the very effort to do so would produce chaos, which in fact it did under [Boris] Yeltsin.”

    Political Reforms Under Perestroika

    As reforms under glasnost revealed both the horrors of the Soviet past, and its present-day inefficiencies, Gorbachev moved to remake much of the political system of the U.S.S.R.

    At a Party meeting in 1988, he pushed through measures calling for the first truly democratic elections since the Russian Revolution of 1917. Hardliners who supported this initially believed that the date for these elections would be far enough in the future that they could control the process. Instead, Gorbachev announced that they would be held just months later.

    The resulting campaign for the new Congress of People’s Deputies was remarkable. While some Communist Party members reserved many of the seats for themselves, other hardliners went down to defeat at the ballot box to liberal reformers.

    Source : www.history.com

    Russia

    When Brezhnev died in 1982, most elite groups understood that the Soviet economy was in trouble. Due to senility, Brezhnev had not been in effective control of the country during his last few years, and Kosygin had died in 1980. The Politburo was dominated by old men, and they were overwhelmingly Russian. Non-Russian representation at the top of the party and the government had declined over time. Yury V. Andropov and then Konstantin Chernenko led the country from 1982 until 1985, but their administrations failed to address critical problems. Andropov believed that the economic stagnation could be remedied by greater

    The Gorbachev era: perestroika and glasnost

    When Brezhnev died in 1982, most elite groups understood that the Soviet economy was in trouble. Due to senility, Brezhnev had not been in effective control of the country during his last few years, and Kosygin had died in 1980. The Politburo was dominated by old men, and they were overwhelmingly Russian. Non-Russian representation at the top of the party and the government had declined over time. Yury V. Andropov and then Konstantin Chernenko led the country from 1982 until 1985, but their administrations failed to address critical problems. Andropov believed that the economic stagnation could be remedied by greater worker discipline and by cracking down on corruption. He did not regard the structure of the Soviet economic system itself to be a cause of the country’s growing economic problems.

    Mikhail Gorbachev

    Mikhail Gorbachev, 1991.

    Boris Yurchenko/AP Images

    When Gorbachev became head of the Communist Party in 1985, he launched perestroika (“restructuring”). His team was more heavily Russian than that of his predecessors. It seems that initially even Gorbachev believed that the basic economic structure of the U.S.S.R. was sound and therefore only minor reforms were needed. He thus pursued an economic policy that aimed to increase economic growth while increasing capital investment. Capital investment was to improve the technological basis of the Soviet economy as well as promote certain structural economic changes. His goal was quite plain: to bring the Soviet Union up to par economically with the West. This had been a goal of Russian leaders since Peter the Great unleashed the first great wave of modernization and Westernization. After two years, however, Gorbachev came to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary. In 1987–88 he pushed through reforms that went less than halfway to the creation of a semi-free market system. The consequences of this form of a semi-mixed economy with the contradictions of the reforms themselves brought economic chaos to the country and great unpopularity to Gorbachev. Gorbachev’s radical economists, headed by Grigory A. Yavlinsky, counseled him that Western-style success required a true market economy. Gorbachev, however, never succeeded in making the jump from the command economy to even a mixed economy.

    Gorbachev launched glasnost (“openness”) as the second vital plank of his reform efforts. He believed that the opening up of the political system—essentially, democratizing it—was the only way to overcome inertia in the political and bureaucratic apparatus, which had a big interest in maintaining the status quo. In addition, he believed that the path to economic and social recovery required the inclusion of people in the political process. Glasnost also allowed the media more freedom of expression, and editorials complaining of depressed conditions and of the government’s inability to correct them began to appear.

    As the economic and political situation began to deteriorate, Gorbachev concentrated his energies on increasing his authority (that is to say, his ability to make decisions). He did not, however, develop the power to implement these decisions. He became a constitutional dictator—but only on paper. His policies were simply not put into practice. When he took office, Yegor Ligachev was made head of the party’s Central Committee Secretariat, one of the two main centres of power (with the Politburo) in the Soviet Union. Ligachev subsequently became one of Gorbachev’s opponents, making it difficult for Gorbachev to use the party apparatus to implement his views on perestroika.

    By the summer of 1988, however, Gorbachev had become strong enough to emasculate the Central Committee Secretariat and take the party out of the day-to-day running of the economy. This responsibility was to pass to the local soviets. A new parliament, the Congress of People’s Deputies, was convened in the spring of 1989, with Gorbachev presiding. The new body superseded the Supreme Soviet as the highest organ of state power. The Congress elected a new Supreme Soviet, and Gorbachev, who had opted for an executive presidency modeled on the U.S. and French systems, became the Soviet president, with broad powers. This meant that all the republics, including first and foremost Russia, could have a similar type of presidency. Moreover, Gorbachev radically changed Soviet political life when he removed the constitutional article according to which the only legal political organization was the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

    Gorbachev understood that the defense burden, perhaps equivalent to 25 percent of the gross national product, was crippling the country. This had led to cuts in expenditures in education, social services, and medical care, which hurt the regime’s domestic legitimacy. Moreover, the huge defense expenditures that characterized the Cold War years were one of the causes of Soviet economic decline. Gorbachev therefore transformed Soviet foreign policy. He traveled abroad extensively and was brilliantly successful in convincing foreigners that the U.S.S.R. was no longer an international threat. His changes in foreign policy led to the democratization of eastern Europe and the end of the Cold War. On the other hand, Gorbachev’s policies deprived the Soviet Union of ideological enemies, which in turn weakened the hold of Soviet ideology over the people.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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