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    you are a molecule of nitrogen. choose a starting point in the nitrogen cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

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    The nitrogen cycle (article)

    The key role of microbes in nitrogen fixation. How overuse of nitrogen-containing fertilizers can cause algal blooms.

    Biogeochemical cycles

    The nitrogen cycle

    The key role of microbes in nitrogen fixation. How overuse of nitrogen-containing fertilizers can cause algal blooms.

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    Key points

    Nitrogen is a key component of the bodies of living organisms. Nitrogen atoms are found in all proteins and

    \text{DNA} DNA

    start text, D, N, A, end text

    .

    Nitrogen exists in the atmosphere as

    \text N_2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    gas. In nitrogen fixation, bacteria convert

    \text N_2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    into ammonia, a form of nitrogen usable by plants. When animals eat the plants, they acquire usable nitrogen compounds.

    Nitrogen is a common limiting nutrient in nature, and agriculture. A limiting nutrient is the nutrient that's in shortest supply and limits growth.

    When fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus are carried in runoff to lakes and rivers, they can result in blooms of algae—this is called eutrophication.

    Introduction

    Nitrogen is everywhere! In fact,

    \text N_2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    gas makes up about 78% of Earth's atmosphere by volume, far surpassing the

    \text O_2 O 2 ​

    start text, O, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    we often think of as "air".

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    But having nitrogen around and being able to make use of it are two different things. Your body, and the bodies of other plants and animals, have no good way to convert

    \text N_2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    into a usable form. We animals—and our plant compatriots—just don't have the right enzymes to capture, or fix, atmospheric nitrogen.

    Still, your \text{DNA} DNA

    start text, D, N, A, end text

    and proteins contain quite a bit of nitrogen. Where does that nitrogen come from? In the natural world, it comes from bacteria!

    Bacteria play a key role in the nitrogen cycle.

    Nitrogen enters the living world by way of bacteria and other single-celled prokaryotes, which convert atmospheric nitrogen—

    \text N_2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    —into biologically usable forms in a process called nitrogen fixation. Some species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are free-living in soil or water, while others are beneficial symbionts that live inside of plants.

    [What are some examples of nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes?]

    Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms capture atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to ammonia—

    \text {NH}_3 NH 3 ​

    start text, N, H, end text, start subscript, 3, end subscript

    —which can be taken up by plants and used to make organic molecules. The nitrogen-containing molecules are passed to animals when the plants are eaten. They may be incorporated into the animal's body or broken down and excreted as waste, such as the urea found in urine.

    Prokaryotes play several roles in the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil and within the root nodules of some plants convert nitrogen gas in the atmosphere to ammonia. Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia to nitrites or nitrates. Ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates are all fixed nitrogen and can be absorbed by plants. Denitrifying bacteria converts nitrates back to nitrogen gas.

    Image credit: modified from Nitrogen cycle by Johann Dréo (CC BY-SA 3.0); the modified image is licensed under a CC BY-SA 3.0 license

    Nitrogen doesn't remain forever in the bodies of living organisms. Instead, it's converted from organic nitrogen back into

    \text N_2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    gas by bacteria. This process often involves several steps in terrestrial—land—ecosystems. Nitrogenous compounds from dead organisms or wastes are converted into ammonia—

    \text {NH}_3 NH 3 ​

    start text, N, H, end text, start subscript, 3, end subscript

    —by bacteria, and the ammonia is converted into nitrites and nitrates. In the end, the nitrates are made into

    \text N _2 N 2 ​

    start text, N, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    gas by denitrifying prokaryotes.

    Nitrogen cycling in marine ecosystems

    So far, we’ve focused on the natural nitrogen cycle as it occurs in terrestrial ecosystems. However, generally similar steps occur in the marine nitrogen cycle. There, the ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification processes are performed by marine bacteria and archaea.

    The illustration shows the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen gas from the atmosphere is fixed into organic nitrogen by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. This organic nitrogen enters terrestrial food webs. It leaves the food webs as nitrogenous wastes in the soil. Ammonification of this nitrogenous waste by bacteria and fungi in the soil converts the organic nitrogen to ammonium ion—NH4 plus. Ammonium is converted to nitrit—NO2 minus—then to nitrate—NO3 minus—by nitrifying bacteria. Denitrifying bacteria convert the nitrate back into nitrogen gas, which reenters the atmosphere. Nitrogen from runoff and fertilizers enters the ocean, where it enters marine food webs. Some organic nitrogen falls to the ocean floor as sediment. Other organic nitrogen in the ocean is converted to nitrite and nitrate ions, which is then converted to nitrogen gas in a process analogous to the one that occurs on land.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    The Cycles of Matter Assignment (2 PARTS) Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like You are a molecule of water. Choose a starting point in the water cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle., You are a molecule of carbon. Choose a starting point in the carbon cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle., You are a molecule of nitrogen. Choose a starting point in the nitrogen cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle. and more.

    The Cycles of Matter Assignment (2 PARTS)

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    You are a molecule of water. Choose a starting point in the water cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    The water molecule in the lake evaporates.

    The water molecule cools and undergoes condensation.

    The water droplet increases in size, then falls to the Earth in the form of precipitation.

    The precipitation returns to a reservoir, in this case, ground water.

    The water remains in the reservoir temporarily before it is evaporated and begins the process again.

    Click again to see term 👆

    You are a molecule of carbon. Choose a starting point in the carbon cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Carbon in carbon dioxide gas is taken in by plants for photosynthesis.

    Plants turn the carbon atom into a carbohydrate.

    An animal eats the plant and uses its carbohydrates for energy.

    During respiration, the animal releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

    Click again to see term 👆

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    Terms in this set (18)

    You are a molecule of water. Choose a starting point in the water cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

    The water molecule in the lake evaporates.

    The water molecule cools and undergoes condensation.

    The water droplet increases in size, then falls to the Earth in the form of precipitation.

    The precipitation returns to a reservoir, in this case, ground water.

    The water remains in the reservoir temporarily before it is evaporated and begins the process again.

    You are a molecule of carbon. Choose a starting point in the carbon cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

    Carbon in carbon dioxide gas is taken in by plants for photosynthesis.

    Plants turn the carbon atom into a carbohydrate.

    An animal eats the plant and uses its carbohydrates for energy.

    During respiration, the animal releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

    You are a molecule of nitrogen. Choose a starting point in the nitrogen cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

    Bacteria perform nitrogen fixation.

    More bacteria perform nitrification.

    Nitrogen, in usable form, is taken up by plants and assimilated into their proteins (becoming part of the plant).

    An animal eats the plant and the nitrogen becomes part of the animal's proteins.

    An animal dies and decomposes, or excretes waste, returning the nitrogen to the soil.

    You are a molecule of phosphorus. Choose a starting point in the phosphorus cycle and describe the process you would go through to move through the entire cycle.

    Phosphorus cycles between living things and the soil.

    Plants absorb phosphates from the soil and turn them into organic compounds through assimilation.

    Animals eat plants and pass the phosphorus through the food chain from one animal to the other.

    An animal dies and decomposes, returning the phosphorus to the soil.

    What is a biogeochemical cycle?

    a process that recycles elements and other matter through the biosphere

    A is a chemical substance that organisms require to live.

    nutrient

    The cycle is not a nutrient cycle.

    water

    A key component in the formation of organic compounds, such as nucleic acids and ATP

    phosphorus

    Most abundant gas in the atmosphere; plants absorb it from bacteria in the soil

    nitrogen

    In every living thing; plants utilize it when they perform photosynthesis

    carbon

    serves as a long-term storage area for water or nutrients.

    reservoir

    Which of the following is a reservoir for carbon and nitrogen, but not phosphorus?

    atmosphere

    Identify the following terms associated with the water cycle.

    condensation precipitation evaporation transpiration

    Bacteria in the soil converts this nutrient into a usable form. Plants take up the usable nutrient through the soil and assimilate it into proteins, making it part of the plant. An animal eats the plants, and the nutrient becomes part of the animal. When the animal dies, it decomposes, returning the nutrient back to the soil. Which cycle is being described?

    nitrogen cycle

    Identify the following terms that are associated with the nitrogen cycle.

    nitrification denitrification nitrogen fixation

    Identify which molecule or element is described below.

    carbon phosphorus nitrogen water

    Which of the following are limiting nutrients?

    no water no carbon yes nitrogen yes phosphorus

    Fossil fuels are normally stored in a reservoir deep in the Earth. The carbon in fossil fuels, including coal and oil, are essentially locked out of the natural carbon cycle due to their location deep in the Earth. Humans have found a way to access and utilize this carbon. Identify a risk for accessing this carbon.

    Scientists are not sure if the atmosphere can handle all of the excess carbon.

    Sets with similar terms

    The Cycles of Matter (Assignment)

    12 terms ItsAlecks

    Source : quizlet.com

    nitrogen cycle

    nitrogen cycle, circulation of nitrogen in various forms through nature. Nitrogen, a component of proteins and nucleic acids, is essential to life on Earth. Although 78 percent by volume of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas, this abundant reservoir exists in a form unusable by most organisms. Through a series of microbial transformations, however, nitrogen is made available to plants, which in turn ultimately sustain all animal life. The steps, which are not altogether sequential, fall into the following classifications: nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification. Nitrogen fixation, in which nitrogen gas is converted into inorganic nitrogen compounds, is

    nitrogen cycle

    biochemistry

    Alternate titles: nitrogen budget

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    nitrogen cycle See all media

    Key People: Pierre-Eugène-Marcellin Berthelot Jean-Baptiste Boussingault

    Related Topics: nitrogen fixation ammonification denitrification nitrification nitrogen assimilation

    See all related content →

    nitrogen cycle, circulation of nitrogen in various forms through nature. Nitrogen, a component of proteins and nucleic acids, is essential to life on Earth. Although 78 percent by volume of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas, this abundant reservoir exists in a form unusable by most organisms. Through a series of microbial transformations, however, nitrogen is made available to plants, which in turn ultimately sustain all animal life. The steps, which are not altogether sequential, fall into the following classifications: nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification.

    Follow the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and learn why farmers fertilize fields to keep them productive

    An overview of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the biosphere.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    See all videos for this article

    Nitrogen fixation, in which nitrogen gas is converted into inorganic nitrogen compounds, is mostly (90 percent) accomplished by certain bacteria and blue-green algae. A much smaller amount of free nitrogen is fixed by abiotic means (e.g., lightning, ultraviolet radiation, electrical equipment) and by conversion to ammonia through the Haber-Bosch process.

    BRITANNICA QUIZ Everything Earth

    If earth is mankind’s first frontier, how will you score on this final exam? Dig into these questions and see what answers you uncover.

    Nitrates and ammonia resulting from nitrogen fixation are assimilated into the specific tissue compounds of algae and higher plants. Animals then ingest these algae and plants, converting them into their own body compounds.

    fava bean

    Pods of the broad bean, or fava bean (Vicia faba). The symbioses of fava beans and other legumes with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobium, form nitrogen compounds that can be used by plants, which are in turn consumed by animals.

    © Esin Deniz/stock.adobe.com

    The remains of all living things—and their waste products—are decomposed by microorganisms in the process of ammonification, which yields ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+). (Under anaerobic, or oxygen-free, conditions, foul-smelling putrefactive products may appear, but they too are converted to ammonia in time.) Ammonia can leave the soil or be converted into other nitrogen compounds, depending in part on soil conditions.

    Nitrification, a process carried out by nitrifying bacteria, transforms soil ammonia into nitrates (NO3−), which plants can incorporate into their own tissues.

    Nitrates also are metabolized by denitrifying bacteria, which are especially active in water-logged anaerobic soils. The action of these bacteria tends to deplete soil nitrates, forming free atmospheric nitrogen.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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