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    william hearst and joseph pulitzer popularized ______ journalism during the 1890s.

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    Crucible of Empire

    The Spanish-American War is often referred to as the first "media war." During the 1890s, journalism that sensationalized—and sometimes even manufactured—dramatic events was a powerful force that helped propel the United States into war with Spain. Led by newspaper owners William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, journalism of the 1890s used melodrama, romance, and hyperbole to sell millions of newspapers--a style that became known as yellow journalism.

    The term yellow journalism came from a popular New York World comic called "Hogan's Alley," which featured a yellow-dressed character named the "the yellow kid." Determined to compete with Pulitzer's World in every way, rival New York Journal owner William Randolph Hearst copied Pulitzer's sensationalist style and even hired "Hogan's Alley" artist R.F. Outcault away from the World. In response, Pulitzer commissioned another cartoonist to create a second yellow kid. Soon, the sensationalist press of the 1890s became a competition between the "yellow kids," and the journalistic style was coined "yellow journalism."

    Yellow journals like the New York Journal and the New York World relied on sensationalist headlines to sell newspapers. William Randolph Hearst understood that a war with Cuba would not only sell his papers, but also move him into a position of national prominence. From Cuba, Hearst's star reporters wrote stories designed to tug at the heartstrings of Americans. Horrific tales described the situation in Cuba--female prisoners, executions, valiant rebels fighting, and starving women and children figured in many of the stories that filled the newspapers. But it was the sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana Harbor that gave Hearst his big story--war. After the sinking of the Maine, the Hearst newspapers, with no evidence, unequivocally blamed the Spanish, and soon U.S. public opinion demanded intervention.

    Today, historians point to the Spanish-American War as the first press-driven war. Although it may be an exaggeration to claim that Hearst and the other yellow journalists started the war, it is fair to say that the press fueled the public's passion for war. Without sensational headlines and stories about Cuban affairs, the mood for Cuban intervention may have been very different. At the dawn of the twentieth century, the United States emerged as a world power, and the U.S. press proved its influence.

    Source : www.pbs.org

    Milestones: 1866–1898

    history.state.gov 3.0 shell

    Home Milestones 1866-1898 U.S. Diplomacy and Yellow Journalism, 1895–1898

    MILESTONES: 1866–1898

    NOTE TO READERS

    “Milestones in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations” has been retired and is no longer maintained. For more information, please see the full notice.

    U.S. Diplomacy and Yellow Journalism, 1895–1898

    Yellow journalism was a style of newspaper reporting that emphasized sensationalism over facts. During its heyday in the late 19th century it was one of many factors that helped push the United States and Spain into war in Cuba and the Philippines, leading to the acquisition of overseas territory by the United States.

    Example of Yellow Journalism in the cover of the Pulitzer’s World

    The term originated in the competition over the New York City newspaper market between major newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. At first, yellow journalism had nothing to do with reporting, but instead derived from a popular cartoon strip about life in New York’s slums called Hogan’s Alley, drawn by Richard F. Outcault. Published in color by Pulitzer’s New York World, the comic’s most well-known character came to be known as the Yellow Kid, and his popularity accounted in no small part for a tremendous increase in sales of the World. In 1896, in an effort to boost sales of his New York Journal, Hearst hired Outcault away from Pulitzer, launching a fierce bidding war between the two publishers over the cartoonist. Hearst ultimately won this battle, but Pulitzer refused to give in and hired a new cartoonist to continue drawing the cartoon for his paper. This battle over the Yellow Kid and a greater market share gave rise to the term yellow journalism.

    Once the term had been coined, it extended to the sensationalist style employed by the two publishers in their profit-driven coverage of world events, particularly developments in Cuba. Cuba had long been a Spanish colony and the revolutionary movement, which had been simmering on and off there for much of the 19th century, intensified during the 1890s. Many in the United States called upon Spain to withdraw from the island, and some even gave material support to the Cuban revolutionaries. Hearst and Pulitzer devoted more and more attention to the Cuban struggle for independence, at times accentuating the harshness of Spanish rule or the nobility of the revolutionaries, and occasionally printing rousing stories that proved to be false. This sort of coverage, complete with bold headlines and creative drawings of events, sold a lot of papers for both publishers.

    The peak of yellow journalism, in terms of both intensity and influence, came in early 1898, when a U.S. battleship, the Maine, sunk in Havana harbor. The naval vessel had been sent there not long before in a display of U.S. power and, in conjunction with the planned visit of a Spanish ship to New York, an effort to defuse growing tensions between the United States and Spain. On the night of February 15, an explosion tore through the ship’s hull, and the Maine went down. Sober observers and an initial report by the colonial government of Cuba concluded that the explosion had occurred on board, but Hearst and Pulitzer, who had for several years been selling papers by fanning anti-Spanish public opinion in the United States, published rumors of plots to sink the ship. When a U.S. naval investigation later stated that the explosion had come from a mine in the harbor, the proponents of yellow journalism seized upon it and called for war. By early May, the Spanish-American War had begun.

    The rise of yellow journalism helped to create a climate conducive to the outbreak of international conflict and the expansion of U.S. influence overseas, but it did not by itself cause the war. In spite of Hearst’s often quoted statement—“You furnish the pictures, I’ll provide the war!”—other factors played a greater role in leading to the outbreak of war. The papers did not create anti-Spanish sentiments out of thin air, nor did the publishers fabricate the events to which the U.S. public and politicians reacted so strongly. Moreover, influential figures such as Theodore Roosevelt led a drive for U.S. overseas expansion that had been gaining strength since the 1880s. Nevertheless, yellow journalism of this period is significant to the history of U.S. foreign relations in that its centrality to the history of the Spanish American War shows that the press had the power to capture the attention of a large readership and to influence public reaction to international events. The dramatic style of yellow journalism contributed to creating public support for the Spanish-American War, a war that would ultimately expand the global reach of the United States.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1866–1898: The Continued Expansion of United States Interests

    U.S. Diplomacy and the Telegraph, 1866

    Purchase of Alaska, 1867

    The Burlingame-Seward Treaty, 1868

    Commodore Robert W. Shufeldt’s Voyage to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, 1878–1880

    Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts

    Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History: Securing International Markets in the 1890s

    Blaine and Pan Americanism, 1880s/1890s

    Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895–1899

    U.S. Diplomacy and Yellow Journalism, 1895–1898

    Source : history.state.gov

    COMM Ch 8 Flashcards

    Start studying COMM Ch 8. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    COMM Ch 8

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    Why did Warren Buffet buy newspapers?

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    News is good business. Warren argued that papers deliver comprehensive and reliable information to tightly bound communities and will be viable for a long time. People want reliable information and good stories more than ever.

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    What roles do newspapers have in contemporary culture?

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    1. They are chronicles of daily life

    2. they inform 3. they entertain

    4. When they report on scientific, technological, and medical issues, they present specialized knowledge to the public.

    5. They shape cultural trends through reviews of films, concerts, and plays

    6. Opinion pages trigger public debates and offer differing points of view.

    7.Columnists do everything from provide parenting advice to the US role as a military superpower.

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    1/62 Created by Jeffrey_Darah

    Terms in this set (62)

    Why did Warren Buffet buy newspapers?

    News is good business. Warren argued that papers deliver comprehensive and reliable information to tightly bound communities and will be viable for a long time. People want reliable information and good stories more than ever.

    What roles do newspapers have in contemporary culture?

    1. They are chronicles of daily life

    2. they inform 3. they entertain

    4. When they report on scientific, technological, and medical issues, they present specialized knowledge to the public.

    5. They shape cultural trends through reviews of films, concerts, and plays

    6. Opinion pages trigger public debates and offer differing points of view.

    7.Columnists do everything from provide parenting advice to the US role as a military superpower.

    The evolution of American Newspapers

    1. The earliest news was passed along family to family, tribe to tribe, by community leaders and oral historians.

    2. The earliest known written news account, or news sheet Acta Diurna (Latin for daily events) was developed by Julius Ceasar and posted on public spaces.

    3. The development of the printing press in the 15th century greatly accelerated a society's ability to send and receive information.

    4. Today newspapers continue to document daily life and bear witness to both ordinary and extraordinary events.

    In this chapter we will

    1. Trace the history of newspapers through a number of influential periods and styles.

    2. Explore the early political-commerical press, the penny press, and yellow journalism

    3. Examine the modern era through the influence of the New York Times and journalisms embrace of objectivity.

    4. Look at interpretive journalism in the 1920s and 1930s and the revival of literary journalism in the 1960's.

    5. Review issues of newspaper ownership, new technologies, citizen journalism, declining revenue, and the crucial role newspapers play in our democracy.

    Where did the novelty and entrepreneurial stages of print media development first happen?

    In Europe with the rise of the printing press.

    What was the first newspaper in North America?

    Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick, was published on September 25, 1690, by Boston Printer Benjamin Harris.

    Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press

    ...

    What was the first regularly published newspaper in the American Colonies?

    The Boston-Newsletter, published by John Campbell.

    European news took weeks to travel by ship, so these early papers were not timely.

    However, they did report local illnesses, public floggings, and even suicides.

    The New England Courant

    The Courant established a tradition of running stories that interested ordinary readers rather than printing articles that appealed primarily to business and colonial leaders.

    Started in 1721 by James Franklin, Benjamin Franklin's brother, in Boston.

    Pennsylvania Gazelle

    Benjamin Franklin took this paper over and created the best of the colonial papers. Many colonial papers worked from subsidies from political parties exclusively but the Gazette also made money by advertising products.

    seditious libel

    defaming a public official's character in print.

    commercial press

    By contrast to the partisan press, served business leaders, who were interested in economic issues.

    Today the legacy of the commercial press is the business section.

    partisan press

    political papers, generally pushed the plan of the particular political group that subsidized the paper.

    Today the legacy of the partisan press is the editorial papers.

    New-York Weekly Jornal

    John Zenger was the printer. The paper was backed by the Popular party (a group that opposed British rule) and ran articles that criticized the governor of NY.

    A popular Party judge was dismissed from office and the Journal attacked the governor in the paper.

    He protected the writers of the critical articles, not sharing their identities, and was arrested in 1734 for seditious libel.

    John Zenger

    Printer of the New York Weekly Journal that protected the authors of critical articles and then was arrested for Seditious libel. Andrew Hamilton was his lawyer and a sympathetic jury in revolt against the colonial government, deeded that newspapers had the right to criticize government leaders as long as the reports were true.

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