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# why is it important to keep the temperature and the amount of water the same when testing surface area?

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## Why is it important to keep the temperature and the amount of water the same when testing surface area?

The temperature and the amount of water need to be kept the same so that the only variable that changes is surface area. If you allow the temperature and/or the amount of water to change too, you will not know which variable is causing the changes that you observe.

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## Why is it important to keep the temperature and the amount of water the same when testing surface area?

Wiki User ∙ 5y ago Best Answer Copy

The temperature and the amount of water need to be kept the same so that the only variable that changes is surface area. If you allow the temperature and/or the amount of water to change too, you will not know which variable is causing the changes that you observe.

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### How does the angle of the light affects the temperature of a surface?

When the light shines at a right angle to the plane, the surface will receive a larger amount of radiation, and get hot faster.

no

### What determines the amount of friction?

The amount of surface area that is in contact with the other object.

### Does temperature affect the amount of substance dissolved in a saturated solution?

Yes temperature affects the amount of substance dissolved in a saturated solution.

### What is the amount of force acting on a surface called?

Friction Related questions

### What is the relationship between latitude and sea surface temperature?

The oceans surface water temperature varies with the amount of solar radiation received, which is primarily a function of latitude.

### What does the temperature of a surface tell you?

It tells you the amount of the sun's heat energy that has been absorbed.

12500

### Why is the temperature to freeze the surface of ocean water lower than the temperature needed to freeze the surface of water like Lake Superior?

The ocean water has a high amount of dissolved salts.

### Why is the temperature on the surface of some planets higher than the temperature of the Earth's surface?

because earth is the only planet which has life on it and if it had the same amount of heat as the others it would be too hot and every living organism alive will die due to the amount of heat

### How does the angle of the light affects the temperature of a surface?

When the light shines at a right angle to the plane, the surface will receive a larger amount of radiation, and get hot faster.

## Surface Water: the Importance of the Water Temperature

Stream Water Quality - The Role of Temperature in Water Quality and Surface Water Resource Management

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## Stream Water Quality - Importance of Temperature

### Why is Temperature Important?

Temperature is a critical water quality and environmental parameter because it governs the kinds and types of aquatic life, regulates the maximum dissolved oxygen concentration of the water, and influences the rate of chemical and biological reactions.

The organisms within the ecosystem have preferred temperature regimes that change as a function of season, organism age or life stage, and other environmental factors. With respect to chemical and biological reactions, the higher the water temperature the higher the rate of chemical and metabolic reactions and the lower the amount of dissolved gases it can contain.

Seasonal variations in stream temperature may be caused by changing air temperature, solar angle, meteorological events, and a number of physical aspects related to the stream and watershed. These physical features include stream origin, velocity, vegetation types and coverage, stream configuration, land-use, and percentage of impervious area in the watershed. For example, a narrow, deep well-shaded shoreline reduces the impact of warming by the sun; whereas, a wide shallow stream would be more impacted by solar heating.

In warm water streams, the temperatures should not exceed 89 °F. Cold water streams should not exceed 68 °F. Often summer heat can cause fish kills in ponds because high temperatures reduce available dissolved oxygen in the water.

Temperature (Water Quality Index Calculator)

Based On Temperature Change from a Reference Site

Source of Image: NSF Consumer Resources

### Taking the Temperature of a Stream and Calculating a Water Quality Index

The temperature of a stream is taken at two locations. The control site is upstream of any source of thermal pollution such as the cooling water effluent from a power plant or warmer water from a stream tributary.  The test site is downstream of a suspected source of thermal pollution. Comparing the water temperatures between the two sites would document the presence and magnitude of the thermal pollution.

At an upstream control site, place a thermometer about 0.5 inches from the unshaded stream bottom or a few inches below the water surface. Keep the thermometer in the water until a constant reading is attained (approximately two minutes). Then, at the same site, try to take the water temperature in a portion of the stream that is shaded. Average the two temperatures; the averaged temperature becomes the temperature of the control site.

Record your measurement in Celsius. (To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 and multiply by 5/9.)

Repeat the procedure at your downstream test site. Try to collect temperature data under similar conditions, using the same thermometer which should be readable to 0.1 °C.

### Calculations

Subtract the upstream temperature (the control site) from the temperature downstream (the test site) and record the result as temperature change (°C). Convert the temperature change (°C) to a water quality index using the Water Quality Index Calculator.

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## Water Temperature

Water temperature measures how hot or cold water is. It affects most water quality parameters and plays a major role in aquatic life and habitats.

## Water Temperature

Water Temperature What is Water Temperature?

Water temperature is a physical property expressing how hot or cold water is. As hot and cold are both arbitrary terms, temperature can further be defined as a measurement of the average thermal energy of a substance 5. Thermal energy is the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules, so temperature in turn measures the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules 5. This energy can be transferred between substances as the flow of heat. Heat transfer, whether from the air, sunlight, another water source or thermal pollution can change the temperature of water.

Water temperature plays a major role in the quality of aquatic life and habitats. Heat flow and the fluctuation of temperature determine what species will live and thrive in a body of water.

Water temperature has been defined as the “abiotic master factor” by JR Brett due to its effect on aquatic organisms 15. What does that mean for lakes, rivers and oceans?

## Why the Temperature of Water is Important

Water temperature affects nearly every other water quality parameter.

Temperature is an important factor to consider when assessing water quality. In addition to its own effects, temperature influences several other parameters and can alter the physical and chemical properties of water. In this regard, water temperature should be accounted for when determining 7:

– Metabolic rates and photosynthesis production

– Compound toxicity

– Dissolved oxygen and other dissolved gas concentrations

– Conductivity and salinity

– Oxidation reduction potential (ORP)

– pH – Water Density

## Water Temperature and Aquatic Life

The metabolic rates of aquatic organisms increase as the water temperature increases.

Considered alone, water temperature can affect the metabolic rates and biological activity of aquatic organisms14. As such, it influences the chosen habitats of a variety of aquatic life 8. Some organisms, particularly aquatic plants flourish in warmer temperatures, while some fishes such as trout or salmon prefer colder streams 8.

Studies have shown a direct relationship between metabolic rates and water temperature. This occurs as many cellular enzymes are more active at higher temperatures 18. For most fish, a 10°C increase in water temperature will approximately double the rate of physiological function 16. This increase in metabolic rate can be handled by some species better than others. Increased metabolic function can be noticed in respiration rates and digestive responses in most species. Increased respiration rates at higher temperatures lead to increased oxygen consumption, which can be detrimental if rates remain raised for an extended period of time. Furthermore, temperatures above 35°C can begin to denature, or breakdown, enzymes, reducing metabolic function 18.

Temperature fluctuations can also affect the behavior choices of aquatic organisms, such as moving to warmer or cooler water after feeding, predator-prey responses and resting or migrating routines 16. Some species of sharks and stingrays will even seek out warmer waters when pregnant 16.

Temperature affects the photosynthetic rates of different algae.

Plants are also affected by water temperature. While some aquatic plants tolerate cooler waters, most prefer warmer temperatures 17. Tropical plants in particular will show restricted growth and dormancy in water temperatures below 21°C 17. While dormancy is appropriate for surviving a cold winter, warmer temperatures are required for most plants to flourish.

Temperature can also inhibit plant respiration and photosynthesis 14. In general, algal photosynthesis will increase with temperature, though different species will have different peak temperatures for optimum photosynthetic activity 14. Above and below this temperature, photosynthesis will be reduced.

## Compound Toxicity and Water Temperature

Water temperature can play a role in the shift between ammonium and ammonia in water.

In addition to its effects on aquatic organisms, high water temperatures can increase the solubility and thus toxicity of certain compounds 1. These elements include heavy metals such as cadmium, zinc and lead as well as compounds like ammonia 19,20. Water temperature can not only increase the solubility of toxic compounds, but it can also influence an organism’s tolerance limit 19. Mortality rates for zinc are significantly higher at temperatures above 25°C than at temperatures below 20°C 19. This occurs because tissue permeability, metabolic rate and oxygen consumption all increase with increased water temperature 19. In one study on labeo bata fish, the 24 hour 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at 15°C was 540 mg/L, while at 30°C, the LC50 dropped to 210 mg/L 19.

Dissolved oxygen concentrations are dependent on temperature. The warmer the water, the less oxygen that it can hold.

Ammonia is known for its toxicity at high pH levels, but temperature can also influence acute and chronic criteria concentrations 21. At low temperatures and a neutral pH, the following equation remains shifted to the left, producing the nontoxic ammonium ion:

NH3 + H2O <=> NH4+ + OH-

However, for every 10°C increase in temperature, the ratio of unionized ammonia to ammonium doubles 21. In 2013, the EPA determined that the criterion maximum concentration for freshwater species is 17 mg/L Total-Ammonia-Nitrogen (including both NH3 and NH4+) due to its potential jump in toxicity at a higher pH and temperature 21.

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James 9 month ago

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