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    why is epinephrine considered a hormone when it is produced by the adrenal medulla

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    Epinephrine

    Epinephrine

    Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a neurotransmitter in the sense that, within the brain, it help neurons to communicate with one another.

    From: Handbook of Crime Correlates (Second Edition), 2019

    Related terms:

    CatecholamineNorepinephrineHeart RateHormonesSympathetic Nervous SystemProteinCortisolDopamineNeurotransmittersStressors

    View all Topics

    Drug Dosages

    Keith Kleinman MD, in Harriet Lane Handbook, 2021

    Epinephrine HCL

    Adrenalin, EpiPen, Auvi-Q, Symjepi, Adrenaclick, Adyphren, Epinephrine SNAP, Primatene Mist, and generics

    Sympathomimetic agent

    C 2 No No No

    Injection:

    1:1000 (aqueous): 1 mg/mL (1, 30 mL); may contain chlorobutanol and metabisulfite

    1:10,000 (aqueous): 0.1 mg/mL (10 mL pre-filled syringes with either 18-G 3.5 inch or 20-G 1.5-inch needles)

    Autoinjector:

    EpiPen and generics: Delivers a single 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) dose (2 pack; EpiPen and some generic products include a training device)

    EpiPen Jr and generics: Delivers a single 0.15 mg (0.3 mL) dose (2 pack; EpiPen Jr and some generic products include a training device)

    Auvi-Q: Delivers a single 0.1 mg (0.1 mL) dose, 0.15 mg (0.15 mL) dose, or 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) dose (2 pack with training device; each unit provides voice instructions when activated)

    Symjepi: Delivers a single 0.15 mg (0.3 mL) dose or 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) dose (1 or 2 pack)

    Adrenaclick: Delivers a single 0.15 mg (0.15 mL) dose, or 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) dose (2 pack)

    Syringe Kit for Anaphylaxis (for specific weight-based dosages for any size patient):

    Adyphren, EpinephrineSNAP: 1 mg/mL (1 mL single use vial in a box of 25 vials, 30 mL multi-use vial as a single vial or box of 10 vials)

    Many preparations may contain sulfites.

    Aerosol inhaler (HFA; Primatene Mist [OTC]): 0.125 mg per spray (160 sprays per inhaler) (11.7 g); contains 1% alcohol and polysorbate 80

    View chapter on ClinicalKey

    Biological Factors

    Lee Ellis, ... Anthony W. Hoskin, in Handbook of Crime Correlates (Second Edition), 2019

    7.11.5 Epinephrine

    Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a neurotransmitter in the sense that, within the brain, it help neurons to communicate with one another. However, because epinephrine is mainly produced by the adrenal glands and has functions peripherally (i.e., outside the brain), it can also be considered a hormone.

    Just three studies were located regarding the association between epinephrine and physical aggression, all involving male research participants. Table 7.11.5 shows that the evidence is inconsistent, with two studies suggesting that its levels are inversely correlated with aggression while one other study reported the opposite pattern.

    Table 7.11.5. Epinephrine and Offending Behavior.

    Nature of Relationship Clinical/Personality Indicators of Antisocial Behavior

    Positive MIDDLE EAST Georgia: Chichinadze et al. 2010 (aggression, ♂s)

    Not significant

    Negative EUROPE Sweden: Klinteberg & Magnusson 1989 (aggression, urine levels, young adult ♂s)

    NORTH AMERICA United States: Olweus 1986 (aggression, urine levels, adolescent ♂s)

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    Local and Topical Anesthetic Complications

    Grant C. Fowler MD, in Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care, 2020

    Effects of Epinephrine in Local Anesthetics

    It has long been an admonition to students, residents, and practicing clinicians that epinephrine should never be used in areas of the body supplied by the fine terminal end arterioles such as the fingers and toes, penis, and nose. Theoretically, the epinephrine could cause prolonged spasm leading to ischemia and even necrosis of the tissue. This effect would be potentially magnified if the vessels were already diseased and narrowed, as occurs in smokers and patients with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and similar conditions. Hence, in the past, it was literally seen as substandard care to use epinephrine in these areas, especially when there was potential vascular disease or diminished blood supply.

    In 2000, a series of articles began appearing in the literature to refute this “theoretical” adverse effect (seeRecommended Reading). A paper by Denkler published in 2001 reviewed the literature from 1880 through 2000. The conclusion was: “An extensive literature review failed to provide consistent evidence that our current preparations of local anesthesia with epinephrine cause digital necrosis, although not all complications are necessarily reported. However, as with all techniques, caution is necessary to balance the risks of this technique.”

    Digits can withstand prolonged periods of ischemia. Successful reimplantations have been reported 42 hours after traumatic amputations.

    The usual concentration of epinephrine in local anesthetics is 1:100,000. Studies have been conducted using concentrations of 1:1000 with virtually no adverse consequences.

    A multicenter prospective study of 3110 consecutive cases of elective epinephrine use in the fingers and hands (concentration ≤1:100,000) found that “the true incidence of finger infarction in elective low-dose-epinephrine injection into the hand and finger is likely to be remote, particularly with the possible rescue with phentolamine. Phentolamine was not required to reverse the vasoconstriction in any patients” (Lalonde et al., 2005).

    Source : www.sciencedirect.com

    epinephrine

    epinephrine, also called adrenaline, hormone that is secreted mainly by the medulla of the adrenal glands and that functions primarily to increase cardiac output and to raise glucose levels in the blood. Epinephrine typically is released during acute stress, and its stimulatory effects fortify and prepare an individual for either “fight or flight” (see fight-or-flight response). Epinephrine is closely related in structure to norepinephrine, differing only in the presence of a methyl group on the nitrogen side chain. In both substances, the amine (nitrogen-containing) group is attached to a catechol group (a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups)—a structure unique

    epinephrine

    hormone

    Alternate titles: adrenaline

    By Kara Rogers • Edit History

    epinephrine-stimulated cAMP synthesis

    See all media

    Key People: Jokichi Takamine Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer John Jacob Abel

    Related Topics: adrenal gland epinephrine autoinjector norepinephrine epinephrine tolerance test adrenal medulla

    See all related content →

    epinephrine, also called adrenaline, hormone that is secreted mainly by the medulla of the adrenal glands and that functions primarily to increase cardiac output and to raise glucose levels in the blood. Epinephrine typically is released during acute stress, and its stimulatory effects fortify and prepare an individual for either “fight or flight” (see fight-or-flight response). Epinephrine is closely related in structure to norepinephrine, differing only in the presence of a methyl group on the nitrogen side chain. In both substances, the amine (nitrogen-containing) group is attached to a catechol group (a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups)—a structure unique to the catecholamines. Both substances are key stimulatory components of the sympathetic nervous system (part of the autonomic nervous system), hence their pharmacological classification as sympathomimetic agents.

    Production of epinephrine

    Epinephrine is produced specifically in the adrenal medulla, where the amino acid tyrosine is transformed through a series of reactions to norepinephrine. An enzyme known as phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which is found in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, catalyzes the methylation of norepinephrine to epinephrine. In addition to the release of epinephrine from the adrenal glands, small amounts of the hormone are also released from the ends of sympathetic nerves.

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    nervous system: Epinephrine and norepinephrine

    These related hormones, also called adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), act to...

    Physiological actions

    The actions of epinephrine are complex, owing to its stimulatory effects on α- and β-adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors, so named for their reaction to the adrenal hormones), which produce various responses, depending on the specific receptor and the tissue in which it occurs. Hence, epinephrine causes constriction in many networks of minute blood vessels but dilates the blood vessels in the skeletal muscles and the liver. In the heart, it increases the rate and force of contraction, thus increasing the output of blood and raising blood pressure. In the liver, epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, resulting in an increase in glucose levels in the blood. It also acts to increase the level of circulating free fatty acids. The extra amounts of glucose and fatty acids can be used by the body as fuel in times of stress or danger, when increased alertness and exertion are required. Epinephrine also causes contraction of the dilator muscles of the iris in the eye, resulting in mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) and improved visual acuity. The physiological actions of epinephrine are terminated by metabolic breakdown with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) or monoamine oxidase (MAO), by reuptake into nerve endings, and by diffusion from active sites.

    Clinical significance

    Purified active epinephrine is obtained from the adrenal glands of domesticated animals or prepared synthetically for clinical use. Epinephrine may be injected into the heart during cardiac arrest to stimulate heart activity. Epinephrine is also used to treat anaphylaxis (acute systemic allergic reaction), which can occur in response to exposure to certain drugs, insect venoms, and foods (e.g., nuts and shellfish). It is also occasionally used in the emergency treatment of asthma, where its relaxation of smooth muscle helps to open the airways in the lungs, and in the treatment of glaucoma, where it appears to both decrease the production of aqueous humour and increase its outflow from the eye, thereby lowering intraocular pressure. In turn, certain disease states are associated with abnormalities in epinephrine production and secretion. For example, epinephrine and other catecholamines are secreted in excessive amounts by pheochromocytomas (tumours of the adrenal glands).

    epinephrine autoinjector

    Epinephrine autoinjectors, used for rapid administration of the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline).

    © Alkerk/Dreamstime.com

    Discovery of epinephrine

    Epinephrine was discovered in the late 1800s. English physiologists George Oliver and Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer were among the first to describe the blood-pressure-raising effect of a substance from the adrenal medulla. By 1900 epinephrine had been isolated and identified by American physiological chemist John Jacob Abel and, independently, by Japanese American biochemist Jokichi Takamine. In 1904 German chemist Friedrich Stolz became the first to synthesize the hormone.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    A&P 2 lab quiz 1 Flashcards

    Memorize flashcards and build a practice test to quiz yourself before your exam. Start studying the A&P 2 lab quiz 1 flashcards containing study terms like ADH is produced by the neurons of the ___ nuclei, OT is produced by neurons in the ___ nuclei, ADH is produced in response to low blood ___, low blood ___, and ___ and more.

    A&P 2 lab quiz 1

    ADH is produced by the neurons of the ___ nuclei

    Click card to see definition 👆

    supraoptic

    Click again to see term 👆

    OT is produced by neurons in the ___ nuclei

    Click card to see definition 👆

    paraventricular

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/23 Created by faith_pawlawski

    Terms in this set (23)

    ADH is produced by the neurons of the ___ nuclei

    supraoptic

    OT is produced by neurons in the ___ nuclei

    paraventricular

    ADH is produced in response to low blood ___, low blood ___, and ___

    volume; pressure; dehydration

    OT is produced in response to ___ __, ___-___, and during __ promoting uterine contraction

    sexual arousal; breast feeding; childbirth

    Release of OT and ADH are under ___ ___ as a result of sensory receptors from various locations in the body that relay info to the hypothalamus that responds by producing these hormones

    neural control

    stimulate specific target cells of anterior pituitary

    GHRH; CRH; TRH; GnRH

    inhibit specific target cells of the anterior pituitary

    Somatostatin; Prolactin-inhibiting hormone

    inhibits anterior pituitary from producing thyroid-stimulating hormone and GH

    somatostatin

    inhibits the cells called lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary from releasing prolactin

    prolactin-inhibiting hormone (dopamine)

    master gland pituitary gland

    pituitary gland is controlled by the ___

    hypothalamus

    hormones secreted by anterior pituitary

    GH, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH

    Hormones secreted by posterior pituitary

    OT and ADH

    What are the names of the endocrine cells of the pituitary gland (hypophysis) that are influenced by hormones of the hypothalamus?

    neurosecretory cells

    Which endocrine glands are influenced by the hormones of the anterior pituitary

    GH, ACTH, GnTH, PRL

    Identify the name of the cells and where those cells are located that synthesize ADH and OT?

    Neurosecretory cells; hypothalamus

    List the hormones of the thyroid and parathyroid glands that are antagonistic.

    calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    Which group of mineralocorticoids influences electrolyte composition in body fluids in humans?

    Aldosterone

    Which group of glucocorticoids helps a person deal with long-term stress, influences glucose metabolism and inflammation in humans?

    Cortisol

    What is the name of the class of hormones that includes all hormones produced by all three zones of the adrenal cortex?

    Corticosteroids

    Why is epinephrine considered a hormone when it is produced by the adrenal medulla and a neurotransmitter when secreted by a neuron?

    Epinephrine is considered a hormone when produced by the adrenal medulla because it's secreted into the bloodstream and a NT when secreted by a neuron because it's secreted into the brain

    How do insulin and glucagon reach distant cells in the liver?

    secreted into bloodstream

    In an individual who is diagnosed with hyperglycemia (high glucose levels in the blood), which pancreatic hormone is not functioning normally?

    insulin

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