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LibGuides: India's Independence: AboutHow did India's Independence Begin?
Indian Independence Day is a hugely significant national holiday, which marks the seminal moment the nation became independent from the United Kingdom. This was officially declared on 15 August 1947, making this India's 72nd Independence Day. Not only did India become independent on this day, but the country was divided into India and Pakistan.
Although unrest at colonial rule existed long before, the Indian independence movement gained momentum after the First World War. Mahatma Gandhi led the revolt against oppressive British rule and organised passive-resistance campaigns. Although minor concessions were made by the British government, they were not enough. Discontent continued to grow in India, with nationalist leaders such as Gandhi rejecting Britain's empty promises.
In 1942, during the Second World War, The Quit India Movement demanding an end to British rule was launched by the Indian Congress. This led to colonial authorities arresting and jailing hundreds of nationalists, including Ghandi.
Despite these sentences, demonstrations grew after the war. Lord Louis Mountbatten, who was Viceroy in the country, had been given until 1948 to divide the nation, but this date was hastily moved forward. His plan involved division along broadly religious lines - although it is up for debate how successful this was.
In 1947 the Indian National Congress reluctantly accepted the creation of Pakistan and, on August 15, 1947, the Indian Independence Bill took effect. (Continue reading from The Independent)The Partitian of India
After the signing of the Independence Bill, it was agreed colonial India would be divided into two separate states - one with a Muslim majority (Pakistan) and the other with a Hindu majority (India).
The two countries celebrate on different days because Lord Mountbatten, had to attend the Pakistan celebration on 14 August and then travel to Delhi for India's first independence day on 15 August.
The partition saw over 14 million people displaced and led to the death of up to two million, creating one of the biggest refugee crises in history and a hostile relationship between the divided nations. Riots and fighting were rife, particularly in the western region of Punjab as it was cut in two by the border. (Continue reading from TheCelebrating India's Independence Now
On the eve of Independence Day, a national holiday, the president of India delivers an address to the nation from his office that is broadcast nationally. On the morning of 15 August, the celebration kicks off with the arrival of the prime minister of India who receives a general salute from the guard of honour, which consists of representatives from the three wings of the Indian armed forces (army, navy and air force) and the Delhi police.
The main event begins with the hoisting of the national flag by the prime minister, which is synchronised with 21 honorary gunshots and followed by a moving rendition of the ‘Jana Gana Mana’ (India’s national anthem). Later in the day, celebrations include patriotic parades and pageants focussed on honouring the freedom fighters, a march-past led by the Indian armed forces and paramilitary forces and performances by schoolchildren. (Continue reading from The Culture Trip)
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12 6th - 8th History Lisa Floyd 2 years
1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
How did the Rowlatt Acts of 1919 increase British control of India?
by forcing Indian men to enlist in the British military
by allowing the British to jail Indian protesters without a trial
by restricting the jobs that Indians were allowed to perform
by significantly increasing the taxes that Indians paid
2. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.
Which of the following nations was NOT shaped by the British division of India in 1947?
answer choices Bangladesh India Sri Lanka Pakistan 3. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.
What contributed to the growth of nationalism in India?
the country's occupation by China
the country's occupation by Great Britain
the spread of Christianity in the country
the spread of Buddhism in the country
4. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.
What was the impact of the Amritsar Massacre?
The British granted India more local control over government.
Many Indians joined the British military to fight in World War I.
The United States demanded Britain give up control of India.
Mohandas Gandhi organized a civil disobedience campaign.
5. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.
Why did India continue to struggle after gaining its independence in 1947?
There was conflict between its Hindu and Muslim populations.
The United Kingdom's allies refused to trade with the country.
The country had access to very few valuable natural resources.
China pressured the government into adopting communist reforms.
6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q. Nationalism is NOT answer choices
the belief in one's country
loyalty in one's country
treason in one's country
pride in ones country
7. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.
What are the first TWO groups to work for rights of Indians?
Indian National Congress
Gandhi Political Group
Muslim League Rowlatt Act 8. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.
Which was an effect of the massacre at Amritsar?
Indians were afraid to ask for more rights because they thought they might be killed
The Amritsar massacre got little press coverage so it had very little effect on Indian feelings
Most people were so angry about the killings they became more united against the British
Most Indians felt the people gathered at Amritsar were breaking the law anyway and deserved punishment.
9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
When independence finally came in 1947, what was it about the decision that made many Indians unhappy?
The country was divided along religious lines
India was not allowed to have its own military
Indians still had to depend on Britain for food and protection
Most people in India wanted to turn down the offer of independence
10. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.
What was Mohandas Gandhi's plan of civil disobedience?
people should refuse to obey a law they felt was unfair
violent demonstrations were needed in India until the British left
it was best to go along with British laws to avoid making the colonial authorities angry
the best way to change the laws were through passing legislation in the Indian National Congress
11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
Mahatma Gandhi was a leader in the movement for Indian independence who advocated the use of which of the following methods of opposition to colonial rule?
answer choices civil war coup d'état guerrilla warfare nonviolent protest 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
The Indian National Congress, led by Mohandas Gandhi, and the Muslim League both fought for
Indian rights and independence.
the creation of an Indian theocracy.
the establishment of an official Indian religion.
equal status in a commonwealth with Great Britain.
13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
Mohandas Gandhi promoted which means to Indian independence?
answer choices violent overthrow
14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
Which of the following was NOT a form of civil disobedience advocated by Mohandas Gandhi?
boycotting British goods
engaging in guerrilla warfare
refusing to attend inferior schools
withholding payment of British taxes
15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
Mohandas Gandhi advocated for an India characterized by
Hindu principles and ancient crafts.
economic and technological power.
political independence and religious pluralism.
membership in the British Commonwealth of Nations.
16. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.
All of the following are methods of nonviolent protest used by Mahatma Gandhi as part of the Indian independence movement EXCEPT
India and Pakistan win independence
The Indian Independence Bill, which carves the independent nations of India and Pakistan out of the former Mogul Empire, comes into force at the stroke of
Year 1947 Month Day August 15
India and Pakistan win independence
The Indian Independence Bill, which carves the independent nations of India and Pakistan out of the former Mogul Empire, comes into force at the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947. The long-awaited agreement ended 200 years of British rule and was hailed by Indian independence leader Mohandas Gandhi as the “noblest act of the British nation.” However, religious strife between Hindus and Muslims, which had delayed Britain’s granting of Indian independence after World War II, soon marred Gandhi’s exhilaration. In the northern province of Punjab, which was sharply divided between Hindu-dominated India and Muslim-dominated Pakistan, hundreds of people were killed in the first few days after independence.
The Indian independence movement first gained momentum at the beginning of the 20th century, and after World War I Gandhi organized the first of his many effective passive-resistance campaigns in protest of Britain’s oppressive rule in India. In the 1930s, the British government made some concessions to the Indian nationalists, but during World War II discontent with British rule had grown to such a degree that Britain feared losing India to the Axis.
Gandhi and other nationalist leaders rejected as empty the British promises of Indian self-government after the war and organized the nonviolent “Quit India” campaign to hasten the British departure. British colonial authorities responded by jailing Gandhi and hundreds of others. Anti-British demonstrations accelerated after the war, and in 1947 the Indian National Congress reluctantly accepted the creation of Pakistan to appease the Muslim League and conclude the independence negotiations. On August 15, 1947, the Indian Independence Bill took effect, inaugurating a period of religious turmoil in India and Pakistan that would result in the deaths of hundreds of thousands, including Gandhi, who was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic in January 1948 during a prayer meeting to end Muslim-Hindu violence.