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    who signed the declaration of independence and the constitution

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    Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, Constitution Day Materials, Pocket Constitution Book, Bill of Rights

    The Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, Bill of Rights, Articles Of Confederation. Constitution IQ Quiz, Constitution Day Materials, Constitution Bookstore, Pocket Constitution Books, Constitution Amendments. Fascinating Facts about the Constitution, Founding Fathers, Supreme Court and more.

    About the Signers of the Declaration of Independence

    Connecticut • Delaware • Georgia • Maryland • Massachusetts • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New York • North Carolina • Pennsylvania • South Carolina • Rhode Island • Virginia

    All of the colonies were represented in Philadelphia to consider the delicate case for independence and to change the course of the war.  In all, there were fifty-six representatives from the thirteen colonies.  Fourteen represented the New England Colonies, twenty-one represented the Middle Colonies and twenty-one represented the Southern Colonies.  The largest number (9) came from Pennsylvania.  Most of the signers were American born although eight were foreign born.  The ages of the signers ranged from 26 (Edward Rutledge) to 70 (Benjamin Franklin), but the majority of the signers were in their thirties or forties.  More than half of the signers were lawyers and the others were planters, merchants and shippers.  Together they mutually pledged “to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.”  They were mostly men of means who had much to lose if the war was lost.  None of the signers died at the hands of the British, and one-third served as militia officers during the war. Four of the signers were taken captive during the war and nearly all of them were poorer at the end of the war than at the beginning.  No matter what each of these men did after July 1776, the actual signing of the Declaration of Independence which began on August 2 ensured them instant immortality.  The following gives a bit of information about each signer AFTER the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

    Connecticut

    Samuel Huntington (1731-1796)—Samuel Huntington was a self-made man who distinguished himself in government on the state and national levels. He was the President of Congress from 1779-1781 and presided over the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781.  He returned to Connecticut and was the Chief Justice of the Superior Court in 1784, Lieutenant Governor in 1785 and Governor from 1786-1796.  He was one of the first seven presidential electors from Connecticut.

    Roger Sherman (1723-1793)—Roger Sherman was a member of the Committee of Five that was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence.  He and Robert Morris were the only individuals to sign the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.   He was the Judge of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766-1789, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774-81; 1783-84 and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.  Sherman proposed the famed “Connecticut Compromise” at the convention and represented Connecticut in the United States Senate from 1791-93.

    William Williams (1731-1811)—William Williams was a graduate of Harvard, studied theology with his father and eventually became a successful merchant.  He fought in the French-Indian War and returned to Lebanon, Connecticut where he served for forty-four years as the town clerk.  He was elected to the Continental Congress from 1776-1777, and after signing the Declaration of Independence, Williams was a member of the committee that was instrumental in framing the Articles of Confederation.  He was a delegate to vote on the ratification of the Federal Constitution and also served as a Judge of the Windham County Courthouse.

    Oliver Wolcott (1726-1797)—Oliver Wolcott was as much a soldier as he was a politician and served as a brigadier general in the New York campaigns from 1776-1777.  As a major general, he was involved in defending the Connecticut coast from attacks by the Royal Governor of New York.  He was Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1775 and from 1784-89, a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1775-76 and 1778-84, Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut from 1786-96 and Governor from 1796-97.

    Delaware

    Thomas McKean (1734-1817)—Thomas McKean was the last member of the Second Continental Congress to sign the Declaration of Independence.  He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774-81 and served as a delegate to the Congress of the Confederation from 1781-1783.  After 1783, McKean became involved in the politics of Pennsylvania becoming  Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and the Governor of Pennsylvania from 1799-1812.  He retired from politics in 1812 and died at the age of 83 in 1817.

    George Read (1733-1798)—George Read was the only signer of the Declaration of Independence who voted against the proposal for independence introduced by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia.  He was elected to the Continental Congress from 1774-1776, was a member of the Delaware Constitutional Convention in 1776, acting Governor of Delaware in 1777, a Judge on the Court of Appeals in 1780, State Senator from 1791-92, a United States Senator from 1789-1793 and Chief Justice of the State of Delaware from 1793-98.

    Source : www.constitutionfacts.com

    September Highlight: The Declaration and the Constitution

    When the engrossed parchment copies of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were installed at the National Archives on December 15, 1952, President Harry S. Truman connected the two documents as follows: “Everyone who holds office in the Federal Government or in the government of one of our States takes an oath to support the Constitution of the United States. I have taken such an oath many times, including two times when I took the special oath required of the President of the United States. This oath we take has a deep significance. Its simple words compress a lot of our history and a lot of our philosophy of government into one small space. In many countries men swear to be loyal to their king, or to their nation. Here we promise to uphold and defend a great document. This is because the document sets forth our idea of government. And beyond this, with the Declaration of Independence, it expresses our idea of man. We believe that man should be free. And these documents establish a system under which man can be free and set up a framework to protect and expand that freedom.” For the majority of the history of the United States, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution have been invoked in this way. But what about the physical connections between the Declaration and the Constitution? September 17, 2017 marks the 230th anniversary of the signing of the United States Constitution, an event both similar to and quite different from the signing of the Declaration of Independence. In this month’s research highlight, we examine the preparation and signing of these two foundational documents, and the individuals involved in both.

    September Highlight: The Declaration and the Constitution

    When the engrossed parchment copies of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were installed at the National Archives on December 15, 1952, President Harry S. Truman connected the two documents as follows:

    “Everyone who holds office in the Federal Government or in the government of one of our States takes an oath to support the Constitution of the United States. I have taken such an oath many times, including two times when I took the special oath required of the President of the United States. This oath we take has a deep significance. Its simple words compress a lot of our history and a lot of our philosophy of government into one small space. In many countries men swear to be loyal to their king, or to their nation. Here we promise to uphold and defend a great document. This is because the document sets forth our idea of government. And beyond this, with the Declaration of Independence, it expresses our idea of man. We believe that man should be free. And these documents establish a system under which man can be free and set up a framework to protect and expand that freedom.”

    For the majority of the history of the United States, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution have been invoked in this way. But what about the physical connections between the Declaration and the Constitution? September 17, 2017 marks the 230th anniversary of the signing of the United States Constitution, an event both similar to and quite different from the signing of the Declaration of Independence. In this month’s research highlight, we examine the preparation and signing of these two foundational documents, and the individuals involved in both.

    Howard Chandler Christy, "Scene at the Signing of the Constitution," 1940

    Work on the Constitution’s predecessor, the Articles of Confederation, began in tandem with the Declaration of Independence.

    The Journals of the Continental Congress record the following for June 7, 1776: “Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances. That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective Colonies for their consideration and approbation.” On June 11th, Congress appointed the Committee of Five — Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston — to prepare the Declaration. The next day, June 12th, Congress appointed a committee “to prepare and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between these colonies,” with representatives from each colony (except New Jersey): Josiah Bartlett (NH), Samuel Adams (MA), Stephen Hopkins (RI), Roger Sherman (CT), Robert R. Livingston (NY), John Dickinson (PA), Thomas McKean (DE), Thomas Stone (MD), Thomas Nelson (VA), Joseph Hewes (NC), Edward Rutledge (SC), and Button Gwinnett (GA). The Articles of Confederation were approved for ratification on November 15, 1777.

    Both the Declaration and Constitution were fairly engrossed on parchment.

    On July 19, 1776 and September 15, 1787, respectively, the Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were both ordered to be fairly engrossed on parchment. Only one sheet of parchment measuring 29.75 x 24.5 inches was needed for the Declaration; four sheets of parchment, roughly the same size, make up the Constitution, and the signatures are on the fourth sheet. The Declaration was most likely engrossed by Timothy Matlack; the Constitution was engrossed by Jacob Shallus.

    Source : declaration.fas.harvard.edu

    Signers of the Declaration of Independence

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    Signers of the Declaration of Independence

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    Name State Rep. Date of Birth Birthplace Age in 1776 Occupation Number of Marriages Number of Children Date of Death Age at Death Adams, John MA 10/30/1735 Quincy, MA 40 Lawyer 1 5 7/4/1826 90 Adams, Samuel MA 9/27/1722 Boston, MA 53 Merchant 2 2 10/2/1803 81 Bartlett, Josiah NH 11/21/1729 Amesbury,MA 46 Physician 1 12 5/19/1795 65 Braxton, Carter VA 9/10/1736 Newington, VA 39 Plantation Owner 2 18 10/10/1797 61

    Carroll, Charles of Carrollton

    MD 9/19/1737 Annapolis, MD 38

    Merchant, Plantation Owner

    1 7 11/14/1832 95 Chase, Samuel MD 4/17/1741 Somerset Co., MD 35 Lawyer 2 4 6/19/1811 70 Clark, Abraham NJ 2/15/1726 Elizabethtown, NJ 50 Lawyer, Surveyer 1 10 9/15/1794 68 Clymer, George PA 3/16/1739 Philadelphia, PA 37 Merchant 1 8 1/24/1813 73 Ellery, William RI 12/22/1727 Newport, RI 48 Lawyer, Merchant 2 16 2/15/1820 92 Floyd, William NY 12/17/1734 Brookhaven, NY 41 Land Speculator 2 3 8/4/1821 86 Franklin, Benjamin PA 1/17/1706 Boston, MA 70 Scientist, Printer 1 3 4/17/1790 84 Gerry, Elbridge MA 7/17/1744 Marblehead, MA 32 Merchant 1 7 11/23/1814 70 Gwinnett, Button GA c. 1735 Gloucester, England 41

    Merchant, Plantation Owner

    1 3 5/15/1777 42 Hall, Lyman GA 4/12/1724 Wallingford, CT 52 Physician, Minister 2 1 10/19/1790 66 Hancock, John MA 1/12/1737 Quincy, MA 40 Merchant 1 2 10/8/1793 56 Harrison, Benjamin VA 4/7/1726

    Charles City Co., VA

    50

    Plantation Owner, Farmer

    1 7 4/24/1791 65 Hart, John NJ c. 1711 Hunterdon Co., NJ 65 Land owner 1 13 5/11/1779 68 Hewes, Joseph NC 1/23/1730 Kingston, NJ 46 Merchant - - 10/10/1779 49 Heyward Jr., Thomas SC 7/28/1746

    St. Helena Parish, SC

    30

    Lawyer, Plantation Owner

    2 8 3/6/1809 62 Hooper, William NC 6/17/1742 Boston, MA 34 Lawyer 1 3 10/14/1790 48 Hopkins, Stephen RI 3/7/1707 Providence, RI 69 Merchant 2 7 4/13/1785 78 Hopkinson, Francis NJ 10/2/1737 Philadelphia, PA 38 Lawyer, Musician 1 5 5/9/1791 53 Huntington, Samuel CT 7/3/1731 Windham, CT 45 Lawyer 1 2 1/5/1796 64 Jefferson, Thomas VA 4/13/1743 Albemarle Co., VA 33

    Lawyer, Plantation Owner, Scientist

    1 6 7/4/1826 83

    Lee, Francis Lightfoot

    VA 10/14/1734 Mt. Pleasant, VA 41 Plantation Owner 1 0 1/11/1797 62 Lee, Richard Henry VA 1/20/1732 Stratford, VA 44

    Plantation Owner, Merchant

    2 6 6/19/1794 62 Lewis, Francis NY 3/21/1713 Llandaff, Wales 63 Merchant 1 7 12/30/1802 89 Livingston, Philip NY 1/15/1716 Albany, NY 60 Merchant 1 9 6/12/1778 62 Lynch Jr., Thomas SC 8/5/1749

    Prince George’s Parrish, SC

    26 Lawyer 1 0 c. 1779 30 McKean, Thomas DE 3/19/1735 Chester Co., PA 42 Lawyer 2 11 6/24/1817 83 Middleton, Arthur SC 6/26/1742 Charleston, SC 34 Plantation Owner 1 9 1/1/1787 44 Morris, Lewis NY 4/8/1726 West Chester Co.,NY 50 Plantation Owner 1 10 1/22/1798 71 Morris, Robert PA 1/31/1734 Liverpool, England 42

    Merchant, Land Speculator

    1 7 5/8/1806 72 Morton, John PA c. 1724 Ridley Township, PA 52 Farmer 1 8 c. 1777 53 Nelson Jr., Thomas VA 12/26/1738 Yorktown, VA 37

    Merchant, Plantation Owner

    1 13 1/4/1789 50 Paca, William MD 10/31/1740 Abington, MD 35

    Lawyer, Plantation Owner

    2 5 10/13/1799 58 Paine, Robert Treat MA 3/11/1731 Boston, MA 45 Lawyer, Scientist 1 8 5/12/1814

    Source : www.archives.gov

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