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    who did dominican republic gain independence from

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    Dominican Republic

    history.state.gov 3.0 shell

    A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Dominican Republic

    A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Dominican Republic Summary

    Following both French and Spanish rule from as early as the 16th century, the island nation of the Dominican Republic declared itself an independent nation from neighboring Haiti in 1844. In 1861, the Dominican Republic reverted to Spanish rule, again winning its independence in 1865. U.S. military occupations of the Dominican Republic have at times strained relations between the two nations.

    Modern Flag of The Dominican Republic

    Recognition

    U.S. Recognition of Dominican Republic Independence, 1866.

    The United States recognized the Dominican Republic on September 17, 1866, on which day an exequatur was issued to J.W. Currier as Dominican consul general at New York.

    Diplomatic Relations

    Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1884.

    Diplomatic relations were established on March 26, 1884, when John M. Langston presented his credentials as American Charge d’Affaires to the Government of the Dominican Republic. He was also accredited to Haiti and resident at Port-au-Prince.

    Establishment of the American Legation in the Dominican Republic, 1904.

    The American Legation in Santo Domingo was established on July 23, 1904, when Thomas C. Dawson presented his credentials as Minister Resident/Consul General.

    Elevation of American Legation to Embassy Status, 1943.

    Following a joint announcement on March 23, 1943, between the United States and seven American Republics that included Dominican Republic, the Legations in the respective nations and the United States were raised to the status of Embassy. Avra M. Warren was promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and presented his credentials to the Government of Dominican Republic on April 17, 1943.

    Resources

    Department of State Country Fact Sheet: Dominican Republic

    Department of State Country Information: Dominican Republic

    COUNTRIES

    View a list of all countries

    Countries

    RELATED RESOURCES

    World Wide Diplomatic Archives Index

    Source : history.state.gov

    Dominican War of Independence

    Dominican War of Independence

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    For the Dominican war against Spain, see Dominican Restoration War.

    Dominican War of Independence

    Date 1844–1856 Location Hispaniola Result Dominican victory

    Expulsion of Haitians

    Dominican independence

    Belligerents

    Dominican Republic Republic of Haiti (until 1849)

    Second Empire of Haiti (from 1849)

    Commanders and leaders

    Juan Pablo Duarte Pedro Santana Antonio Duvergé Felipe Alfau Juan B. Cambiaso Juan B. Maggiolo Juan Acosta Manuel Mota José Mª. Cabral Lucas Peña José Mª. Imbert J. J. Puello

    Pedro E. Pelletier Charles Hérard

    Jean-Louis Pierrot Faustin Soulouque Pierre Paul Auguste Brouard Gen. Souffrand Gen. St.-Louis Jean Francois Strength Volunteers: 15,000

    Regular army: 40,000+

    Casualties and losses

    Less than 200 dead (1844–1845)

    3,000 dead (1844–1845)

    The exact number of casualties is unknown;

    however, Haiti is estimated to have lost three times more troops than Dominican Republic[1]

    hide vte

    Dominican War of Independence

    1844

    Fuente del RodeoCabeza de Las MaríasAzuaSantiagoEl MemisoTortugueroFort Cachimán

    1845

    EstrelletaBeler

    1849

    El NúmeroLas Carreras

    1855

    SantoméCambronalSabana Larga

    The Dominican Independence War gave the Dominican Republic autonomy from Haiti on February 27, 1844. Before the war, the island of Hispaniola had been united under the Haitian government for a period of 22 years when the newly independent nation, previously known as the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, was unified with Haiti in 1822. The criollo class within the country overthrew the Spanish crown in 1821 before unifying with Haiti a year later.

    In 1844, a Dominican nationalist group La Trinitaria led an insurrection against the Haitian government. On the morning of 27 February 1844, the gates of Santo Domingo rang with the shots of the plotters, who had emerged from their meetings to openly challenge the Haitians. Their efforts were successful, and for the next ten years, Dominican military strongmen fought to preserve their country's independence from the Haitian government.

    After ousting the Haitian occupying force from the country, Dominican nationalists fought against a series of attempted Haitian invasions that served to consolidate their independence from 1844 to 1856. [2] Under the command of Faustin Soulouque Haitian soldiers tried to gain back control of lost territory, but this effort was to no avail as the Dominicans would go on to decisively win every battle henceforth. In March 1844, a 30,000-strong two-pronged attack by Haitians was successfully repelled by an under-equipped Dominican army under the command of the wealthy rancher Gen. Pedro Santana.[3] Four years later, it took a Dominican flotilla harassing Haitian coastal villages, and land reinforcements in the south to force the determined Haitian emperor into a one-year truce.[3] In the most thorough and intense encounter of all, Dominicans armed with swords sent Haitian troops into flight on all three fronts in 1855.[3]

    Contents

    1 Background

    1.1 Ephemeral independence

    2 Unification of Hispaniola (1822-1844)

    2.1 Resistance

    3 War of Independence

    4 Battles 5 Notes 6 References

    Background[edit]

    At the beginning of the 1800s, the colony of Santo Domingo, which had once been the headquarters of Spanish power in the New World, was in its worst decline. Spain during this time was embroiled in the Peninsular War in Europe, and other various wars to maintain control of the Americas. With Spain's resources spread among its global interest, Santo Domingo became neglected. This period is referred to as the España Boba era.

    The population of the Spanish colony stood at approximately 80,000 with the vast majority being European descendants and free people of color. For most of its history, Santo Domingo had an economy based on mining and cattle ranching. The Spanish colony's plantation economy never truly flourished because slaves couldn't be brutally exploited,[] and the enslaved population had been historically significantly lower than that of the neighboring Saint-Domingue, which was nearing a million slaves before the Haitian Revolution.

    Ephemeral independence[edit]

    José Núñez de Cáceres

    During this period in time the Spanish crown wielded little to no influence in the colony of Santo Domingo. Some wealthy cattle ranchers had become leaders, and sought to bring control and order in the southeast of the colony where the "law of machete" ruled the land. On November 9, 1821 the former Captain general in charge of the colony, José Núñez de Cáceres, influenced by all the Revolutions that were going on around him, finally decided to overthrow the Spanish government and declared independence from Spanish rule, this would usher in an , as the nation would be united with Haiti shortly after.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Dominican Republic declares independence as a sovereign state

    On February 27, 1844, revolutionary fervor boiled over on the eastern side of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. Finally coming into the open after years of

    Year 1844 Month Day February 27

    Dominican Republic declares independence as a sovereign state

    On February 27, 1844, revolutionary fervor boiled over on the eastern side of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. Finally coming into the open after years of covert planning, a group known as La Trinitaria seized the fortress of Puerta del Conde in the city of Santo Domingo, and beginning the Dominican War of Independence.

    Much of what is now the Dominican Republic had been de facto autonomous in the early 1800s, with the Spanish occupied by Napoleon's invasion and the Haitians to the west fighting off their French colonizers. Heavily influenced and encouraged by Haiti, which had achieved independence in 1804, Dominicans declared independence as the Republic of Spanish Haiti in 1821. Despite being nominally free, however, the less-wealthy and less-densely populated half of the island came under the control of Haiti and entered into formal union with its neighbor in 1822.

    Though Haiti had been only the second European colony in the Americas to achieve independence, and its revolution constituted one of the largest and most important slave revolts in all of history, Dominica suffered under Haitian rule. Though the two were nominally united, the western half of the island was clearly where the political influence lay, and the crippling debts imposed on Haiti by the French and other powers had a profoundly negative effect on the island's economy as a whole. In 1838, three educated and "enlightened" Dominicans named Juan Pablo Duarte, Ramón Matías Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez founded a resistance organization. They named the organization La Trinitaria due to their decision to divide it into three smaller cells, each of which would operate with almost no knowledge of what the other cells were doing. In this highly secretive way, La Trinitaria set about gathering support from the general populace, even managing to covertly convert two regiments of the Haitian army.

    Finally, on February 27, 1844, they were forced to make a move. Though Duarte was away on the mainland seeking support from the recently-liberated peoples of Colombia and Venezuela, La Trinitaria received a tip that the Haitian government had been made aware of their activities. Seizing the moment, they gathered roughly 100 men and stormed Puerta del Conde, forcing the Haitian army out of Santo Domingo. Sánchez fired a cannon shot from the fort and raised the blue, red, and white flag of the Dominican Republic, which still flies over the country today.

    The Haitians pillaged the countryside as they retreated West, and fighting continued throughout the spring. Over the next few years and even into the next decade, the nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic were periodically at war, each invading the other in response to previous invasions. The storming of the Puerta del Conde, however, represented a turning point in the history of a nation that had long been subjugated, first to the Spanish and then to its Haitian neighbors.

    Source : www.history.com

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