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    which was not a result of the 1898 discovery of the four blood types and advances made during the two world wars? improved blood transfusion safety effective blood preservation solutions developed ability to separate different parts of blood for different uses all blood types made compatible with each other

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    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like A purebred purple flowering plant is crossed with a purebred white flowering plant, and they produce offspring that have purple flowers. Which is the trait for purple flowers? dominant recessive codominant blended, Which statement best describes the potential confusion in early studies of inheritance patterns for skin color? The polygenic trait appeared as incomplete dominance. The polygenic trait appeared as codominance. Incomplete dominance appeared to be a polygenic trait. Codominance appeared to be a polygenic trait., Which was not a result of the 1898 discovery of the four blood types? improved blood transfusion safety effective blood preservation solutions developed elements of blood separated via centrifuge all blood types made compatible with each other and more.

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    A purebred purple flowering plant is crossed with a purebred white flowering plant, and they produce offspring that have purple flowers. Which is the trait for purple flowers?

    dominant recessive codominant blended

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    dominant

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    Which statement best describes the potential confusion in early studies of inheritance patterns for skin color?

    The polygenic trait appeared as incomplete dominance.

    The polygenic trait appeared as codominance.

    Incomplete dominance appeared to be a polygenic trait.

    Codominance appeared to be a polygenic trait.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    The polygenic trait appeared as incomplete dominance.

    Click again to see term 👆

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    Terms in this set (17)

    A purebred purple flowering plant is crossed with a purebred white flowering plant, and they produce offspring that have purple flowers. Which is the trait for purple flowers?

    dominant recessive codominant blended dominant

    Which statement best describes the potential confusion in early studies of inheritance patterns for skin color?

    The polygenic trait appeared as incomplete dominance.

    The polygenic trait appeared as codominance.

    Incomplete dominance appeared to be a polygenic trait.

    Codominance appeared to be a polygenic trait.

    The polygenic trait appeared as incomplete dominance.

    Which was not a result of the 1898 discovery of the four blood types?

    improved blood transfusion safety

    effective blood preservation solutions developed

    elements of blood separated via centrifuge

    all blood types made compatible with each other

    all blood types made compatible with each other

    Which inheritance pattern results when parents are crossed for pure traits and the resulting offspring have traits that appear to blend?

    incomplete dominance

    codominance

    Mendelian inheritance

    polygenic inheritance

    incomplete dominance

    Skin color, fur color, and height are examples of which inheritance pattern?

    Mendelian inheritance

    incomplete dominance

    codominance

    polygenic inheritance

    polygenic inheritance

    If a red cow (homozygous dominant) is crossed with a white cow (homozygous dominant), what alleles will the offspring have?

    Rw RW rW rw RW

    The allele for curly hair is incompletely dominant. If a mother is homozygous for curly hair and the father is homozygous for straight hair, what percentage of the offspring will exhibit characteristics of both parents?

    25 percent 50 percent 75 percent 100 percent 100 percent

    Which statement best describes human eye color?

    an incompletely dominant trait that follows non-Mendelian inheritance patterns

    a polygenic trait that follows non-Mendelian inheritance patterns

    an incompletely dominant trait that follows Mendelian inheritance patterns

    a polygenic trait that follows Mendelian inheritance patterns

    a polygenic trait that follows non-Mendelian inheritance patterns

    The graph demonstrates the quantitative variation for skin pigmentation.

    mc011-1.jpg

    Which conclusion is supported by the graph?

    NOT More than half of the population has the central skin pigmentation.

    The lightest and the darkest skin pigmentations are equally possible.

    NOT The central skin pigmentation makes up more of the population than the rest of the skin pigmentation groups combined.

    NOT Fewer people have skin pigmentation lighter than the central peak than people who have pigmentation darker than the central peak.

    ...

    Which represents polygenic inheritance of traits?

    a cow that has red and white dominant coloring

    a mix of blue, green, and brown eye colors

    a plant that has pink flowers produced from a plant that has red flowers and a plant that has white flowers

    a plant that has green seeds produced from a plant that has yellow seeds and a plant that has green seeds

    a mix of blue, green, and brown eye colors

    An example of a polygenic trait is

    eye color, which is controlled by many interacting genes

    If blood is in short supply, which blood type would be the most beneficial to have on hand if someone needed a blood transfusion?

    O+ O- AB+ AB- O-

    Which type of traits vary quantitatively due to the interaction of multiple genes?

    polygenic codominant incomplete dominant dominant polygenic

    John and Pat are identical twins with identical DNA. John works in a movie theater, and Pat works as a lifeguard. They have very different skin pigmentation. Which is the best explanation of the difference?

    Skin color, a polygenic trait, is also determined by environmental factors.

    Skin color, a polygenic trait, is also determined by the sex of the individual.

    Skin color, a trait that demonstrates incomplete dominance, is also determined by environmental factors.

    Skin color, a trait that demonstrates incomplete dominance, is also determined by the sex of the individual.

    Skin color, a polygenic trait, is also determined by environmental factors.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Artificial blood

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending ...

    Indian J Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul-Sep; 12(3): 140–144.

    doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.43685

    PMCID: PMC2738310 PMID: 19742251

    Artificial blood

    Suman Sarkar

    Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

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    Abstract

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

    Keywords: Blood, artificial blood, Perfluorocarbons

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    Background

    Blood is a special type of connective tissue that is composed of white cells, red cells, platelets, and plasma. It has a variety of functions in the body. Plasma is the extracellular material made up of water, salts, and various proteins that, along with platelets, encourages blood to clot. Proteins in the plasma react with air and harden to prevent further bleeding. The white blood cells are responsible for the immune defense. They seek out invading organisms or materials and minimize their effect in the body.

    The red cells in blood create the bright red color. As little as two drops of blood contains about one billion red blood cells. These cells are responsible for the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. They are also responsible for the “typing” phenomena. On the membranes of these cells are proteins that the body recognizes as its own. For this reason, a person can use only blood that is compatible with her type. Currently, artificial blood products are only designed to replace the function of red blood cells. It might even be better to call the products being developed now, oxygen carriers instead of artificial blood.

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    History

    There has been a need for blood replacements for as long as patients have been bleeding to death because of a serious injury. According to medical folklore, the ancient Incas were responsible for the first recorded blood transfusions. No real progress was made in the development of a blood substitute until 1616, when William Harvey described how blood is circulated throughout the body. In the years to follow, medical practitioners tried numerous substances such as beer, urine, milk, plant resins, and sheep blood as a substitute for blood. They had hoped that changing a person's blood could have different beneficial effects such as curing diseases or even changing a personality. The first successful human blood transfusions were done in 1667. Unfortunately, the practice was halted because patients who received subsequent transfusions died.

    Of the different materials that were tried as blood substitutes over the years, only a few met with minimal success. Milk was one of the first of these materials. In 1854, patients were injected with milk to treat Asiatic cholera. Physicians believed that the milk helped regenerate white blood cells. In fact, enough of the patients given milk as a blood substitute seemed to improve that it was concluded to be a safe and legitimate blood replacement procedure. However, many practitioners remained skeptical so milk injections never found widespread appeal. It was soon discarded and forgotten as a blood replacement.

    Another potential substitute was salt or saline solutions. In experiments done on frogs, scientists found that they could keep frogs alive for some time if they removed all their blood and replaced it with a saline solution. These results were a little misleading, however, because it was later determined that frogs could survive for a short time without any blood circulation at all. After much research, saline was developed as a plasma volume expander.

    Other materials that were tried during the 1800s include hemoglobin and animal plasma. In 1868, researchers found that solutions containing hemoglobin isolated from red blood cells could be used as blood replacements. In 1871, they also examined the use of animal plasma and blood as a substitute for human blood. Both of these approaches were hampered by significant technological problems. First, scientists found it difficult to isolate a large volume of hemoglobin. Second, animal products contained many materials that were toxic to humans. Removing these toxins was a challenge during the nineteenth century.

    A significant breakthrough in the development of artificial blood came in 1883 with the creation of Ringer's solution—a solution composed of sodium, potassium, and calcium salts. In research using part of a frog's heart, scientists found that the heart could be kept beating by applying the solution. This eventually led to findings that the reduction in blood pressure caused by a loss of blood volume could be restored by using Ringer's solution. This product evolved into a human product when lactate was added. While it is still used today as a blood-volume expander, Ringer's solution does not replace the action of red blood cells so it is not a true blood substitute.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Highlights of Transfusion Medicine History

    HIGHLIGHTS OF TRANSFUSION MEDICINE HISTORY

    1628 English physician William Harvey discovers the circulation of blood. Shortly afterward, the earliest known blood transfusion is attempted.1665 The first recorded successful blood transfusion occurs in England: Physician Richard Lower keeps dogs alive by transfusion of blood from other dogs.1667 Jean-Baptiste Denis in France and Richard Lower in England separately report successful transfusions from lambs to humans. Within 10 years, transfusing the blood of animals to humans becomes prohibited by law because of reactions.1795 In Philadelphia, American physician Philip Syng Physick, performs the first human blood transfusion, although he does not publish this information.1818 James Blundell, a British obstetrician, performs the first successful transfusion of human blood to a patient for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Using the patient's husband as a donor, he extracts approximately four ounces of blood from the husband's arm and, using a syringe, successfully transfuses the wife. Between 1825 and 1830, he performs 10 transfusions, five of which prove beneficial to his patients, and publishes these results. He also devises various instruments for performing transfusions and proposed rational indications.1840 At St. George's School in London, Samuel Armstrong Lane, aided by consultant Dr. Blundell, performs the first successful whole blood transfusion to treat hemophilia.1867 English surgeon Joseph Lister uses antiseptics to control infection during transfusions.1873-1880 US physicians transfuse milk (from cows, goats, and humans).1884 Saline infusion replaces milk as a “blood substitute” due to the increased frequency of adverse reactions to milk.1900 Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian physician, discovers the first three human blood groups, A, B, and C. Blood type C was later changed to O. His colleagues Alfred Decastello and Adriano Sturli add AB, the fourth type, in 1902. Landsteiner receives the Nobel Prize for Medicine for this discovery in 1930.1907 Hektoen suggests that the safety of transfusion might be improved by crossmatching blood between donors and patients to exclude incompatible mixtures. Reuben Ottenberg performs the first blood transfusion using blood typing and crossmatching in New York. Ottenberg also observed the mendelian inheritance of blood groups and recognized the “universal” utility of group O donors.1908 French surgeon Alexis Carrel devises a way to prevent clotting by sewing the vein of the recipient directly to the artery of the donor. This vein-to-vein or direct method, known as anastomosis, is practiced by a number of physicians, among them J.B. Murphy in Chicago and George Crile in Cleveland. The procedure proves unfeasible for blood transfusions, but paves the way for successful organ transplantation, for which Carrel receives the Nobel Prize in 1912.1908 Moreschi describes the antiglobulin reaction. The antiglobulin is a direct way of visualizing an antigen-antibody reaction that has taken place but is not directly visible. The antigen and antibody react with each other, then, after washing to remove any unbound antibody, the antiglobulin reagent is added and binds between the antibody molecules that are stuck onto the antigen. This makes the complex big enough to see.1912 Roger Lee, a visiting physician at the Massachusetts General Hospital, along with Paul Dudley White, develops the Lee-White clotting time. Adding another important discovery to the growing body of knowledge of transfusion medicine, Lee demonstrates that it is safe to give group O blood to patients of any blood group, and that blood from all groups can be given to group AB patients. The terms "universal donor" and "universal recipient" are coined.1914 Long-term anticoagulants, among them sodium citrate, are developed, allowing longer preservation of blood.1915 At Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, Richard Lewisohn uses sodium citrate as an anticoagulant to transform the transfusion procedure from direct to indirect. In addition, Richard Weil demonstrates the feasibility of refrigerated storage of such anticoagulated blood. Although this is a great advance in transfusion medicine, it takes 10 years for sodium citrate use to be accepted.1916 Francis Rous and J.R.Turner introduce a citrate-glucose solution that permits storage of blood for several days after collection. Allowing for blood to be stored in containers for later transfusion aids the transition from the vein-to-vein method to indirect transfusion. This discovery also allows for the establishment of the first blood depot by the British during World War I. Oswald Robertson, an American Army officer, is credited with creating the blood depots. Robertson received the AABB Landsteiner Award in 1958 as developer of the first blood bank.1927-1947 The MNSs and P systems are discovered. MNSs and P are two more blood group antigen systems — just as ABO is one system and Rh is another.1932 The first blood bank is established in a Leningrad hospital.1937 Bernard Fantus, director of therapeutics at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago, establishes the first hospital blood bank in the United States. In creating a hospital laboratory that can preserve and store donor blood, Fantus originates the term "blood bank." Within a few years, hospital and community blood banks begin to be established across the United States. Some of the earliest are in San Francisco, New York, Miami, and Cincinnati.

    Source : www.aabb.org

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