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    Features of the Animal Kingdom – Concepts of Biology

    FEATURES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    List the features that distinguish the animal kingdom from other kingdoms

    Explain the processes of animal reproduction and embryonic development

    Describe the hierarchy of basic animal classification

    Compare and contrast the embryonic development of protostomes and deuterostomes

    Even though members of the animal kingdom are incredibly diverse, animals share common features that distinguish them from organisms in other kingdoms. All animals are eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, and almost all animals have specialized tissues. Most animals are motile, at least during certain life stages. Animals require a source of food to grow and develop. All animals are heterotrophic, ingesting living or dead organic matter. This form of obtaining energy distinguishes them from autotrophic organisms, such as most plants, which make their own nutrients through photosynthesis and from fungi that digest their food externally. Animals may be carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, or parasites ([Figure 1]). Most animals reproduce sexually: The offspring pass through a series of developmental stages that establish a determined body plan, unlike plants, for example, in which the exact shape of the body is indeterminate. The body plan refers to the shape of an animal.

    Figure 1: All animals that derive energy from food are heterotrophs. The (a) black bear is an omnivore, eating both plants and animals. The (b) heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is a parasite that derives energy from its hosts. It spends its larval stage in mosquitos and its adult stage infesting the hearts of dogs and other mammals, as shown here. (credit a: modification of work by USDA Forest Service; credit b: modification of work by Clyde Robinson)

    COMPLEX TISSUE STRUCTURE

    A hallmark trait of animals is specialized structures that are differentiated to perform unique functions. As multicellular organisms, most animals develop specialized cells that group together into tissues with specialized functions. A tissue is a collection of similar cells that had a common embryonic origin. There are four main types of animal tissues: nervous, muscle, connective, and epithelial. Nervous tissue contains neurons, or nerve cells, which transmit nerve impulses. Muscle tissue contracts to cause all types of body movement from locomotion of the organism to movements within the body itself. Animals also have specialized connective tissues that provide many functions, including transport and structural support. Examples of connective tissues include blood and bone. Connective tissue is comprised of cells separated by extracellular material made of organic and inorganic materials, such as the protein and mineral deposits of bone. Epithelial tissue covers the internal and external surfaces of organs inside the animal body and the external surface of the body of the organism.

    View this video to watch a presentation by biologist E.O. Wilson on the importance of animal diversity.

    ANIMAL REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Most animals have diploid body (somatic) cells and a small number of haploid reproductive (gamete) cells produced through meiosis. Some exceptions exist: For example, in bees, wasps, and ants, the male is haploid because it develops from an unfertilized egg. Most animals undergo sexual reproduction, while many also have mechanisms of asexual reproduction.

    SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AND EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    Almost all animal species are capable of reproducing sexually; for many, this is the only mode of reproduction possible. This distinguishes animals from fungi, protists, and bacteria, where asexual reproduction is common or exclusive. During sexual reproduction, the male and female gametes of a species combine in a process called fertilization. Typically, the small, motile male sperm travels to the much larger, sessile female egg. Sperm form is diverse and includes cells with flagella or amoeboid cells to facilitate motility. Fertilization and fusion of the gamete nuclei produce a zygote. Fertilization may be internal, especially in land animals, or external, as is common in many aquatic species.

    After fertilization, a developmental sequence ensues as cells divide and differentiate. Many of the events in development are shared in groups of related animal species, and these events are one of the main ways scientists classify high-level groups of animals. During development, animal cells specialize and form tissues, determining their future morphology and physiology. In many animals, such as mammals, the young resemble the adult. Other animals, such as some insects and amphibians, undergo complete metamorphosis in which individuals enter one or more larval stages. For these animals, the young and the adult have different diets and sometimes habitats. In other species, a process of incomplete metamorphosis occurs in which the young somewhat resemble the adults and go through a series of stages separated by molts (shedding of the skin) until they reach the final adult form.

    ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

    Asexual reproduction, unlike sexual reproduction, produces offspring genetically identical to each other and to the parent. A number of animal species—especially those without backbones, but even some fish, amphibians, and reptiles—are capable of asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction, except for occasional identical twinning, is absent in birds and mammals. The most common forms of asexual reproduction for stationary aquatic animals include budding and fragmentation, in which part of a parent individual can separate and grow into a new individual. In contrast, a form of asexual reproduction found in certain invertebrates and rare vertebrates is called parthenogenesis (or “virgin beginning”), in which unfertilized eggs develop into new offspring.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Which two characteristics describe all animals? multicellular and symmetrical multicellular and

    Answer:heterotrophic and multicellularExplanation:All animals are heterotrophic and multicellular. Heterotrophic means that the animals are unable to manufactur…

    Unlock all answers 07/24/2020 Biology High School

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    Which two characteristics describe all animals? multicellular and symmetrical multicellular and asymmetrical heterotrophic and multicellular heterotrophic and unicellular

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    Expert-verified answer

    Answer:heterotrophic and multicellularExplanation:

    All animals are heterotrophic and multicellular. Heterotrophic means that the animals are unable to manufacture their own food. The animals are said to be heterotrophic because unlike plants, they cannot manufacture their own food. They depend on plants and other sources to derive nutrition and energy. Multicellular means made up of many cells. Animals are said to be multicellular because they are made up of different cells.

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    Answer

    Answer:

    All animals are heterotrophic and multicellular.

    Explanation:

    All animals are multicellular, they're not just made of one cell.

    All animals are heterotrophic, they cannot make their own food like plants so they must rely on eating other organisms for food.

    Also, the other answers don't fit.

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    Overview of Animals 100% Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Clams and oysters are examples of invertebrates. Which structure in these animals helps protect their internal body parts? shell backbone gills muscles, Which two characteristics do all animals have? They are symmetrical and heterotrophic. They are heterotrophs and have a backbone. Their cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. They have a backbone, and their cells have membrane-bound organelles., Which two characteristics describe all animals? multicellular and symmetrical multicellular and asymmetrical heterotrophic and multicellular heterotrophic and unicellular and more.

    Overview of Animals 100%

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    Clams and oysters are examples of invertebrates.

    Which structure in these animals helps protect their internal body parts?

    shell backbone gills muscles

    Click card to see definition 👆

    shell

    Click again to see term 👆

    Which two characteristics do all animals have?

    They are symmetrical and heterotrophic.

    They are heterotrophs and have a backbone.

    Their cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

    They have a backbone, and their cells have membrane-bound organelles.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Their cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/10 Created by Harley689

    Terms in this set (10)

    Clams and oysters are examples of invertebrates.

    Which structure in these animals helps protect their internal body parts?

    shell backbone gills muscles shell

    Which two characteristics do all animals have?

    They are symmetrical and heterotrophic.

    They are heterotrophs and have a backbone.

    Their cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

    They have a backbone, and their cells have membrane-bound organelles.

    Their cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

    Which two characteristics describe all animals?

    multicellular and symmetrical

    multicellular and asymmetrical

    heterotrophic and multicellular

    heterotrophic and unicellular

    heterotrophic and multicellular

    Which function allows animals to find mates?

    movement homeostasis reproduction feeding movement

    What do all vertebrates and invertebrates have in common?

    They are prokaryotic.

    They are covered by an outer skeleton.

    They are multicellular.

    They are bilaterally symmetrical.

    They are multicellular.

    Which term represents animals with backbones?

    invertebrates heterotrophs autotrophs vertebrates vertebrates

    What is a function of the backbone in animals?

    It protects against predators.

    It regulates blood glucose.

    It surrounds the spinal cord.

    It limits movement.

    It surrounds the spinal cord.

    The ability of an animal to maintain a stable internal environment is called

    homeostasis

    Animals produce a substance called insulin, which helps them maintain healthy levels of glucose in their blood.

    Insulin is most directly related to which function?

    movement feeding reproduction homeostasis homeostasis

    Brendan made a chart to categorize the characteristics of animals.

    Which phrase should be written in the column titled "Sometimes"?

    Are multicellular

    Have membrane-bound organelles

    Produce their own food

    Display an asymmetrical body plan

    Display an asymmetrical body plan

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