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    Campbell Chapter 9: Mastering Biology Questions Flashcards

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    Biology Questions 63cards Alyssa B. Biology

    Introduction To Biology

    Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

    Electronegativity.

    Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?

    Anion and cation.

    Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?

    Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.

    Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?

    A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron.

    What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?

    Ionic.

    Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water:

    2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O + energy

    Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?

    Hydrogen, polar.

    Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?

    transforming the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work

    In the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration, what is consumed and what is produced?

    Glucose is consumed, and carbon dioxide is produced.

    Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?

    pyruvate, ATP, and NADH

    NADH only ATP only O2 only CO2 only ATP and NADH only

    pyruvate and ATP only

    Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis?

    It represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.

    How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?

    2

    In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

    substrate-level phosphorylation

    Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?

    FADH2

    In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?

    ATP

    In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.

    2

    In the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, one carbon atom is released as CO2. However, the oxidation of the remaining two carbon atoms—in acetate—to CO2 requires a complex, eight-step pathway—the citric acid cycle. Consider four possible explanations for why the last two carbons in acetate are converted to CO2 in a complex cyclic pathway rather than through a simple, linear reaction.

    It is easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with three or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.

    A glucose molecule is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but together these two processes yield only a few molecules of ATP. What happened to most of the energy that the cell obtains from the oxidation of glucose?

    It is stored in NADH and FADH2

    Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?

    acetyl CoA

    In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

    substrate-level phosphorylation

    Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?

    acetyl CoA

    Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?

    The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.

    The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?

    water

    In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?

    to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

    How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation? (Note that you should not consider the effect on ATP synthesis in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.)

    Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.

    Which statement best explains why more ATP is made per molecule of NADH than per molecule of FADH2?

    Fewer protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane when FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.

    Which one of the following statements about the redox reactions of the electron transport chain is correct?

    The redox reactions of the electron transport chain are directly coupled to the movement of protons across a membrane.

    In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.

    lactate and NAD+

    In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.

    pyruvate ... NADH

    In the absence of oxygen, what is the net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis?

    two ATP

    In most cells, not all of the carbon compounds that participate in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are converted to carbon dioxide by cellular respiration. What happens to the carbon in these compounds that does not end up as CO2?

    The carbon compounds are removed from these processes to serve as building blocks for other complex molecules.

    What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction? Pyruvate + NADH + H+ → Lactate + NAD+

    pyruvate

    The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the

    H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.

    Source : www.chegg.com

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    Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

    Electronegativity

    Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons toward itself.

    Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?

    Anion and cation.

    Each atom will carry a charge from the transfer of electrons.

    Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?

    Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero

    The oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water have partial charges, but the molecule has a net charge of zero.

    Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?

    A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron

    A hydrogen atom (proton, or H+) is often transferred to the atom that gains an electron.

    What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?

    Ionic.

    The complete transfer of an electron from lithium to fluorine results in a stable compound in which both atoms have full outermost shells.

    Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water:

    2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O + energy

    Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?

    Hydrogen, polar.

    Hydrogen loses electrons to oxygen, which is more electronegative and thus pulls the electrons closer to itself in the water molecule

    Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?

    transforming the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work

    The energy made available during cellular respiration is coupled to a production of ATP, the basic energy currency that cells use for work.

    In the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration, what is consumed and what is produced?

    Glucose is consumed, and carbon dioxide is produced.

    The carbon in glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide during cellular respiration.

    Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?

    Electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O

    Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?

    C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

    C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.

    When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes

    oxidized.

    When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes

    reduced.

    Where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells?

    cytosol

    The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

    substrate-level phosphorylation

    The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

    accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

    Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high energy foods?

    They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen.

    Glycolysis

    From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of glycolysis.

    Acetyl CoA Formation

    In acetyl CoA formation, the carbon-containing compound from glycolysis is oxidized to produce acetyl CoA. From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of acetyl CoA formation.

    Oxidative Phosphorylation

    In the last stage of cellular respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, all of the reduced electron carriers produced in the previous stages are oxidized by oxygen via the electron transport chain. The energy from this oxidation is stored in a form that is used by most other energy-requiring reactions in cells.

    From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Cellular locations of the four stages of cellular respiration

    Each of the four stages of cellular respiration occurs in a specific location inside or outside the mitochondria. These locations permit precise regulation and partitioning of cellular resources to optimize the utilization of cellular energy.

    Citric Acid Cycle

    In the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), acetyl CoA is completely oxidized. From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of the citric acid cycle.

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    Biology Chapter 9 Flashcards

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    Biology Chapter 9

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    Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

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    Electronegativity.

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    Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Anion and cation.

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    1/29 Created by tatykimbrough

    Terms in this set (29)

    Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

    Electronegativity.

    Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?

    Anion and cation.

    Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?

    Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.

    Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?

    A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron.

    What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?

    Ionic.

    Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water:

    2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O + energy

    Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?

    Hydrogen, polar.

    When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound because _______. Such as a compound is often refereed to as an electron donor.

    oxidized

    When a compound accepts (gains) electrons, that compounds becomes ______. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor

    reduced

    In glycolysis, the carbon-containing compound that functions as the electron donor is _______

    glucose

    Once the electron donor in glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxydizied to a compound called ______

    pyruvate

    ________ is the compound that functions as the compound acceptor in glycolysis

    NAD+

    The reduced form of the elecron acceptor in glycolysis is ____

    NADH

    Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?

    pyruvate, ATP, and NADH

    How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?

    2

    In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

    substrate-level phosphorylation

    Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?

    FADH2

    In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?

    ATP

    In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.

    2

    In the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, one carbon atom is released as CO2. However, the oxidation of the remaining two carbon atoms—in acetate—to CO2 requires a complex, eight-step pathway—the citric acid cycle. Consider four possible explanations for why the last two carbons in acetate are converted to CO2 in a complex cyclic pathway rather than through a simple, linear reaction.

    It is easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with three or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.

    Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?

    acetyl CoA

    In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

    substrate-level phosphorylation

    In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?

    to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

    How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation? (Note that you should not consider the effect on ATP synthesis in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.)

    Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.

    NADH and FADH2 are both electron carriers that donate their electrons to the electron transport chain. The electrons ultimately reduce O2 to water in the final step of electron transport. However, the amount of ATP made by electrons from an NADH molecule is greater than the amount made by electrons from an FADH2 molecule.

    Fewer protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane when FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.

    In cellular respiration, a series of molecules forming an electron transport chain alternately accepts and then donates electrons. What is the advantage of such an electron transport chain?

    The advantage of an electron transport chain is that a small amount of energy is released with the transfer of an electron between each pair of intermediates.

    Select the correct statement about cellular respiration.

    Cellular respiration and breathing differ in that cellular respiration is at the cellular level, whereas breathing is at the organismal level.

    Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?

    transforming the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work

    How will a healthy individual's ATP production change during an eight-hour fast?

    The individual's ATP production will not change significantly.

    Identify all correct statements about the basic function of fermentation.

    The basic function of fermentation is the regeneration of NAD+, which allows continued ATP production by glycolysis.

    Recommended textbook explanations

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