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    which term describes a possible explanation of, or answer to, a scientific question that is based on prior knowledge or research and that is testable?

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    Scientific Inquiry

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    Unlike the methods of early scientists, how did Sir Francis Bacon believe basic laws of science should be determined?

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    by using inductive reasoning based on empirical evidence

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    A student sees several ants walking up a wall following the exact same trail that an ant took earlier. She wants to apply the scientific method to determine how the ants detected the trail. Which of these steps would come first in her application of the scientific method?

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    Hypothesize that the ants are following a scent trail that the first ant left.

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    Unlike the methods of early scientists, how did Sir Francis Bacon believe basic laws of science should be determined?

    by using inductive reasoning based on empirical evidence

    A student sees several ants walking up a wall following the exact same trail that an ant took earlier. She wants to apply the scientific method to determine how the ants detected the trail. Which of these steps would come first in her application of the scientific method?

    Hypothesize that the ants are following a scent trail that the first ant left.

    A student completed a lab report. Which correctly describes the difference between the "Question" and "Hypothesis" sections of her report?

    "Question" states what she is asking, and "Hypothesis" states what she thinks the answer to that question is in "if . . . then . . . because" format.

    Which statement best describes a typical difference that could be found between the "Analysis" and "Conclusion" sections of a lab report?

    NOT Only the "Conclusion" section discusses whether the original hypothesis was supported, and both sections suggest further research.

    A scientist conducting an experiment quickly saw that she was not getting the results she expected. Instead of continuing to collect data, she went back to redesign the experiment until the data came out the way that the hypothesis predicted. The scientist's work did not follow the scientific method. Which statement best explains why?

    She failed to look at the data objectively by trying to get a desired result.

    "Any process used to ask and answer testable questions about observations of the natural world" defines which term?

    scientific inquiry

    A student is applying the scientific method to a study of the effect of temperature on plant growth. Each day he writes down the temperature and plant height measurements in a table in his laboratory notebook. Which step of the scientific method does this describe?

    collecting and recording data

    Which is best illustrated by Watson and Crick's ball-and-stick model of DNA?

    the role of creativity in scientific discovery

    Which statement best describes a scientific question?

    It must be testable.

    Which term describes a possible explanation of, or answer to, a scientific question that is based on prior knowledge or research and that is testable?

    hypothesis

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    scientific hypothesis

    scientific hypothesis, an idea that proposes a tentative explanation about a phenomenon or a narrow set of phenomena observed in the natural world. The two primary features of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability and testability, which are reflected in an “If…then” statement summarizing the idea and in the ability to be supported or refuted through observation and experimentation. The notion of the scientific hypothesis as both falsifiable and testable was advanced in the mid-20th century by Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper. The formulation and testing of a hypothesis is part of the scientific method, the approach scientists use when attempting

    scientific hypothesis

    By Kara Rogers • Edit History

    experiments disproving spontaneous generation

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    scientific hypothesis, an idea that proposes a tentative explanation about a phenomenon or a narrow set of phenomena observed in the natural world. The two primary features of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability and testability, which are reflected in an “If…then” statement summarizing the idea and in the ability to be supported or refuted through observation and experimentation. The notion of the scientific hypothesis as both falsifiable and testable was advanced in the mid-20th century by Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper.

    The formulation and testing of a hypothesis is part of the scientific method, the approach scientists use when attempting to understand and test ideas about natural phenomena. The generation of a hypothesis frequently is described as a creative process and is based on existing scientific knowledge, intuition, or experience. Therefore, although scientific hypotheses commonly are described as educated guesses, they actually are more informed than a guess. In addition, scientists generally strive to develop simple hypotheses, since these are easier to test relative to hypotheses that involve many different variables and potential outcomes. Such complex hypotheses may be developed as scientific models (see scientific modeling).

    Depending on the results of scientific evaluation, a hypothesis typically is either rejected as false or accepted as true. However, because a hypothesis inherently is falsifiable, even hypotheses supported by scientific evidence and accepted as true are susceptible to rejection later, when new evidence has become available. In some instances, rather than rejecting a hypothesis because it has been falsified by new evidence, scientists simply adapt the existing idea to accommodate the new information. In this sense a hypothesis is never incorrect but only incomplete.

    The investigation of scientific hypotheses is an important component in the development of scientific theory. Hence, hypotheses differ fundamentally from theories; whereas the former is a specific tentative explanation and serves as the main tool by which scientists gather data, the latter is a broad general explanation that incorporates data from many different scientific investigations undertaken to explore hypotheses.

    Countless hypotheses have been developed and tested throughout the history of science. Several examples include the idea that living organisms develop from nonliving matter, which formed the basis of spontaneous generation, a hypothesis that ultimately was disproved (first in 1668, with the experiments of Italian physician Francesco Redi, and later in 1859, with the experiments of French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur); the concept proposed in the late 19th century that microorganisms cause certain diseases (now known as germ theory); and the notion that oceanic crust forms along submarine mountain zones and spreads laterally away from them (seafloor spreading hypothesis).

    Kara Rogers

    Source : www.britannica.com

    What is a scientific hypothesis?

    A scientific hypothesis is a tentative, testable explanation for a phenomenon in the natural world.

    What is a scientific hypothesis?

    By Alina Bradford published January 19, 2022

    It's the initial building block in the scientific method.

    (Image credit: PeopleImages/Getty Images)

    Jump to: Hypothesis basics

    What makes a hypothesis testable?

    Types of hypotheses

    Hypothesis versus theory

    Additional resources

    Bibliography

    A scientific hypothesis is a tentative, testable explanation for a phenomenon in the natural world. It's the initial building block in the scientific method. Many describe it as an "educated guess" based on prior knowledge and observation. While this is true, a hypothesis is more informed than a guess. While an "educated guess" suggests a random prediction based on a person's expertise, developing a hypothesis requires active observation and background research.

    HYPOTHESIS BASICS

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    The basic idea of a hypothesis is that there is no predetermined outcome. For a solution to be termed a scientific hypothesis, it has to be an idea that can be supported or refuted through carefully crafted experimentation or observation. This concept, called falsifiability and testability, was advanced in the mid-20th century by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper in his famous book "The Logic of Scientific Discovery" (Routledge, 1959).

    A key function of a hypothesis is to derive predictions about the results of future experiments and then perform those experiments to see whether they support the predictions.

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    A hypothesis is usually written in the form of an if-then statement, which gives a possibility (if) and explains what may happen because of the possibility (then). The statement could also include "may," according to California State University, Bakersfield

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    Here are some examples of hypothesis statements:

    If garlic repels fleas, then a dog that is given garlic every day will not get fleas.

    If sugar causes cavities, then people who eat a lot of candy may be more prone to cavities.

    If ultraviolet light can damage the eyes, then maybe this light can cause blindness.

    WHAT MAKES A HYPOTHESIS TESTABLE?

    A useful hypothesis should be testable and falsifiable. That means that it should be possible to prove it wrong. A theory that can't be proved wrong is nonscientific, according to Karl Popper's 1963 book "Conjectures and Refutations

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    An example of an untestable statement is, "Dogs are better than cats." That's because the definition of "better" is vague and subjective. However, an untestable statement can be reworded to make it testable. For example, the previous statement could be changed to this: "Owning a dog is associated with higher levels of physical fitness than owning a cat." With this statement, the researcher can take measures of physical fitness from dog and cat owners and compare the two.

    TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES

    The null hypothesis might be: There will be no difference in spin speed between a turbine with 6 versus 8 blades. (Image credit: SDI Productions/Getty Images)

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    In an experiment, researchers generally state their hypotheses in two ways. The null hypothesis predicts that there will be no relationship between the variables tested, or no difference between the experimental groups. The alternative hypothesis predicts the opposite: that there will be a difference between the experimental groups. This is usually the hypothesis scientists are most interested in, according to the University of Miami

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    For example, a null hypothesis might state, "There will be no difference in the rate of muscle growth between people who take a protein supplement and people who don't." The alternative hypothesis would state, "There will be a difference in the rate of muscle growth between people who take a protein supplement and people who don't."

    If the results of the experiment show a relationship between the variables, then the null hypothesis has been rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, according to the book "Research Methods in Psychology

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    " (​​BCcampus, 2015).

    There are other ways to describe an alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis above does not specify a direction of the effect, only that there will be a difference between the two groups. That type of prediction is called a two-tailed hypothesis. If a hypothesis specifies a certain direction — for example, that people who take a protein supplement will gain more muscle than people who don't — it is called a one-tailed hypothesis, according to William M. K. Trochim

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    , a professor of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University.

    Source : www.livescience.com

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