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    which tactic did palestinians use against israel in 1987? an invasion a guerilla war an intifada a naval blockade

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    intifada

    intifada, also spelled intifadah, Arabic intifāḍah (“shaking off”), either of two popular uprisings of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip aimed at ending Israel’s occupation of those territories and creating an independent Palestinian state. The first intifada began in December 1987 and ended in September 1993 with the signing of the first Oslo Accords, which provided a framework for peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. The second intifada, sometimes called the Al-Aqṣā intifada, began in September 2000. Although no single event signaled its end, most analysts agree that it had run its course by late 2005. The

    intifada

    Palestinian-Israeli history

    Alternate titles: intifāḍah

    By Bader Araj See All • Edit History

    Key People: Khaled Meshaal Yitzhak Rabin

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    intifada, also spelled intifadah, Arabic intifāḍah (“shaking off”), either of two popular uprisings of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip aimed at ending Israel’s occupation of those territories and creating an independent Palestinian state. The first intifada began in December 1987 and ended in September 1993 with the signing of the first Oslo Accords, which provided a framework for peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. The second intifada, sometimes called the Al-Aqṣā intifada, began in September 2000. Although no single event signaled its end, most analysts agree that it had run its course by late 2005. The two uprisings resulted in the death of more than 5,000 Palestinians and some 1,400 Israelis.

    The first intifada

    The proximate causes of the first intifada were intensified Israeli land expropriation and settlement construction in the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the electoral victory of the right-wing Likud party in 1977; increasing Israeli repression in response to heightened Palestinian protests following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982; the emergence of a new cadre of local Palestinian activists who challenged the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a process aided by Israel’s stepped-up attempts to curb political activism and break the PLO’s ties to the occupied territories in the early 1980s; and, in reaction to the invasion of Lebanon, the emergence of a strong peace camp on the Israeli side, which many Palestinians thought provided a basis for change in Israeli policy. With motivation, means, and perceived opportunity in place, only a precipitant was required to start an uprising. This occurred in December 1987 when an Israeli vehicle struck two vans carrying Palestinian workers, killing four of them, an event that was perceived by Palestinians as an act of revenge for the death by stabbing of an Israeli in Gaza a few days earlier.

    Most of the Palestinian rioting took place during the intifada’s first year, after which the Palestinians shifted from throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails at Israeli targets to attacking them with rifles, hand grenades, and explosives. The shift occurred mainly because of the severity of Israeli military and police reprisals, which intensified after Palestinian attacks became more violent. According to the Israeli human rights group B’Tselem, nearly 2,000 deaths due to violence occurred during the first intifada; the ratio of Palestinian to Israeli deaths was slightly more than 3 to 1.

    Pragmatism crystallized alongside the violence, however. In 1988 the PLO accepted American conditions for opening a U.S.-Palestinian dialogue: rejection of terrorism, recognition of Israel’s right to exist, and acceptance of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242 (which called upon Arab states to accept Israel’s right “to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries”) and 338 (which called for the implementation of Resolution 242 “in all its parts”). With the intifada proving to be politically and economically damaging to Israel, a new Israeli government was elected in 1992 with a mandate to negotiate for peace. In the following year secret talks between Israel and the PLO under the auspices of the Norwegian government resulted in the Oslo Accords, a series of agreements signed in 1993–95. The accords reiterated the PLO’s 1988 commitments, and Israel recognized the PLO as the Palestinian people’s legitimate representative, agreed to withdraw in stages from areas of the West Bank and Gaza, and allowed the creation of a Palestinian Authority to govern those areas. Outstanding matters in achieving a two-state solution were to be settled over the next five years.

    Negotiations and continued violence

    Just as the PLO turned to pragmatism, however, a new organization, Hamas, headed in the opposite direction, articulating a vision of an Islamic state in all of historical Palestine. Hamas rejected the Oslo Accords and, in a move to scuttle peace talks, initiated a series of suicide attacks against Israeli targets.

    Meanwhile, Israel continued to build settlements in the occupied territories, and the Palestinians imported arms and built up their security forces, in violation of the terms of the Oslo Accords. As a result, talks broke down in 2000 in a wave of frustration and mutual recrimination. Shortly afterward, Likud’s prime ministerial candidate, Ariel Sharon, visited the Temple Mount in Jerusalem as an assertion of Israel’s sovereignty over Al-Aqṣā Mosque, Islam’s third holiest site. Rioting broke out, Israeli police responded with lethal force, and unrest quickly spread throughout the occupied territories. The second intifada had begun.

    The second intifada

    The second intifada was much more violent than the first. During the approximately five-year uprising, more than 4,300 fatalities were registered, and again the ratio of Palestinian to Israeli deaths was slightly more than 3 to 1.

    In March 2002, following an especially horrific suicide bombing that killed 30 people, the Israeli army launched Operation Defensive Shield to reoccupy the West Bank and parts of Gaza. One year later Israel started building a separation barrier in the West Bank to match a similar barrier erected in Gaza in 1996. Also helping to suppress the uprising were more than 200 state-directed assassinations of Palestinian military operatives and political leaders.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Israel Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like thousands of Palestinians became refugees., the creation of Israel, the Balfour Declaration, Jewish emigration to Palestine, It increased support greatly. and more.

    Israel

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    thousands of Palestinians became refugees.

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    A result of the Arab-Israeli War during 1948-1949 was that

    Egypt cut off Israeli access to the Red Sea.

    thousands of Israelis became refugees.

    Israel cut off Egyptian access to the Red Sea.

    thousands of Palestinians became refugees.

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    the creation of Israel, the Balfour Declaration, Jewish emigration to Palestine

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    Which led to increased turmoil between Jews and Arabs? Check all that apply.

    the creation of Israel

    anti-Semitism in Germany

    the Balfour Declaration

    the Camp David Accords

    Jewish emigration to Palestine

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    thousands of Palestinians became refugees.

    A result of the Arab-Israeli War during 1948-1949 was that

    Egypt cut off Israeli access to the Red Sea.

    thousands of Israelis became refugees.

    Israel cut off Egyptian access to the Red Sea.

    thousands of Palestinians became refugees.

    the creation of Israel, the Balfour Declaration, Jewish emigration to Palestine

    Which led to increased turmoil between Jews and Arabs? Check all that apply.

    the creation of Israel

    anti-Semitism in Germany

    the Balfour Declaration

    the Camp David Accords

    Jewish emigration to Palestine

    It increased support greatly.

    How did the Holocaust affect support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine?

    It increased support slightly.

    It decreased support slightly.

    It increased support greatly.

    It decreased support greatly.

    they have a right to independence.

    A subject many nations agree on regarding the Palestinians is that

    they have a right to independence.

    they have a right to Israeli lands.

    they have a right to join the UN.

    they have a right to city of Jerusalem.

    He lessened anti-Israeli violence and persuaded the Israeli government to help his people.

    Which best explains how Yasir Arafat strengthened the case for Palestinian independence?

    He lessened anti-Israeli violence and persuaded the Israeli government to help his people.

    He increased anti-Israeli violence and persuaded the US government to help his people.

    He gained US support and persuaded the US government to help his people.

    He gained European support and persuaded European governments to help his people.

    an intifada

    Which tactic did Palestinians use against Israel in 1987?

    an invasion a guerilla war an intifada a naval blockade

    Both Jews and Arabs considered it to be a holy city.

    Following the birth of Israel, why was it important that Jerusalem was placed under UN supervision?

    Both Jews and Arabs considered it to be independent.

    Both Jews and Arabs considered it to be a holy city.

    Both Jews and Arabs considered it to be a war zone.

    Both Jews and Arabs considered it to be UN property.

    Egypt.

    The US helped to negotiate a peace agreement in 1979 between Israel and

    Syria. Egypt. Jordan. Iraq. join the UN.

    A subject some nations disagree on regarding Palestinians is whether they should

    join the EU. join the UN.

    have a right to independence.

    negotiate with Israel.

    It supported the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    How did the Balfour Declaration contribute to tension between Jews and Arabs?

    It created the state of Israel.

    It supported the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    It created unlimited Zionist movements throughout the Middle East.

    It assimilated Jews into Arab culture.

    the declaration of statehood by Israel in 1948

    Which directly led to the first armed conflict between Arabs and Israelis?

    the creation of Israel by the UN in 1947

    the declaration of statehood by Israel in 1948

    the founding of Zionism by Theodor Herzl in 1897

    the declaration by British Foreign Minister Balfour in 1917

    The division into Jewish and Arab states led Arabs to feel that Jews were taking their land.

    Which best explains how the division of Palestine in 1947 led to conflict between Jews and Arabs?

    The division into Jewish and Arab states led Arabs to feel that Jews hated them.

    The division into Jewish and Arab states led Jews to feel that Arabs were anti-Semitic.

    The division into Jewish and Arab states led Jews to feel that Arabs were taking their land.

    The division into Jewish and Arab states led Arabs to feel that Jews were taking their land.

    They were the first peace agreement for Israel in the Middle East; they showed that Arabs and Israelis could negotiate in good faith; they showed that the US could play an important role in negotiations.

    Which statements best describe the Camp David Accords? Check all that apply.

    They ended all Arab-Israeli conflicts in the Middle East.

    They were the first peace agreement for Israel in the Middle East.

    They showed that the PLO could give up violence for negotiation.

    They showed that Arabs and Israelis could negotiate in good faith.

    They showed that the US could play an important role in negotiations.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Second Intifada

    Second Intifada

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    This article is about the Second Palestinian Intifada. For the Second Sahrawi Intifada, see Second Sahrawi Intifada. For the record album of this name, see Al-Aqsa Intifada (album).

    Second Intifada

    Part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

    Top: suicide bombing in a bus in Tel Aviv

    Bottom: Israeli soldiers in Nablus during Operation Defensive Shield

    Date 28 September 2000 – 8 February 2005

    (4 years, 4 months, 1 week and 4 days)

    Location

    Palestinian Authority, Israel

    Result

    Uprising suppressed[2][3][4][5][6][7]

    Construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier

    Decrease of violence in the West Bank

    Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip

    Belligerents Israel

    Israel Defense Forces

    Shin Bet Israel Police

    Israel Border Police

    Civil Guard Mishmeret Yesha

    Palestinian Authority

    PLO

    Preventive Security Force

    Palestinian National Security Forces

    Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades)

    PFLP DFLP Hamas Islamic Jihad

    Popular Resistance Committees

    Others

    Supported by:

    Iraq[1] (until 2003)

    Commanders and leaders

    Ariel Sharon Avi Dichter Ehud Barak Shaul Mofaz Moshe Ya'alon Dan Halutz Gabi Ashkenazi

    PLO leaders

    Yasser Arafat # Mahmoud Abbas

    Marwan Barghouti (POW)

    Abu Ali Mustafa  Ahmad Sa'adat (POW) Nayef Hawatmeh

    Hamas leaders

    Ahmed Yasin  Abdel Rantissi  Khaled Mashaal Ismail Haniyeh Mohammed Deif

    Other leaders

    Abd Al Aziz Awda Ramadan Shalah

    Jamal Abu Samhadana 

    Casualties and losses

    29 September 2000 – 1 January 2005:

    ~1,010[8][][9] Israelis total:

    - 644–773 Israeli civilians killed by Palestinians;

    - 215–301 Israeli security force personnel killed by Palestinians

    29 September 2000 – 1 January 2005:

    3,179[9][10][11]–3,354[8] Palestinians total:

    - 2,739–3,168 Palestinians killed by Israel's security forces;*

    - 34 Palestinians killed by Israeli civilians;

    - 152–406 Palestinians killed by Palestinians;

    Thousands detained

    55 foreign citizens total:

    - 45 foreign citizens killed by Palestinians;

    - 10 foreign citizens killed by Israeli security forces[8]

    *For the controversial issue of the Palestinian civilian/combatant breakdown, see Casualties.

    show vte Second Intifada

    The Second Intifada (Arabic: الانتفاضة الثانية ; Hebrew: האינתיפאדה השנייה ), also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الأقصى ),[12] was a Palestinian uprising against Israel.[12] The general triggers for the violence were proposed as the failure of the 2000 Camp David Summit to reach final agreement on the Israeli-Palestinian peace process in July 2000.[13] The violence started in September 2000, after Ariel Sharon made a provocative visit to the Temple Mount.[14][13] The visit itself was peaceful, but, as anticipated, it sparked protests and riots which the Israeli police put down with rubber bullets and tear gas.[15]

    High numbers of casualties were caused among civilians as well as combatants. Israel engaged in gunfire, targeted killings, tank and air attacks, while the Palestinians engaged in suicide bombings, rock throwing, gunfire and rocket attacks.[16][17] Palestinian suicide bombings were a prominent feature of the conflict, contrasting with the largely nonviolent First Intifada, and mainly targeted Israeli civilians.[18][19][20][21][22] The death toll, including both combatants and civilians, is estimated to be about 3,000 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis, as well as 64 foreigners.[23]

    Many consider the Sharm el-Sheikh Summit on 8 February 2005 to be the end of the Second Intifada.[24] Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon agreed that all Palestinian factions would stop all acts of violence against all Israelis everywhere, while Israel would cease all its military activity against all Palestinians everywhere.[25][26] They also reaffirmed their commitment to the Roadmap for peace process. Sharon also agreed to release 900 Palestinian prisoners of the 7,500 being held at the time,[27] and to withdraw from West Bank towns that had been reoccupied during the intifada.

    Contents

    1 Etymology 2 Background 2.1 Oslo Accords

    2.2 Camp David Summit

    2.3 Continued settlement

    3 Timeline 3.1 2000

    3.1.1 Sharon visits Temple Mount

    3.1.2 First days of the Intifada

    3.1.3 October 2000 events

    3.1.4 Ramallah lynching and Israeli response

    3.1.5 November and December

    3.2 2001 3.3 2002 3.3.1 Jenin 3.3.2 Bethlehem 3.4 2003 3.5 2004 3.6 2005

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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