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    Innate Immune System

    Explains the body's first line of defense against pathogens, such as the skin and body fluids.

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    Innate Immune System

    Last Modified: Aug 13, 2018

    Lesson Review Asked on Flexi Related Content

    Lesson

    [Figure 1]

    What is your nose good for?

    Your nose does a lot of work for you! Obviously, it helps you breathe and provides your sense of smell. But you might not realize that your nose also helps to fight off disease.

    The Immune System's First Line of Defense

    It is the immune system's job to protect the body. Your body has many ways to protect you from pathogens. Your body’s defenses are like a castle. The outside of a castle was protected by a moat and high walls. Inside the castle, soldiers were ready to fight off any enemies that made it across the moat and over the walls. Like a castle, your body has a series of defenses. Only pathogens that get through all the defenses can harm you.

    The first line of defence includes both physical and chemical barriers that are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection. Pathogens must make it past this first line of defense to cause harm. If this defense is broken, the second line of defense within your body is activated.

    Your body’s first line of defense is like a castle’s moat and walls. It keeps most pathogens out of your body. This is a non-specific type of defense, in that it tries to keep all pathogens out. The first line of defense includes different types of barriers. Being the "first line", it starts with the skin. The first line also includes tears, mucus, cilia, stomach acid, urine flow, and friendly bacteria.

    Skin and Mucous Membranes

    The skin is a very important barrier to pathogens. The skin is the body’s largest organ. In adults, it covers an area of about 16 to 22 square feet! The skin is also the body’s most important defense against disease. It forms a physical barrier between the body and the outside world. The skin has several layers that stack on top of each other (Figure below). The outer layer is tough and waterproof. It is very difficult for pathogens to get through this layer of skin.

    [Figure 2]

    This drawing shows that the skin has many layers. The outer layer is so tough that it keeps out most pathogens.

    The mouth and nose are not lined with skin. Instead, they are lined with mucous membranes. Other organs that are exposed to the outside world, including the lungs and stomach, are also lined with mucous membranes. Mucous membranes are not tough like skin, but they have other defenses.

    One defense of mucous membranes is the mucus they release. Mucus is a sticky, moist substance that covers mucous membranes. Most pathogens get stuck in the mucus before they can do harm to the body. Many mucous membranes also have cilia. Cilia in the lungs are pictured below (Figure below). Cilia are tiny finger-like projections. They move in waves and sweep mucus and trapped pathogens toward body openings. When you clear your throat or blow your nose, you remove mucus and pathogens from your body.

    [Figure 3]

    This is what the cilia lining the lungs look like when they are magnified. Their movements constantly sweep mucus and pathogens out of the lungs. Do they remind you of brushes?

    Chemicals

    Most body fluids that you release from your body contain chemicals that kill pathogens. For example, mucus, sweat, tears, and saliva contain enzymes called lysozymes that kill pathogens. These enzymes can break down the cell walls of bacteria to kill them.

    The stomach also releases a very strong acid, called hydrochloric acid. This acid kills most pathogens that enter the stomach in food or water. Urine is also acidic, so few pathogens can grow in it.

    Helpful Bacteria

    You are not aware of them, but your skin is covered by millions (or more!) of bacteria. Millions more live inside your body. Most of these bacteria help defend your body from pathogens. How do they do it? They compete with harmful bacteria for food and space. This prevents the harmful bacteria from multiplying and making you sick.

    Summary

    Your body’s first line of defense includes the skin and other barriers that keep pathogens out of your body.

    Most body fluids that you release from your body contain chemicals that kill pathogens.

    Explore More

    Use the resource below to answer the questions that follow.

    Introduction To How The Immune System Works at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IWMJIMzsEMg (3:16)

    How do external barriers help our immune system?

    Where is mucus used as a barrier?

    How do some bacteria aid our immune system?

    Review

    How does your skin protect you from pathogens?

    What is mucus? What are mucous membranes?

    Source : flexbooks.ck12.org

    Biology

    Review that helps me study the immune system for biology Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

    Biology- Unit 3

    10 studiers in the last day

    Nonspecific defenses

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    mechanisms that help keep pathogens out of the body

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    Inflammatory response

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    a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection

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    1/83 Created by Julia_Sarasin

    Review that helps me study the immune system for biology

    Terms in this set (83)

    Nonspecific defenses

    mechanisms that help keep pathogens out of the body

    Inflammatory response

    a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection

    Interferon

    special proteins produced by virus-infected cells to help other cells resist viral infection

    Specific defense

    mechanisms that attack the disease causing agent

    Immune response

    defenses that attack the disease causing agent

    Antigen

    a substance that triggers the immune response

    Humoral immunity

    immunity against pathogens in the body fluids (blood and lymph)

    Antibody

    a protein that helps destroy pathogens

    Cell-mediated immunity

    This relies on macrophages and T cells rather than antibodies.

    Permanent immunity

    Once the body has been exposed to a pathogen, millions of memory B and T cells remain capable of producing specific antibodies to that pathogen. This is called this.

    Vaccine

    an injection of a mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity

    Active immunity

    The immunity produced by a vaccine

    Passive immunity

    In this the antibodies are "borrowed" for a period of time

    Histamines

    chemicals that increase the flow of blood and tissues to an area

    Autoimmune disease

    This occurs when the body does not distinguish its own cells from pathogens; therefore the immune system makes a mistake and attacks its own cells.

    Herd immunity

    This exists when a high population of people has developed immunity to a specific infectious agent.

    disease

    a disease is any change disrupts normal functions other than an injury

    immunity

    the ability to withstand harmful infective agents and toxins

    skin

    first line of defense

    pathogens

    Like the fortress walls of the system, the skin keeps everything out and guards against these.

    acidic

    Oil and sweat glands in the skin produce this kind of environment that kills many bacteria.

    bacteria

    Oil and sweat glands in the skin produce an acidic environment that kills many of these

    pathogens

    These can enter through the mouth and nose - mucus traps bacteria and viruses and push them away from lungs.

    bacteria

    Pathogens can enter through the mouth and nose - mucus traps these and viruses and push them away from lungs.

    viruses

    Pathogens can enter through the mouth and nose - mucus traps bacteria and these and push them away from lungs.

    stomach acid

    This and digestive enzymes destroy many bacteria that make it into the stomach.

    bacteria

    Stomach acid and digestive enzymes destroy many of these that make it into the stomach.

    tears

    Body secretions such as these, saliva, mucus, and sweat contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria.

    saliva

    Body secretions such as tears, this, mucus, and sweat contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria.

    mucus

    Body secretions such as tears, saliva, this, and sweat contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria.

    sweat

    Body secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus, and this contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria.

    lysozyme

    Body secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus and sweat contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria.

    bacteria

    Body secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus, and sweat contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria.

    toxins

    If pathogens do manage to enter the body, they may multiply quickly, releasing these into body tissues.

    inflammatory response

    This is a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection.

    nonspecific defense

    The inflammatory response it this type of reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection.

    tissue damage

    The inflammatory response is a nonspecific defense reaction to this.

    dilate

    When the skin is injured, blood vessels near the wound do this (expand) and white blood cells can leak from the vessels to enter the infected tissue.

    Phagocytes

    These (a.k.a.) are special white blood cells that engulf and destroy bacteria.

    phago to eat cytes cells macrophages

    Phagocytes (a.k.a this) are special white blood cells that engulf and destroy bacteria.

    white blood

    Phagocytes (a.k.a macrophages) are these type of special cells that engulf and destroy bacteria.

    swollen

    The infected area may become this and painful.

    macro big phages cells fighting infection

    If a blood test reveals an increased number of white blood cells, this is evidence that the body is doing this.

    growth

    Source : quizlet.com

    The Immune System

    Find and create gamified quizzes, lessons, presentations, and flashcards for students, employees, and everyone else. Get started for free!

    QUIZ

    The Immune System

    The Immune System 35%

    6 7th Biology, Science Elizabeth Jones 1 year

    16 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The first line of defense involves which structure(s)?

    answer choices T-cells skin blood B-cells 2. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    Which of these are included in the immune response? Select 3 correct answers.

    answer choices T-Cells lymphocytes B-cells stem cells oil 3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which substances are contained in saliva and tears to break down pathogens?

    answer choices enzymes acids oils sweat 4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    If a pathogen on food got past saliva, which additional defenses in the first line of defense would the pathogen contact?

    answer choices

    stomach acid and lymphocytes

    lymphocytes and phagocytes

    phagocytes and mucus

    mucus and stomach acid

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which best describes the purpose of a fever?

    answer choices

    to make the body too hot for the bacteria to live

    to make the body too cold for the bacteria to live

    to stimulate lymphocytes to make antibodies

    to stimulate an increased production of sweat

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these engulf bacteria and break them down?

    answer choices lymphocytes phagocytes T-cells B-cells 7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    James was exposed to a pathogen when he was 10 years old and felt ill. What would most likely happen if he were exposed to the same pathogen when he is 12 years old?

    answer choices

    His body would destroy the pathogen before he felt symptoms.

    His reaction to the pathogen would be worse than the first.

    His antibodies would decrease, since he had been exposed already.

    New types of antibodies would be made in response to the second exposure.

    8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which statement describes many of the structures involved in the first line of defense of the immune system?

    answer choices

    They have contact with the external environment.

    They are internal and contact the pathogen through blood.

    They produce B-cells in response to a pathogen.

    They produce T-cells in response to a pathogen.

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When studying the immune system in class, Peta concluded that T-cells are more specific to the pathogen than inflammation is. What did Peta most likely learn that led to this conclusion?

    answer choices

    T-cells are made to identify antibodies, while inflammation starts a fever.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation starts to make antibodies.

    T-cells make antibodies that cause a fever, while inflammation identifies antigens on the pathogens.

    T-cells are made to identify antigens, while inflammation fights anything in the affected area.

    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which statement best describes how a B-cell works?

    answer choices

    It produces antigens, which stimulate a fever.

    It produces antibodies specific to an antigen.

    It produces antigens specific to antibodies.

    It produces antibodies, which stimulate a fever.

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these is a weakened or dead form of a pathogen that causes an immune response?

    answer choices antibody vaccine antigen inflammation 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which would indicate that a vaccine is protecting a person from future disease?

    answer choices

    an increase in antibodies

    the production of a fever

    the production of phagocytes

    an occurrence of inflammation

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When children are young and go to the doctor, the doctor will give them booster shots. This re-exposes the children to a dead portion of a disease to help them build immunity. Which type of immunity is described?

    answer choices active passive antibiotic phagocytic 14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which would most likely cause a person to produce antibodies?

    answer choices

    receiving a vaccination

    experiencing swelling

    spraining a muscle

    experiencing a fever

    15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Akio just got over having the flu. His brother just got the flu. His parents are not worried about Akio getting it again because he built up an immunity to this flu strain.

    Which explains the type of immunity he built up?

    answer choices

    active because he built up antibodies due to exposure to the flu

    active because his parents vaccinated him against the flu

    passive because his mother passed on the flu antibody

    passive because he had antibodies added to his blood

    16. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    __________ is made by the ears to prevent pathogens from entering the body.

    answer choices wax bile mucus pus

    Source : quizizz.com

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