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    Protein Synthesis Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like The diagram shows one step in the process of protein synthesis. The process shown in the diagram is called ., Which process is part of transcription?, Albumin is a protein found in blood that helps to regulate amount of fluids in the body. What is the main function of albumin? and more.

    Protein Synthesis

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    The diagram shows one step in the process of protein synthesis.

    The process shown in the diagram is called .

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    transcription

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    Which process is part of transcription?

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    mRNA is synthesized from a strand of DNA.

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    Terms in this set (10)

    The diagram shows one step in the process of protein synthesis.

    The process shown in the diagram is called .

    transcription

    Which process is part of transcription?

    mRNA is synthesized from a strand of DNA.

    Albumin is a protein found in blood that helps to regulate amount of fluids in the body. What is the main function of albumin?

    to maintain homeostasis

    What is the function of tRNA?

    to bring amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins

    Lipase is a protein that helps the body break down fats in foods. Lipase is best classified as which type of protein?

    an enzyme

    Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options.

    They protect the body from infectious agents.

    They signal the immune system to destroy pathogens.

    Geoffrey made a mistake in listing the main steps of translation in order as elongation, initiation, and termination. Which statement describes his error?

    Initiation occurs before elongation.

    During which process is mRNA converted into a sequence of amino acids for protein production?

    translation

    Which statement best summarizes what happens during transcription?

    A DNA template is used to create an mRNA strand.

    What is created between 2 amino acids during translation?

    peptide bond

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    Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options. They maintain the cell’s shape. They regulate cell

    Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options.

    Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options. They maintain the cell’s shape. They regulate cell

    Home/ English/Biology/Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options. They maintain the cell’s shape. They regulate cell

    Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options. They maintain the cell’s shape. They regulate cell

    Question

    Which statements describe functions of antibodies? Select two options.

    They maintain the cell’s shape.

    They regulate cell processes.

    They protect the body from infectious agents.

    They signal the immune system to destroy pathogens.

    They speed up biochemical reactions.

    They send electrical signals.

    (Select all that Apply)

    in progress 0 Biology Kim Chi 6 months 1 Answers 53 views 0 Share

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    hongcuc2 0

    July 24, 2021 at 10:45 pm

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    Answer:

    They protect the body from infectious agents.

    And

    They signal the immune system to destroy pathogens.

    Explanation:I HOPE THIS HELPS

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    Source : documen.tv

    B Cells and Antibodies

    Vertebrates inevitably die of infection if they are unable to make antibodies. Antibodies defend us against infection by binding to viruses and microbial toxins, thereby inactivating them (see Figure 24-2). The binding of antibodies to invading pathogens also recruits various types of white blood cells and a system of blood proteins, collectively called complement (discussed in Chapter 25). The white blood cells and activated complement components work together to attack the invaders.

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    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.

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    B Cells and Antibodies

    Vertebrates inevitably die of infection if they are unable to make antibodies. Antibodies defend us against infection by binding to viruses and microbial toxins, thereby inactivating them (see Figure 24-2). The binding of antibodies to invading pathogens also recruits various types of white blood cells and a system of blood proteins, collectively called (discussed in Chapter 25). The white blood cells and activated complement components work together to attack the invaders.

    Synthesized exclusively by B cells, antibodies are produced in billions of forms, each with a different amino acid sequence and a different antigen-binding site. Collectively called immunoglobulins (abbreviated as Ig), they are among the most abundant protein components in the blood, constituting about 20% of the total protein in plasma by weight. Mammals make five classes of antibodies, each of which mediates a characteristic biological response following antigen binding. In this section, we discuss the structure and function of antibodies and how they interact with antigen.

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    B Cells Make Antibodies as Both Cell-Surface Receptors and Secreted Molecules

    As predicted by the clonal selection theory, all antibody molecules made by an individual B cell have the same antigen-binding site. The first antibodies made by a newly formed B cell are not secreted. Instead, they are inserted into the plasma membrane, where they serve as receptors for antigen. Each B cell has approximately 105 such receptors in its plasma membrane. As we discuss later, each of these receptors is stably associated with a complex of transmembrane proteins that activate intracellular signaling pathways when antigen binds to the receptor.

    Each B cell produces a single species of antibody, each with a unique antigen-binding site. When a naïve or memory B cell is activated by antigen (with the aid of a helper T cell), it proliferates and differentiates into an antibody-secreting effector cell. Such cells make and secrete large amounts of soluble (rather than membrane-bound) antibody, which has the same unique antigen-binding site as the cell-surface antibody that served earlier as the antigen receptor (Figure 24-17). Effector B cells can begin secreting antibody while they are still small lymphocytes, but the end stage of their maturation pathway is a large (see Figure 24-7B), which continuously secretes antibodies at the astonishing rate of about 2000 molecules per second. Plasma cells seem to have committed so much of their protein-synthesizing machinery to making antibody that they are incapable of further growth and division. Although many die after several days, some survive in the bone marrow for months or years and continue to secrete antibodies into the blood.

    Figure 24-17

    B cell activation. When naïve or memory B cells are activated by antigen (and helper T cells—not shown), they proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. The effector cells produce and secrete antibodies with a unique antigen-binding (more...)

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    A Typical Antibody Has Two Identical Antigen-Binding Sites

    The simplest antibodies are Y-shaped molecules with two identical antigen-binding sites, one at the tip of each arm of the Y (Figure 24-18). Because of their two antigen-binding sites, they are described as . As long as an antigen has three or more antigenic determinants, bivalent antibody molecules can cross-link it into a large lattice (Figure 24-19). This lattice can be rapidly phagocytosed and degraded by macrophages. The efficiency of antigen binding and cross-linking is greatly increased by a flexible in most antibodies, which allows the distance between the two antigen-binding sites to vary (Figure 24-20).

    Figure 24-18

    A simple representation of an antibody molecule. Note that its two antigen-binding sites are identical.

    Figure 24-19

    Antibody-antigen interactions. Because antibodies have two identical antigen-binding sites, they can cross-link antigens. The types of antibody-antigen complexes that form depend on the number of antigenic determinants on the antigen. Here a single species (more...)

    Figure 24-20

    The hinge region of an antibody molecule. Because of its flexibility, the hinge region improves the efficiency of antigen binding and cross-linking.

    The protective effect of antibodies is not due simply to their ability to bind antigen. They engage in a variety of activities that are mediated by the tail of the Y-shaped molecule. As we discuss later, antibodies with the same antigen-binding sites can have any one of several different tail regions. Each type of tail region gives the antibody different functional properties, such as the ability to activate the complement system, to bind to phagocytic cells, or to cross the placenta from mother to fetus.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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