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    Chapter 10 Ancient China

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    Chapter 10 Ancient China

    Chapter 10 Ancient China 43%

    113 6th 6th History Caryl Osteen 2 years

    10 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 2 minutes


    Which natural barrier to the north helped keep China isolated from other civilizations?

    answer choices Bay of Bengal the Gobi Plateau of Tibet Kunlun Shan 2. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Which statement is true of the role of men and women in ancient China?

    answer choices

    Men were expected to obey their parents, and women were expected to manage the family's money.

    Women were expected to get a limited education, and men were expected to work in the government

    Women's work was considered as important as men's because women cared for the home and family.

    Men were respected for the work they did because they were in charge of the family's finances.

    3. Multiple-choice 2 minutes


    Which geographical features explain the fact that China's cultural influence was greater in areas to its east?

    answer choices

    the Chang Jiang and the Huang He

    the Himalaya and the Bay of Bengal

    the Gobi and the yellow sea

    the Yellow River and the Korean Peninsula

    4. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    How was using the Mandate of Heaven as a basis for political power dangerous to Zhou rulers?

    answer choices

    It replaced a system based on merit with a system based on heredity, which meant the Zhou would not continue to rule.

    It required Zhou kings to perform religious ceremonies to please the gods, which did not guarantee they would keep the mandate.

    The people of China did not believe in the mandate, so it was a weak claim that led to civil war when farmers revolted.

    Zhou rulers easily could be blamed for events beyond their control, such as famine or flooding, and were replaced.

    5. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Based on the map, why might a trader traveling from Antioch to Changan prefer taking the Silk Road to other land routes?

    answer choices

    The Silk Road was less dangerous.

    Other land routes avoided the Himalaya.

    The Silk Road was a shorter route.

    The climate along the Silk Road was more mild.

    6. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Which product's value in Europe was a result of scarcity?

    answer choices

    large clay soldiers on horses

    iron weapons bronze chariots silk from silkworms 7. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Which important achievement of the dynasty being described is missing from the diagram?

    answer choices bronze urns

    first common currency

    new irrigation systems

    paper for written records

    8. Multiple-choice 3 minutes Q.

    Based on the excerpt, which statement summarizes Confucius's worldview?

    answer choices

    Order and harmony can be achieved through discipline.

    The home is the most important part of Chinese life.

    World peace begins with the individual person.

    A strong leader does not have to fight with other nations.

    9. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Which fact illustrates China's geographical isolation?

    answer choices

    Silk manufacture originated in China.

    Buddhism spread through Chin after the fall of the Han.

    The ancient Chinese referred to their land as the "Middle Kingdom".

    Qin Shihuangdi built the Great Wall.

    10. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    In what way was the Shang dynasty in China similar to Ancient Egypt?

    answer choices

    Both developed writing using pictures to represent objects.

    Both preserved dead bodies to prepare them for the afterlife.

    Both civilizations ended due to environmental problems.

    Both engaged in wars with other civilizations to expand territoy.

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    Women in Ancient China

    Women in ancient China did not enjoy the status, either social or political, afforded to men. Women were subordinate to first their fathers, then their husbands...

    Women in Ancient China

    Women in Ancient China Article

    by Mark Cartwright

    published on 19 October 2017

    Listen to this article

    Available in other languages: Arabic, Turkish, Indonesian, Spanish

    Women in ancient China did not enjoy the status, either social or political, afforded to men. Women were subordinate to first their fathers, then their husbands, and finally, in the case of being left a widow, their sons in a system known as the “three followings” or sancong. Often physically ill-treated, socially segregated, and forced to compete for their husband's affections with concubines, a woman's place was an unenviable one. Still, despite the harsh realities of living in a male-dominated society and being forever under the weight of philosophical and religious norms which were created by men to work for men, some women did break through these barriers. The practical realities of daily life meant many women could and did circumvent conventions, and some rose to live extraordinary lives producing great literature, scholarship, and even ruling the Chinese empire itself.

    Theories on Women

    At least in theoretical terms, women's contribution, indeed necessity, to society was recognised in the principle of yin and yang. Even here, though, the male (yang) with its associated qualities is the predominant and has associations subtly considered the superior to the female (ying): hard versus soft, forceful v. submissive, level v. curved, light v. dark, rich v. poor, and so on.



    Han Woman, Dahuting Tomb

    Unknown Artist (Public Domain)

    In China everyone knew it was better to be born a male, and even female characters in traditional literature sometimes stated that they had been a man in a previous life but had reappeared as a woman in this one as a punishment for past deeds. Another common introduction to a female character in such stories was the line “unfortunately she was born a woman”. A male child would grow up to contribute financially to the family, perform rituals such as those in ancestor worship, and perpetuate the family name. In contrast, a woman could not earn money and one day would leave the family and join her husband's. Consequently, many baby girls were abandoned shortly after birth. Those girls who did survive were given such names as Chastity, Pearl, Thrift, or the names of flowers and birds in the hope that the girl would live up to that name and receive attractive offers of marriage.

    Bitter it is to have a woman's shape!

    It would be hard to name a thing more base.



    If it's a son born to the hearth and home

    He comes to earth as if he's heaven sent,

    Heroic heart and will, like the Four Seas,

    To face ten thousand leagues of wind and dust!

    To breed a girl is something no one wants,

    She's not a treasure to her family.

    (3rd century CE poem by Fu Hsuan, in Dawson, 272)

    Women were expected to excel in four areas: fidelity, cautious speech, industriousness, and graceful manners. A woman's virtue was a particularly valued attribute in Chinese society. Women deemed especially virtuous such as chaste widows were sometimes given the honour of a shrine, monument, or commemorative tablet after death or had their names published in honorific obituaries. This practice was especially popular following the work of the Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi in the 12th century CE.

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    Marriages in ancient China were usually arranged by both sets of parents. Not love but economic and social considerations were upmost in everybody's minds. There were even professional matchmakers to find suitable pairings who also considered astrology in guiding their selections. Neither did some parents wait until their children were of age as many marriages had been arranged when the couple were still young children or even babies. The typical marrying age was the early twenties for men and late teens for women, although child brides were not unknown despite the practice being forbidden by law. If a marriage had been arranged but the groom died close to the ceremony, the wedding might go ahead anyway and the bride joined her new family as a widow.

    Chinese Female Figurine

    Liana Miate (CC BY-NC-SA)

    The bride went to live with the groom in his house or that of his parents, keeping her family surname. Her transferal of abode became a great procession when she was carried on a red bridal chair and her feet never touched the ground between the homes in order to ward off evil spirits. On arrival she met her husband, often it was the couple's first meeting. A marriage feast was held and the ancestral tablets were “informed” of the new arrival. The historian R. Dawson continues the story:



    The marriage was not registered with the civil authority, nor did the bride's family take any part in the ceremony or jollification, although the couple did go a few days later to pay a formal visit to the bride's home. The rites of marriage symbolised the fact that the bride's body, fertility, domestic service, and loyalty had been handed over by one family to another. They also provided an opportunity for the groom's family to display its affluence and glory in its prestige in the community. The splendour of these occasions was a severe burden on a family's resources…An additional expense was the gifts to the bride's family, the betrothal presents, which were a thinly disguised price for the person of the daughter-in-law and a clear indication of her total subservience to her new family. (143)

    Source : www.worldhistory.org

    Women and families in classical society (article)

    Women and families

    Women and families in classical society

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    As a general rule, women had less power than men in both Han China and Imperial Rome. Social and political structures were male dominated.

    Many women did not follow strict laws designed to govern their behavior; their lives were instead dictated by religious philosophies, political contexts, and socio-economic status.

    During the classical period, between 600 BCE to 600 CE, many influential belief systems developed and evolved into more complex institutions, which are established laws, practices, or customs. These institutions affected social structures like family and marriage, which had a large impact on the lives of women and children.

    During this period, women had comparatively less power than their male counterparts, but they still lived very diverse lives. Based on information gleaned from primary and secondary sources, we know that women exercised varying degrees of freedom and independence in the private and public world due to different belief systems, family relations, political contexts, and social classes.

    Belief systems

    Belief systems, philosophies, and religions may seem to exist simply in the world of ideas, but they have considerable effects on people’s daily lives. Over time, concepts become parts of institutions that include rules and expectations for how people relate to one another—particularly the way women live in relation to their male counterparts and to society in general.

    For example, women in China experienced very different social roles under Confucianism and Daoism. Based on its written rules, Daoism gave more leeway for women to play active roles in religion and to make decisions about their lives. The written rules of Confucianism limited women’s power more severely, but it is unclear whether women actually abided by these rules in all cases. As with any religious or moral system, there is a difference between rules and how they are actually practiced.

    A portrait of the Chinese scholar Ban Zhao.

    The Chinese scholar Ban Zhao. Image credit: Wikimedia

    Table comparing views on women and philosophies in Confucianism and Daoism in Han China.

    For Confucianism in Han China's views on women: - Filial piety required that people respect their elders and ancestors, especially male ones. - The ideal role for a woman was to take care of a large household. - Women typically didn't have formal roles in Confucian life outside the home.

    For Daoism's views on women: - Women were allowed to be priests and teachers in the Daoist tradition. - In the classical Daoist text, the Daodejing, feminine characteristics such as fertility, softness, and submission are seen as positive and respected features.

    For Confucian philosophy: - Both Confucianism and Daoism have the concept of Yin and Yang, or duality. - Women are seen as part of the Yin: yielding, submissive, soft, etc. - Men are seen as part of the Yang: aggressive, powerful, etc.

    For Daoist philosophy: - In Daoism, the female contribution as the Yin is more respected than it is in Confucianism; it is seen as part of nature. - Daoism suggests that a softer, more yielding attitude may eventually lead to more favorable results.

    Broadly speaking, what did Daoism offer to women that Confucianism did not?What are some possible differences between the way women were supposed to behave in Confucian rules vs. how they actually behaved?

    Family and marriage

    In many societies, women’s primary roles revolved around motherhood and managing a household. While women in many different places and at different times had this in common, there were significant differences in how women performed these roles depending on kinship relations. Kinship is a broad concept which encompasses familial relationships, like those of common descent, blood relation, and marriage.

    We can compare different kinship relations within one society. In Han China, a woman’s power in a particular household depended on how she related to the men in the family. This is exemplified in the Confucian principle of the three obediences. According to this principle, a woman’s first obedience is to her father before she is married, to her husband while she is married, and to her son after her husband dies. During the course of their lives, women were dependent on their male kin, but they had different levels of power depending on their age and influence over male family members. Mothers of influential older sons, for example, exercised far greater control over household affairs than a younger son’s new bride.

    In this way, the Han dynasty understood the family as the core unit. Men were formally the heads of the family unit and exercised legal power over the women and children in the household. Imperial Rome was similar in that the pater familias—Latin for “the father of the family”—was legally responsible for the family unit.

    Interestingly, in both societies, women exercised some legal power. For example, Roman women could own property and inherit after the deaths of their fathers. In Han China, the wills of women reveal that some older women held property, inherited assets, and managed businesses. Similarly, despite strict laws, both elite and ordinary women in Imperial Rome regularly bought and sold property with apparently very little constraint on their freedom. This suggests that formal roles for women were not always followed, and that women wielded informal power.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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