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    which statement describes mendel’s hypotheses regarding gametes? a gamete carries two genes for a trait. a gamete carries one allele for a gene. a gamete can carry multiple alleles for a trait. some gametes are dominant and some are recessive.

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    Introduction of Genetics Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Which statement describes Mendel's hypotheses regarding gametes?, What controls traits and inheritance?, Scientists often use fruit flies as a method to test hypotheses about human genes. Why are fruit flies advantageous in the study of human inheritance? and more.

    Introduction of Genetics

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    Which statement describes Mendel's hypotheses regarding gametes?

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    A gamete carries one allele for a gene.

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    What controls traits and inheritance?

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    nucleic acids

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    1/19 Created by ray_elsey

    Terms in this set (19)

    Which statement describes Mendel's hypotheses regarding gametes?

    A gamete carries one allele for a gene.

    What controls traits and inheritance?

    nucleic acids

    Scientists often use fruit flies as a method to test hypotheses about human genes. Why are fruit flies advantageous in the study of human inheritance?

    They reproduce quickly and take up little space.

    The flowchart below shows the three generations of a cross between a pea plant that has yellow pods and a pea plant that has green pods. Yellow pods are the dominant trait. The flowchart is missing the labels that describe the traits.

    http://media.education2020.com/evresources/3209-06-01/mc006-1.jpg

    A, C, and D

    Gregor Mendel's research formed the basis of the field of

    genetics.

    What number should replace the letter x in the "Seed color" row?

    2,001

    Nucleic acids offer variability because they contain alternate forms of genes called

    alleles

    A scientist wants to examine a genetic disease in humans. The scientist hypothesizes that the disease can be treated by using gene therapy. Humans take a long time to reproduce and develop, so the scientist will have to

    develop new methods to test the hypothesis.

    Which is the best example of a hypothesis leading to new experimental methods?

    Thomas Hunt Morgan continued the genetic research of Gregor Mendel, but Morgan used fruit flies.

    During an experiment, a scientist crosses a pea plant that has purple flowers with a pea plant that has white flowers. The plants that result from this cross in the F1 generation have both purple and white flowers. What can the scientist conclude?

    The plants in the P generation were not true-breeding.

    Vocabulary ... Allele

    the gene form for each variation of a trait

    Dominant

    a word describing a visible trait of an organism that masks a recessive trait

    F1 generation

    the offspring of the P generation in Mendel's experiments

    F2 generation

    the offspring of the F1 generation in Mendel's experiments

    Genetics

    the study of heredity in organisms

    Heredity

    the process of passing traits from parents to offspring

    P generation

    the parental generation in Mendel's experiments

    Recessive

    a word describing a hidden trait of an organism that is masked by a dominant trait

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    Mendelian Genetics

    Mendel's First Law of Genetics (Law of Segregation)

    Genetic analysis predates Gregor Mendel, but Mendel's laws form the theoretical basis of our understanding of the genetics of inheritance.

    Mendel made two innovations to the science of genetics:

    developed pure lines

    counted his results and kept statistical notes

    Pure Line - a population that breeds true for a particular trait [this was an important innovation because any non-pure (segregating) generation would and did confuse the results of genetic experiments]Results from Mendel's ExperimentsParental Cross F1 Phenotype F2 Phenotypic Ratio F2 Ratio

    Round x Wrinkled Seed Round 5474 Round:1850 Wrinkled 2.96:1

    Yellow x Green Seeds Yellow 6022 Yellow:2001 Green 3.01:1

    Red x White Flowers Red 705 Red:224 White 3.15:1

    Tall x Dwarf Plants Tall l787 Tall:227 Dwarf 2.84:1

    Terms and Results Found in the TablePhenotype - literally means "the form that is shown"; it is the outward, physical appearance of a particular trait

    Mendel's pea plants exhibited the following phenotypes:

    - round or wrinkled seed phenotype

    - yellow or green seed phenotype

    - red or white flower phenotype

    - tall or dwarf plant phenotype

    Seed Color: Green and yellow seeds.

    Seed Shape: Wrinkled and Round seeds.

    What is seen in the F1 generation? We always see only one of the two parental phenotypes in this generation. But the F1 possesses the information needed to produce both parental phenotypes in the following generation. The F2 generation always produced a 3:1 ratio where the dominant trait is present three times as often as the recessive trait. Mendel coined two terms to describe the relationship of the two phenotypes based on the F1 and F2 phenotypes.

    Dominant - the allele that expresses itself at the expense of an alternate allele; the phenotype that is expressed in the F1 generation from the cross of two pure linesRecessive - an allele whose expression is suppressed in the presence of a dominant allele; the phenotype that disappears in the F1 generation from the cross of two pure lines and reappears in the F2 generationMendel's Conclusions

    The hereditary determinants are of a particulate nature. These determinants are called genes.

    Each parent has a gene pair in each cell for each trait studied. The F1 from a cross of two pure lines contains one allele for the dominant phenotype and one for the recessive phenotype. These two alleles comprise the gene pair.

    One member of the gene pair segregates into a gamete, thus each gamete only carries one member of the gene pair.

    Gametes unite at random and irrespective of the other gene pairs involved.

    Mendelian Genetics DefinitionsAllele - one alternative form of a given allelic pair; tall and dwarf are the alleles for the height of a pea plant; more than two alleles can exist for any specific gene, but only two of them will be found within any individualAllelic pair - the combination of two alleles which comprise the gene pairHomozygote - an individual which contains only one allele at the allelic pair; for example DD is homozygous dominant and dd is homozygous recessive; pure lines are homozygous for the gene of interestHeterozygote - an individual which contains one of each member of the gene pair; for example the Dd heterozygoteGenotype - the specific allelic combination for a certain gene or set of genes

    Using symbols we can depict the cross of tall and short pea plants in the following manner:

    The F2 generation was created by selfing the F1 plants. This can be depicted graphically in a Punnett square. From these results Mendel coined several other terms and formulated his first law. First the Punnett Square is shown.

    Union of Gametes

    At Random Punnett

    Square (Tall) (Tall) (Tall) (Short)

    The Punnett Square allows us to determine specific genetic ratios.

    Genotypic ratio of F2: 1 DD : 2 Dd : 1 dd (or 3 D_ : 1 dd)

    Phenotypic ratio of F2: 3 tall : 1 dwarf

    Mendel's First Law - the law of segregation; during gamete formation each member of the allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic constitution of the gameteConfirmation of Mendel's First Law Hypothesis

    With these observations, Mendel could form a hypothesis about segregation. To test this hypothesis, Mendel selfed the F2 plants. If his law was correct he could predict what the results would be. And indeed, the results occurred has he expected.

    From these results we can now confirm the genotype of the F2 individuals.

    Phenotypes Genotypes Genetic Description

    F2 Tall Plants 1/3

    2/3 Pure line homozygote dominant

    Heterozygotes

    F2 Dwarf Plants all Pure line homozygote recessive

    Source : www.ndsu.edu

    Mendel's law of segregation

    Mendel's law of segregation. Genotype, phenotype, and alleles. Heterozygous/homozygous. 2 x 2 Punnett squares.

    Mendelian genetics

    The law of segregation

    Mendel's law of segregation. Genotype, phenotype, and alleles. Heterozygous/homozygous. 2 x 2 Punnett squares.

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    Key points:

    Gregor Mendel studied inheritance of traits in pea plants. He proposed a model where pairs of "heritable elements," or genes, specified traits.

    Genes come in different versions, or alleles. A dominant allele hides a recessive allele and determines the organism's appearance.

    When an organism makes gametes, each gamete receives just one gene copy, which is selected randomly. This is known as the law of segregation.

    A Punnett square can be used to predict genotypes (allele combinations) and phenotypes (observable traits) of offspring from genetic crosses.

    A test cross can be used to determine whether an organism with a dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous.

    Introduction

    Today, we know that many of people's characteristics, from hair color to height to risk of diabetes, are influenced by genes. We also know that genes are the way parents pass characteristics on to their children (including things like dimples, or—in the case of me and my father—a terrible singing voice). In the last hundred years, we've come to understand that genes are actually pieces of DNA that are found on chromosomes and specify proteins.

    But did we always know those things? Not by a long shot! About

    150 150 150

    years ago, a monk named Gregor Mendel published a paper that first proposed the existence of genes and presented a model for how they were inherited. Mendel's work was the first step on a long road, involving many hard-working scientists, that's led to our present understanding of genes and what they do.

    In this article, we’ll trace the experiments and reasoning that led Mendel to formulate his model for the inheritance of single genes.

    Mendel's model: It started with a

    3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1 ratio

    Mendel studied the genetics of pea plants, and he traced the inheritance of a variety of characteristics, including flower color, flower position, seed color, and seed shape. To do so, he started by crossing pure-breeding parent plants with different forms of a characteristic, such as violet and white flowers. Pure-breeding just means that the plant will always make more offspring like itself, when self-fertilized over many generations. [What is self-fertilization?]

    What results did Mendel find in his crosses for flower color? In the parental, or

    \text P P

    start text, P, end text

    generation, Mendel crossed a pure-breeding violet-flowered plant to a pure-breeding white-flowered plant. When he gathered and planted the seeds produced in this cross, Mendel found that

    100 100 100

    percent of the plants in the next generation, or

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    generation, had violet flowers.

    Conventional wisdom at that time would have predicted that the hybrid flowers should be pale violet—that is, that the parents' traits should blend in the offspring. Instead, Mendel’s results showed that the white flower trait had completely disappeared. He called the trait that was visible in the

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    generation (violet flowers) the dominant trait, and the trait that was hidden or lost (white flowers) the recessive trait.

    The diagram shows a cross between pea plants that are true-breeding for purple flower color and plants that are true-breeding for white flower color. This cross-fertilization of the P generation resulted in an F{1} generation with all violet flowers. Self-fertilization of the F{1} generation resulted in an F_{2} generation that consisted of 705 plants with violet flowers, and 224 plants with white flowers.

    Image credit: "Mendel's experiments: Figure 2," by Robert Bear et al., OpenStax, CC BY 4.0

    Importantly, Mendel did not stop his experimentation there. Instead, he let the

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    plants self-fertilize. Among their offspring, called the

    \text F_2 F 2 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    generation, he found that

    705 705 705

    plants had violet flowers and

    224 224 224

    had white flowers. This was a ratio of

    3.15 3.15 3, point, 15

    violet flowers to one white flower, or approximately

    3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1 . This 3:1 3:1 3, colon, 1

    ratio was no fluke. For the other six characteristics that Mendel examined, both the

    \text F_1 F 1 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 1, end subscript

    and \text F_2 F 2 ​

    start text, F, end text, start subscript, 2, end subscript

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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