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    which statement best summarizes what happens during transcription?

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    Which statement best summarizes what happens during transcription

    which statement best summarizes what happens during transcription || The right answer is A DNA template is used to create an mRNA strand.In molecular biology, transcription is a mechanism for

    Which statement best summarizes what happens during transcription

    ASKED BY WIKI @ 16/06/2021 IN BIOLOGY VIEWED BY 109 PEOPLE

    Which statement best summarizes what happens during transcription?

    A DNA template is used to create an mRNA strand.

    An mRNA template is used to create a DNA strand.

    A DNA template is used to create a ribosome.

    An mRNA template is used to create a tRNA strand.

    ANSWERED BY WIKI @ 16/06/2021

    The right answer is A DNA template is used to create an mRNA strand.

    In molecular biology, transcription is a mechanism for "copying" gene data, which allows their use to create biological material by assembling amino acids into proteins according to the genetic code.

    It takes place in the nucleus of cells (in eukaryotes) and consists in copying so-called coding regions of DNA to transcribe them into RNA molecules. Indeed, if the DNA molecule is the universal carrier of genetic information, it is the messenger RNA molecules that are recognized by the protein sequence translation machinery. Through messenger RNA, the cell will be able to express the genetic information contained in its genes and to make the necessary proteins for its functioning.

    The enzyme that catalyzes this transcription reaction is called RNA polymerase.

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    From DNA to RNA

    Transcription and translation are the means by which cells read out, or express, the genetic instructions in their genes. Because many identical RNA copies can be made from the same gene, and each RNA molecule can direct the synthesis of many identical protein molecules, cells can synthesize a large amount of protein rapidly when necessary. But each gene can also be transcribed and translated with a different efficiency, allowing the cell to make vast quantities of some proteins and tiny quantities of others (Figure 6-3). Moreover, as we see in the next chapter, a cell can change (or regulate) the expression of each of its genes according to the needs of the moment—most obviously by controlling the production of its RNA.Figure 6-3Genes can be expressed with different efficienciesGene A is transcribed and translated much more efficiently than gene B. This allows the amount of protein A in the cell to be much greater than that of protein B.

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    From DNA to RNA

    Transcription and translation are the means by which cells read out, or express, the genetic instructions in their genes. Because many identical RNA copies can be made from the same gene, and each RNA molecule can direct the synthesis of many identical protein molecules, cells can synthesize a large amount of protein rapidly when necessary. But each gene can also be transcribed and translated with a different efficiency, allowing the cell to make vast quantities of some proteins and tiny quantities of others (Figure 6-3). Moreover, as we see in the next chapter, a cell can change (or regulate) the expression of each of its genes according to the needs of the moment—most obviously by controlling the production of its RNA.

    Figure 6-3

    Genes can be expressed with different efficiencies. Gene A is transcribed and translated much more efficiently than gene B. This allows the amount of protein A in the cell to be much greater than that of protein B.

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    Portions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed into RNA

    The first step a cell takes in reading out a needed part of its genetic instructions is to copy a particular portion of its DNA nucleotide sequence—a gene—into an RNA nucleotide sequence. The information in RNA, although copied into another chemical form, is still written in essentially the same language as it is in DNA—the language of a nucleotide sequence. Hence the name transcription.

    Like DNA, RNA is a linear polymer made of four different types of nucleotide subunits linked together by phosphodiester bonds (Figure 6-4). It differs from DNA chemically in two respects: (1) the nucleotides in RNA are —that is, they contain the sugar ribose (hence the name nucleic acid) rather than deoxyribose; (2) although, like DNA, RNA contains the bases adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C), it contains the base uracil (U) instead of the thymine (T) in DNA. Since U, like T, can base-pair by hydrogen-bonding with A (Figure 6-5), the complementary base-pairing properties described for DNA in Chapters 4 and 5 apply also to RNA (in RNA, G pairs with C, and A pairs with U). It is not uncommon, however, to find other types of base pairs in RNA: for example, G pairing with U occasionally.

    Figure 6-4

    The chemical structure of RNA. (A) RNA contains the sugar ribose, which differs from deoxyribose, the sugar used in DNA, by the presence of an additional -OH group. (B) RNA contains the base uracil, which differs from thymine, the equivalent base in DNA, (more...)

    Figure 6-5

    Uracil forms base pairs with adenine. The absence of a methyl group in U has no effect on base-pairing; thus, U-A base pairs closely resemble T-A base pairs (see Figure 4-4).

    Despite these small chemical differences, DNA and RNA differ quite dramatically in overall structure. Whereas DNA always occurs in cells as a double-stranded helix, RNA is single-stranded. RNA chains therefore fold up into a variety of shapes, just as a polypeptide chain folds up to form the final shape of a protein (Figure 6-6). As we see later in this chapter, the ability to fold into complex three-dimensional shapes allows some RNA molecules to have structural and catalytic functions.

    Figure 6-6

    RNA can fold into specific structures. RNA is largely single-stranded, but it often contains short stretches of nucleotides that can form conventional base-pairs with complementary sequences found elsewhere on the same molecule. These interactions, along (more...)

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    Transcription Produces RNA Complementary to One Strand of DNA

    All of the RNA in a cell is made by DNA transcription, a process that has certain similarities to the process of DNA replication discussed in Chapter 5. Transcription begins with the opening and unwinding of a small portion of the DNA double helix to expose the bases on each DNA strand. One of the two strands of the DNA double helix then acts as a template for the synthesis of an RNA molecule. As in DNA replication, the nucleotide sequence of the RNA chain is determined by the complementary base-pairing between incoming nucleotides and the DNA template. When a good match is made, the incoming ribonucleotide is covalently linked to the growing RNA chain in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction. The RNA chain produced by transcription—the —is therefore elongated one nucleotide at a time, and it has a nucleotide sequence that is exactly complementary to the strand of DNA used as the template (Figure 6-7).

    Figure 6-7

    DNA transcription produces a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to one strand of DNA.

    Transcription, however, differs from DNA replication in several crucial ways. Unlike a newly formed DNA strand, the RNA strand does not remain hydrogen-bonded to the DNA template strand. Instead, just behind the region where the ribonucleotides are being added, the RNA chain is displaced and the DNA helix re-forms. Thus, the RNA molecules produced by transcription are released from the DNA template as single strands. In addition, because they are copied from only a limited region of the DNA, RNA molecules are much shorter than DNA molecules. A DNA molecule in a human chromosome can be up to 250 million nucleotide-pairs long; in contrast, most RNAs are no more than a few thousand nucleotides long, and many are considerably shorter.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    6.4: Protein Synthesis

    Your DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains the genes that determine who you are. How can this organic molecule control your characteristics? DNA contains instructions for all the proteins your body …

    6.4: Protein Synthesis

    Last updated May 7, 2022

    6.3: Chromosomes and Genes

    6.5: Genetic Code

    Suzanne Wakim & Mandeep Grewal

    Butte College

    The Central Dogma of Biology

    Your DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains the genes that determine who you are. How can this organic molecule control your characteristics? DNA contains instructions for all the proteins your body makes. Proteins, in turn, determine the structure and function of all your cells. What determines a protein’s structure? It begins with the sequence of amino acids that make up the protein. Instructions for making proteins with the correct sequence of amino acids are encoded in DNA.

    Figure 6.4.1 6.4.1

    : Transcription and translation (Protein synthesis) in a cell.

    DNA is found in chromosomes. In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes always remain in the nucleus, but proteins are made at ribosomes in the cytoplasm or on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). How do the instructions in DNA get to the site of protein synthesis outside the nucleus? Another type of nucleic acid is responsible. This nucleic acid is RNA or ribonucleic acid. RNA is a small molecule that can squeeze through pores in the nuclear membrane. It carries the information from DNA in the nucleus to a ribosome in the cytoplasm and then helps assemble the protein. In short:

    DNA → RNA → Protein

    Discovering this sequence of events was a major milestone in molecular biology. It is called the central dogma of biology. The two processes involved in the central dogma are transcription and translation.

    Figure 6.4.2 6.4.2

    : An overview of transcription and translation. The top panel shows a gene. A gene is composed of the open reading frame (aka coding sequence) that is flanked by regulatory sequences. At the beginning of the gene, the regulatory sequence contains a promoter where RNA polymerase attaches and starts transcription. At the end of the open reading frame, the regulatory sequence contains a terminator (not shown.)The middle panel shows a pre mRNA which is modified by excising introns and keeping exons. This is called post transcription modification. A mature mRNA contains a 5' cap and poly-A tail. The bottom panel shows a synthesis of protein via translation.

    Transcription

    Transcription is the first part of the central dogma of molecular biology: DNA → RNA. It is the transfer of genetic instructions in DNA to mRNA. Transcription happens in the nucleus of the cell. During transcription, a strand of mRNA is made that is complementary to a strand of DNA called a gene. A gene can easily be identified from the DNA sequence. A gene contains the basic three regions, promoter, coding sequence (reading frame), and terminator. There are more parts of a gene which are illustrated in Figure

    6.4.3 6.4.3 .

    Figure 6.4.3 6.4.3

    : The major components of a gene. 1. promoter, 2. transcription initiation, 3. 5' upstream untranslated region, 4. translation start codon site, 5. protein-coding sequence, 6. translation stop codon region, 7. 3' downstream untranslated region, and 8. terminator.

    Steps of Transcription

    Transcription takes place in three steps, called initiation, elongation, and termination. The steps are illustrated in Figure

    6.4.4 6.4.4 .

    Initiation is the beginning of transcription. It occurs when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a region of a gene called the promoter. This signals the DNA to unwind so the enzyme can “read” the bases in one of the DNA strands. The enzyme is ready to make a strand of mRNA with a complementary sequence of bases. The promoter is not part of the resulting mRNA

    Elongation is the addition of nucleotides to the mRNA strand.

    Termination is the ending of transcription. As RNA polymerase transcribes the terminator, it detaches from DNA. The mRNA strand is complete after this step.

    Figure 6.4.4 6.4.4

    : Transcription occurs in the three steps - initiation, elongation, and termination

    Processing mRNA

    In eukaryotes, the new mRNA is not yet ready for translation. At this stage, it is called pre-mRNA, and it must go through more processing before it leaves the nucleus as mature mRNA. The processing may include the addition of a 5' cap, splicing, editing, and 3' polyadenylation (poly-A) tail. These processes modify the mRNA in various ways. Such modifications allow a single gene to be used to make more than one protein. See Figure

    Source : bio.libretexts.org

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