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    which statement best explains kennedy’s message in this excerpt? american citizens must be prepared for war. the united states is prepared to protect freedom. the united states is the greatest country in the world. american citizens have a history of protecting democracy.

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    ELA Unit Test Flashcards

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    ELA Unit Test

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    What evidence does Justice Warren give for his reason in this passage?

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    C. Logical evidence, because Warren is drawing a reasonable conclusion that segregating children is psychologically harmful

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    Which statement best evaluates the effectiveness of the evidence used to support the claim that cruelty is a necessary part of leadership?

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    A. The evidence uses stories of historical figures to support the claim.

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    What evidence does Justice Warren give for his reason in this passage?

    C. Logical evidence, because Warren is drawing a reasonable conclusion that segregating children is psychologically harmful

    Which statement best evaluates the effectiveness of the evidence used to support the claim that cruelty is a necessary part of leadership?

    A. The evidence uses stories of historical figures to support the claim.

    Which statement best explains Kennedy's message in this excerpt?

    B. The United States is prepared to protect freedom.

    Which statement best describes the passage?

    A. Warren explains the students' position, then describes how it has been previously handled by the courts.

    What is the main type of appeal that Kennedy uses in this excerpt?

    B. an emotional appeal to emphasize the United States' commitment to justice

    How does Machiavelli's use of words such as seizing, usurper, inflict, knife, win, reassure, and benefits affect the tone of the passage?

    C. The words with positive connotations soften the ones with negative connotations to create a serious, matter-of-fact tone.

    How does the text structure help the author convey his central idea that a prince is judged by the quality of his servants?

    C. by providing supporting evidence of a prince believed to be clever because he chose a good servant

    What is Machiavelli's primary purpose in writing this passage?

    A. to inform readers about the relationship between a prince and his servants

    Which statement best explains how Kennedy uses a rhetorical technique to support his message?

    B. He uses parallelism to reach out to different countries around the world.

    Which statement best summarizes the central idea of this excerpt?

    B. It is important to always honor one's servants.

    How does Machiavelli support his claim that rulers can be cruel if it benefits their subjects and is necessary for security?

    C. Machiavelli uses logical evidence through historical examples to support his claim.

    Read the first three paragraphs of Franklin Roosevelt's request for a declaration of war.

    Beyond Congress, who is his primary intended audience?

    A. the American public

    How does the passage support Machiavelli's claim that a ruler must sometimes be cruel?

    B. with a historical example

    What type of logical error underlies the argument that African Americans were inferior?

    A. genetic fallacy

    Which statements best describe a text with a compare-and-contrast structure? Select three options.

    Sentences 1,2,3

    What kind of evidence does Machiavelli use in this passage to explain Hannibal's effectiveness?

    C. anecdotal evidence in the form of historical examples

    What is the purpose of presenting a false dilemma in a speech?

    A. to convince the audience that there are limited options

    What claim does Taney make in this passage?

    D. Scott is a citizen of the United States, but not of the state of Missouri.

    What reason does Warren give for believing that "separate but equal" does not give minority children equal educational opportunities?

    C. the findings that a sense of inferiority affects the motivation to learn

    What type of evidence does Machiavelli use to support his claim in this passage?

    C.logical evidence

    Which statement best summarizes the conclusion of the speech?

    B. India must live up to the standards of a great country by promoting freedom and equality.

    What is the definition of connotation?

    Connotation is the emotion or idea that is associated with a word.

    What is the most important idea the author wants readers to know?

    B. The easiest way to hold a newly acquired state is to play on the citizens' own interests.

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    President Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs, May 25, 1961

    Listen to the speech.    View related documents. President John F. Kennedy Delivered in person before a joint session of Congress May 25, 1961

    PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S SPECIAL MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESS ON URGENT NATIONAL NEEDS, MAY 25, 1961

    Listen to the speech.    View related documents.

    President John F. Kennedy

    Delivered in person before a joint session of Congress

    May 25, 1961

    Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, my co-partners in Government, gentlemen and ladies:

    The Constitution imposes upon me the obligation to "from time to time give to the Congress information of the State of the Union." While this has traditionally been interpreted as an annual affair, this tradition has been broken in extraordinary times.

    These are extraordinary times. And we face an extraordinary challenge. Our strength as well as our convictions have imposed upon this nation the role of leader in freedom's cause.

    No role in history could be more difficult or more important. We stand for freedom.

    That is our conviction for ourselves--that is our only commitment to others. No friend, no neutral and no adversary should think otherwise. We are not against any man--or any nation--or any system--except as it is hostile to freedom. Nor am I here to present a new military doctrine, bearing any one name or aimed at any one area. I am here to promote the freedom doctrine.

    I.

    The great battleground for the defense and expansion of freedom today is the whole southern half of the globe--Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East--the lands of the rising peoples. Their revolution is the greatest in human history.

    They seek an end to injustice, tyranny, and exploitation. More than an end, they seek a beginning.

    And theirs is a revolution which we would support regardless of the Cold War, and regardless of which political or economic route they should choose to freedom.

    For the adversaries of freedom did not create the revolution; nor did they create the conditions which compel it. But they are seeking to ride the crest of its wave--to capture it for themselves.

    Yet their aggression is more often concealed than open. They have fired no missiles; and their troops are seldom seen. They send arms, agitators, aid, technicians and propaganda to every troubled area. But where fighting is required, it is usually done by others--by guerrillas striking at night, by assassins striking alone--assassins who have taken the lives of four thousand civil officers in the last twelve months in Vietnam alone--by subversives and saboteurs and insurrectionists, who in some cases control whole areas inside of independent nations.

    [At this point the following paragraph, which appears in the text as signed and transmitted to the Senate and House of Representatives, was omitted in the reading of the message:

    THEY POSSESS A POWERFUL INTERCONTINENTAL STRIKING FORCE, LARGE FORCES FOR CONVENTIONAL WAR, A WELL-TRAINED UNDERGROUND IN NEARLY EVERY COUNTRY, THE POWER TO CONSCRIPT TALENT AND MANPOWER FOR ANY PURPOSE, THE CAPACITY FOR QUICK DECISIONS, A CLOSED SOCIETY WITHOUT DISSENT OR FREE INFORMATION, AND LONG EXPERIENCE IN THE TECHNIQUES OF VIOLENCE AND SUBVERSION.

    THEY MAKE THE MOST OF THEIR SCIENTIFIC SUCCESSES, THEIR ECONOMIC PROGRESS AND THEIR POSE AS A FOE OF COLONIALISM AND FRIEND OF POPULAR REVOLUTION. THEY PREY ON UNSTABLE OR UNPOPULAR GOVERNMENTS, UNSEALED, OR UNKNOWN BOUNDARIES, UNFILLED HOPES, CONVULSIVE CHANGE, MASSIVE POVERTY, ILLITERACY, UNREST AND FRUSTRATION.]

    With these formidable weapons, the adversaries of freedom plan to consolidate their territory--to exploit, to control, and finally to destroy the hopes of the world's newest nations; and they have ambition to do it before the end of this decade. It is a contest of will and purpose as well as force and violence--a battle for minds and souls as well as lives and territory. And in that contest, we cannot stand aside.

    We stand, as we have always stood from our earliest beginnings, for the independence and equality of all nations. This nation was born of revolution and raised in freedom. And we do not intend to leave an open road for despotism.

    There is no single simple policy which meets this challenge. Experience has taught us that no one nation has the power or the wisdom to solve all the problems of the world or manage its revolutionary tides--that extending our commitments does not always increase our security--that any initiative carries with it the risk of a temporary defeat--that nuclear weapons cannot prevent subversion--that no free people can be kept free without will and energy of their own--and that no two nations or situations are exactly alike.

    Yet there is much we can do--and must do. The proposals I bring before you are numerous and varied. They arise from the host of special opportunities and dangers which have become increasingly clear in recent months. Taken together, I believe that they can mark another step forward in our effort as a people. I am here to ask the help of this Congress and the nation in approving these necessary measures.

    II. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS AT HOME

    The first and basic task confronting this nation this year was to turn recession into recovery. An affirmative anti-recession program, initiated with your cooperation, supported the natural forces in the private sector; and our economy is now enjoying renewed confidence and energy. The recession has been halted. Recovery is under way.

    But the task of abating unemployment and achieving a full use of our resources does remain a serious challenge for us all. Large-scale unemployment during a recession is bad enough, but large-scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable.

    Source : www.jfklibrary.org

    Civil Rights Era (1950–1963)

    The Brown decision fueled violent resistance during which Southern states evaded the law. The Montgomery bus boycott began a campaign of nonviolent civil disobedience to protest segregation that attracted national and international attention. Media coverage of the use of fire hoses and attack dogs against protesters and bombings and riots in Birmingham compelled Kennedy to act, sending a civil rights bill to Congress.

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    The Library of Congress > Exhibitions > The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom > Civil Rights Era (1950–1963)

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    The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom

    Civil Rights Era (1950–1963)

    Home | Exhibition Overview | Exhibition Items | Timelines | Multimedia | Public Programs | Learn More | Acknowledgments

    Sections: Prologue | The Segregation Era (1900–1939) | World War II and Post War (1940–1949) | Civil Rights Era (1950–1963) | The Civil Rights Act of 1964 | Immediate Impact of the Civil Rights Act | Epilogue

    The Day They Changed Their Minds. New York: NAACP, March, 1960. Pamphlet. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP

    The NAACP’s legal strategy against segregated education culminated in the 1954 Supreme Court’s landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision. African Americans gained the formal, if not the practical, right to study alongside their white peers in primary and secondary schools. The decision fueled an intransigent, violent resistance during which Southern states used a variety of tactics to evade the law.

    In the summer of 1955, a surge of anti-black violence included the kidnapping and brutal murder of fourteen-year-old Emmett Till, a crime that provoked widespread and assertive protests from black and white Americans. By December 1955, the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott led by Martin Luther King, Jr., began a protracted campaign of nonviolent civil disobedience to protest segregation that attracted national and international attention.

    During 1956, a group of Southern senators and congressmen signed the “Southern Manifesto,” vowing resistance to racial integration by all “lawful means.” Resistance heightened in 1957–1958 during the crisis over integration at Little Rock’s Central High School. At the same time, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights led a successful drive for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and continued to press for even stronger legislation. NAACP Youth Council chapters staged sit-ins at whites-only lunch counters, sparking a movement against segregation in public accommodations throughout the South in 1960. Nonviolent direct action increased during the presidency of John F. Kennedy, beginning with the 1961 Freedom Rides.

    Hundreds of demonstrations erupted in cities and towns across the nation. National and international media coverage of the use of fire hoses and attack dogs against child protesters precipitated a crisis in the Kennedy administration, which it could not ignore. The bombings and riots in Birmingham, Alabama, on May 11, 1963, compelled Kennedy to call in federal troops.

    On June 19, 1963, the president sent a comprehensive civil rights bill to Congress. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28 roused public support for the pending bill. After the president’s assassination on November 22, the fate of Kennedy’s bill was in the hands of his vice president and successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, and the United States Congress.

    See timeline for this period

    Roy Wilkins NAACP’s Longest Serving Leader

    Roy Wilkins (1901−1981) was born in St. Louis, the son of a minister. While attending the University of Minnesota he served as secretary of the local NAACP. After graduation he began work as the editor of the Kansas City Call, a black weekly. The headline coverage Wilkins gave the NAACP in the Call attracted the attention of Walter White, who hired him as NAACP assistant secretary in 1931.

    From 1934 to 1949, Wilkins served concurrently as editor of The Crisis, the NAACP’s quarterly journal. In 1950 he became NAACP administrator and cofounded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. He succeeded Walter White as executive secretary of the NAACP in 1955. Under his leadership the NAACP achieved school desegregation, major civil rights legislation, and its peak membership. Wilkins retired in 1977 as the longest serving NAACP leader.

    Roy Wilkins. New York: M. Smith Studio, between 1940 and 1950. NAACP Records, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (078.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP

    Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era.html#obj078

    A Fact Sheet on Cloture

    In February 1952 the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) held a meeting in Washington to discuss Senate Rule XXII on cloture, a procedure that Southern senators utilized to block civil rights bills in debate by filibuster. In 1952, Rule XXII required a two-thirds vote of the entire Senate to invoke cloture to break a filibuster. Senators had also liberalized Rule XXII by subjecting “any measure, motion, or other matter” to cloture. At the start of each new Congress the LCCR lobbied for a revision of Rule XXII to lessen the obstacles to passage of civil rights bills. Joseph Rauh was the chief strategist for the LCCR’s Rule XXII campaigns.

    Source : www.loc.gov

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