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    What best describes the relationship between gender and evangelical church membership in the early to mid-nineteenth century?

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    Women typically join evangelical churches before men.

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    What statements about the women's rights and abolitionist movements are correct?

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    -Divisions over the issues of women's rights led to a split within the abolitionist movement.

    -Female abolitionists were criticized for speaking to audiences that included both men and women.

    -Many advocates of women's rights identified with slaves as victims of male tyranny.

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    What best describes the relationship between gender and evangelical church membership in the early to mid-nineteenth century?

    Women typically join evangelical churches before men.

    What statements about the women's rights and abolitionist movements are correct?

    -Divisions over the issues of women's rights led to a split within the abolitionist movement.

    -Female abolitionists were criticized for speaking to audiences that included both men and women.

    -Many advocates of women's rights identified with slaves as victims of male tyranny.

    What best describes the shift that evangelical Protestants underwent in the first half of the nineteenth century?

    They began to try to reform societies social ills.

    Leading figures in the schism of 1840 included

    -Lewis William Tappan

    -William Lloyd Garrison

    During the 1800s, debates on immigration

    Threatened the unity of political parties.

    Transcendentalism was a philosophy that emphasized

    -A spiritual community with nature.

    -Feeling of reason.

    What best describes the relationship between Romanticism and Transcendentalism?

    They were similar movements, but Romanticism developed in Europe and Transcendentalism developed in the United States.

    What were Mormon practices or beliefs that set the religion apart from most forms of Christianity?

    -Polygamy -Eternal marriage

    -Baptism for the dead

    Evangelicalism, with its emphasis on the ability of everyone to bring about his or her salvation, was compatible with the American believe in


    In 1840s, new abolitionist groups formed because abolitionists

    could not agree about woman's rights.

    What is not one of the four major Protestant churches that flourished in America in the first half of the nineteenth century?


    The schism of 1840 was a break within

    Abolitionist ranks.

    What is not a distinctive tenet of Catholicism?

    Belief in an imminent millennium.

    What position on slavery did the leaders of black evangelical churches in the urban North typically take?

    They opposed slavery.

    Some upper-class women found the ideal of domesticity confining because they

    did not have anything to do.

    The name of William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper was The


    What strategies did the organizers of the American Temperance Society employ to reduce alcohol consumption?

    They forced local societies comprised of people who voluntarily pledged not to drink alcohol.

    In the 1840s, leading figures in the women's movement included

    -Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    -Lucretia Mott -Susan B. Anthony

    What best describes how conservative abolitionists wanted to end the institution of slavery?

    Gradually, by raising money and lobbying established institutions like churches.

    Which US presidents were Unitarians?

    -John Adams -Thomas Jefferson

    What best describes William Lloyd Garrison's position on slavery?

    It is a moral evil and should be abolished immediately.

    The American Temperance Society attracted female members because women

    were seen as defenders of their homes and alcohol could threaten them.

    Which were measures used by Charles Grandison Finney in drawing individuals to his faith?

    -Holding protracted and emotionally charged meetings.

    -Praying for sinners by name.

    -Encouraging women to testify in public.

    Among which of the following groups would one be unlikely to find abolitionists?

    -Agnostics -Older people -Bussinesspeople -City dwellers

    How was the idea of "true womenhood" exhibited in Europe?

    Mothers, not servants, assumed direct control of child rearing.

    Why did middle-class family size decline in the nineteenth century?

    Women wanted to be able to provide more opportunities for their children.

    Important characteristics of Unitarianism is that it

    -Favors a broad interpretation of the Bible.

    -Denies the divinity of Jesus Christ.

    Why did the House of Representatives pass a law in 1836 to table all discussion of slavery on the floor of the House?

    Legislators did not want to address all the antislavery petitions abolitionists sent them.

    What issue involving women was not addressed in the Seneca Falls Conventions Declaration of Sentiments?

    Birth control

    The temperance movement had a strong negative effect on the

    political party system.

    What was the attitude of German and Irish immigrants toward prohibition?

    Source : quizlet.com

    Evangelicalism, Revivalism, and the Second Great Awakening, The Nineteenth Century, Divining America: Religion in American History, TeacherServe, National Humanities Center

    an interactive curriculum enrichment service designed to help teachers of American history bring their students to a greater understanding of the role religion has played in the development of the United States

    from the National Humanities Center

    NHC Home TeacherServe Divining America 19th Century Essay:

    Evangelicalism, Revivalism, and the Second Great Awakening

    Donald Scott

    Queens College / City University of New York

    ©National Humanities Center

    Links to online resources

    Nineteenth century America contained a bewildering array of Protestant sects and denominations, with different doctrines, practices, and organizational forms. But by the 1830s almost all of these bodies had a deep evangelical emphasis in common. Protestantism has always contained an important evangelical strain, but it was in the nineteenth century that a particular style of evangelicalism became the dominant form of spiritual expression. What above all else characterized this evangelicalism was its dynamism, the pervasive sense of activist energy it released. As Charles Grandison Finney, the leading evangelical of mid-nineteenth century America, put it: "religion is the work of man, it is something for man to do." This evangelical activism involved an important doctrinal shift away from the predominately Calvinist orientation that had characterized much of eighteenth-century American Christianity. Eighteenth-century Calvinists like Jonathan Edwards or George Whitefield had stressed the sinful nature of humans and their utter incapacity to overcome this nature without the direct action of the grace of God working through the Holy Spirit. Salvation was purely in God's hands, something he dispensed as he saw fit for his own reasons. Nineteenth-century evangelicals like Finney, or Lyman Beecher, or Francis Asbury, were no less unrelenting in their emphasis on the terrible sinfulness of humans. But they focused on sin as human action. For all they preached hellfire and damnation, they nonetheless harbored an unshakable practical belief in the capacity of humans for moral action, in the ability of humans to turn away from sinful behavior and embrace moral action. Whatever their particular doctrinal stance, most nineteenth-century evangelicals preached a kind of practical Arminianism which emphasized the duty and ability of sinners to repent and desist from sin.


    The core of nineteenth-century evangelicalism was the experience of conversion. Conversion was compelled by a set of clear ideas about the innate sinfulness of humans after Adam's fall, the omnipotence of God--his awful power and his mercy--and, finally, the promise of salvation for fallen humankind through Christ's death on the cross as the atonement for human sin. But what students need to understand is that conversion was an experience. It was not simply something that people believed--though belief or faith was essential to it--but something that happened to them, a real, intensely emotional event they went through and experienced as a profound psychological transformation left them with a fundamentally altered sense of self, an identity as a new kind of Christian. As they interpreted it, they had undergone spiritual rebirth, the death of an old self and the birth of a new one that fundamentally transformed their sense of their relationship to the world.

    Conversion consisted of a sequence of clearly mapped-out steps, each of which was accompanied by a powerful emotion that led the penitent from the terror of eternal damnation through redemption to the promise of heavenly salvation. The process of conversion characteristically began in a state of "concern" about the state of one's soul and "inquiry" into what were called the doctrines of salvation propelled by the question "what can I do to be saved?" This led to a state of acute spiritual "anxiety," marked by deep fear over the prospect of eternal damnation, which in turn grew into an unmistakable sense of "conviction," the heartfelt realization that one stood justly condemned for one's sins and deserved eternal damnation. Conviction was the terrifying point of recognition that no matter how much one might desire it, there was absolutely nothing one could do to earn salvation. But there was something the penitent could do, indeed, was bound to do. That was to fully repent and surrender unconditionally to God's will to do with as he saw fit and to serve him fully. It was this act of repentance, surrender, and dedication to serving his will that Finney meant when in his most famous sermon he insisted that "sinners [are] bound to change their own hearts." This moment of renunciation of sin and the abject surrender to the will to God was the moment of conversion, if it was to come, the moment at which, through the promise of Christ's atonement for human sin, a merciful God would bestow his grace upon the repentant sinner.

    Guiding Student Discussion

    It is important to stress to your students the importance of the emotional state that signaled that one had received divine grace and was a converted Christian. People recognized the fact of conversion by the power and character of the emotions that accompanied it, that made it an emotional catharsis, a heartfelt rebirth. Most characteristically, conversion, often accompanied by tears, provoked a deep sense of humility and peace marked by an overwhelming sense of love toward God, a sense that one had entered a wholly new state of being--defined as a state of regeneration--that was the utter opposite of the state of willfulness, torment, and anxiety that had accompanied unregeneracy. The convert entered a new spiritual state referred to as regeneracy and sanctification in which the paramount desire was to do God's will, a desire expressed almost immediately in active concern for the conversion of family, friends, and even strangers who remained unconverted. Indeed, the most important sign of sanctification was the degree of one's willingness to enlist in the ongoing evangelical campaign to convert the world. (For further discussion of the evangelical convert's role in the world see under Nineteenth Century, Evangelicalism as a Social Movement.)

    Source : nationalhumanitiescenter.org

    Christianity in the 19th century

    Christianity in the 19th century

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    See also: Christianity in the 18th century and Christianity in the 20th century

    For broader coverage of this topic, see Christianity in the modern era.

    Characteristic of Christianity in the 19th century were evangelical revivals in some largely Protestant countries and later the effects of modern biblical scholarship on the churches. Liberal or modernist theology was one consequence of this. In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church strongly opposed liberalism and culture wars launched in Germany, Italy, Belgium and France. It strongly emphasized personal piety. In Europe there was a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards secularism. In Protestantism, pietistic revivals were common.


    1 Modernism in Christian theology

    1.1 Liberal Christianity

    2 Protestant Europe 2.1 Britain 2.2 Germany 3 American trends

    3.1 Second Great Awakening

    3.2 Mormonism 3.3 Adventism

    3.4 Holiness movement

    3.5 Third Great Awakening

    4 Roman Catholicism 4.1 France 4.2 Germany 4.2.1 Kulturkampf

    4.3 First Vatican Council

    4.4 Social teachings

    4.5 Veneration of Mary

    4.6 Anti-clericalism, secularism and socialism

    4.7 Jesuits 4.8 Africa

    5 Eastern Orthodox Church

    5.1 Greece 5.2 Serbia 5.3 Romania 5.4 Russia 5.5 Georgia 5.6 Cyprus

    6 Coptic Orthodox Church

    7 Timeline 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 10.1 Catholicism

    10.2 National and regional studies

    11 External links

    Modernism in Christian theology[edit]

    As the more radical implications of the scientific and cultural influences of the Enlightenment began to be felt in the Protestant churches, especially in the 19th century, Liberal Christianity, exemplified especially by numerous theologians in Germany in the 19th century, sought to bring the churches alongside of the broad revolution that modernism represented. In doing so, new critical approaches to the Bible were developed, new attitudes became evident about the role of religion in society, and a new openness to questioning the nearly universally accepted definitions of Christian orthodoxy began to become obvious.

    In reaction to these developments, Christian fundamentalism was a movement to reject the radical influences of philosophical humanism, as this was affecting the Christian religion. Especially targeting critical approaches to the interpretation of the Bible and trying to blockade the inroads made into their churches by atheistic scientific assumptions, the fundamentalists began to appear in various denominations as numerous independent movements of resistance to the drift away from historic Christianity. Over time, the Fundamentalist Evangelical movement has divided into two main wings, with the label following one branch, while has become the preferred banner of the more moderate movement. Although both movements primarily originated in the English speaking world, the majority of Evangelicals now live elsewhere in the world.

    After the Reformation, Protestant groups continued to splinter, leading to a range of new theologies. The Enthusiasts were so named because of their emotional zeal. These included the Methodists, the Quakers, and the Baptists. Another group sought to reconcile Christian faith with modernist ideas, sometimes causing them to reject beliefs they considered to be illogical, including the Nicene creed and Chalcedonian Creed. These included Unitarians and Universalists. A major issue for Protestants became the degree to which people contribute to their salvation. The debate is often viewed as synergism versus monergism, though the labels Calvinist and Arminian are more frequently used, referring to the conclusion of the Synod of Dort.

    The 19th century saw the rise of Biblical criticism, new knowledge of religious diversity in other continents, and above all the growth of science. This led many Christians to emphasize the brotherhood, to seeing miracles as myths, and to emphasize a moral approach with religion as lifestyle rather than revealed truth.

    Liberal Christianity[edit]

    Liberal Christianity—sometimes called liberal theology—reshaped Protestantism. Liberal Christianity is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically informed movements and moods within 19th and 20th century Christianity. Despite its name, liberal Christianity has always been thoroughly protean. The word in liberal Christianity does not refer to a leftist political agenda but rather to insights developed during the Age of Enlightenment. Generally speaking, Enlightenment-era liberalism held that people are political creatures and that liberty of thought and expression should be their highest value. The development of liberal Christianity owes a lot to the works of theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher.[1][2] As a whole, liberal Christianity is a product of a continuing philosophical dialogue.[3]

    Protestant Europe[edit]

    Global Protestantism, 1710

    Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette argues that the outlook for Protestantism at the start of the 19th century was discouraging. It was a regional religion based in northwestern Europe, with an outpost in the sparsely settled United States. It was closely allied with government, as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Prussia, and especially Great Britain. The alliance came at the expense of independence, as the government made the basic policy decisions, down to such details as the salaries of ministers and location of new churches. The dominant intellectual currents of the Enlightenment promoted rationalism, and most Protestant leaders preached a sort of deism. Intellectually, the new methods of historical and anthropological study undermine automatic acceptance of biblical stories, as did the sciences of geology and biology. Industrialization was a strongly negative factor, as workers who moved to the city seldom joined churches. The gap between the church and the unchurched grew rapidly, and secular forces, based both in socialism and liberalism undermine the prestige of religion. Despite the negative forces, Protestantism demonstrated a striking vitality by 1900. Shrugging off Enlightenment rationalism, Protestants embraced romanticism, with the stress on the personal and the invisible. Entirely fresh ideas as expressed by Friedrich Schleiermacher, Soren Kierkegaard, Albrecht Ritschl and Adolf von Harnack restored the intellectual power of theology. There was more attention to historic creeds such as the Augsburg, the Heidelberg, and the Westminster confessions. The stirrings of pietism on the Continent, and evangelicalism in Britain expanded enormously, leading the devout away from an emphasis on formality and ritual and toward an inner sensibility toward personal relationship to Christ. Social activities, in education and in opposition to social vices such as slavery, alcoholism and poverty provided new opportunities for social service. Above all, worldwide missionary activity became a highly prized goal, proving quite successful in close cooperation with the imperialism of the British, German, and Dutch empires.[4]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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