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    which osseous tissue is found on the surface of bones and composed of tightly arranged parallel osteons?

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    Structure of Bone Tissue

    Structure of Bone Tissue

    There are two types of bone tissue: compact and spongy. The names imply that the two types differ in density, or how tightly the tissue is packed together. There are three types of cells that contribute to bone homeostasis. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cell, osteoclasts resorb or break down bone, and osteocytes are mature bone cells. An equilibrium between osteoblasts and osteoclasts maintains bone tissue.

    Compact Bone

    Compact bone consists of closely packed osteons or haversian systems. The osteon consists of a central canal called the osteonic (haversian) canal, which is surrounded by concentric rings (lamellae) of matrix. Between the rings of matrix, the bone cells (osteocytes) are located in spaces called lacunae. Small channels (canaliculi) radiate from the lacunae to the osteonic (haversian) canal to provide passageways through the hard matrix. In compact bone, the haversian systems are packed tightly together to form what appears to be a solid mass. The osteonic canals contain blood vessels that are parallel to the long axis of the bone. These blood vessels interconnect, by way of perforating canals, with vessels on the surface of the bone.

    Spongy (Cancellous) Bone

    Spongy (cancellous) bone is lighter and less dense than compact bone. Spongy bone consists of plates (trabeculae) and bars of bone adjacent to small, irregular cavities that contain red bone marrow. The canaliculi connect to the adjacent cavities, instead of a central haversian canal, to receive their blood supply. It may appear that the trabeculae are arranged in a haphazard manner, but they are organized to provide maximum strength similar to braces that are used to support a building. The trabeculae of spongy bone follow the lines of stress and can realign if the direction of stress changes.

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    Source : training.seer.cancer.gov

    19.2 Bone – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition

    19.2 BONE

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Classify the different types of bones in the skeleton

    Explain the role of the different cell types in bone

    Explain how bone forms during development

    Bone, or osseous tissue, is a connective tissue that constitutes the endoskeleton. It contains specialized cells and a matrix of mineral salts and collagen fibers.

    The mineral salts primarily include hydroxyapatite, a mineral formed from calcium phosphate. Calcification is the process of deposition of mineral salts on the collagen fiber matrix that crystallizes and hardens the tissue. The process of calcification only occurs in the presence of collagen fibers.

    The bones of the human skeleton are classified by their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, sutural bones, sesamoid bones, and irregular bones (Figure 19.16).

    Figure 19.16. Shown are different types of bones: flat, irregular, long, short, and sesamoid.

    Long bones are longer than they are wide and have a shaft and two ends. The diaphysis, or central shaft, contains bone marrow in a marrow cavity. The rounded ends, the epiphyses, are covered with articular cartilage and are filled with red bone marrow, which produces blood cells (Figure 19.17). Most of the limb bones are long bones—for example, the femur, tibia, ulna, and radius. Exceptions to this include the patella and the bones of the wrist and ankle.

    Figure 19.17.

    The long bone is covered by articular cartilage at either end and contains bone marrow (shown in yellow in this illustration) in the marrow cavity.

    Short bones, or cuboidal bones, are bones that are the same width and length, giving them a cube-like shape. For example, the bones of the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals) are short bones (Figure 19.16).Flat bones are thin and relatively broad bones that are found where extensive protection of organs is required or where broad surfaces of muscle attachment are required. Examples of flat bones are the sternum (breast bone), ribs, scapulae (shoulder blades), and the roof of the skull (Figure 19.16).Irregular bones are bones with complex shapes. These bones may have short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces. Examples of irregular bones are the vertebrae, hip bones, and several skull bones.Sesamoid bones are small, flat bones and are shaped similarly to a sesame seed. The patellae are sesamoid bones (Figure 19.18). Sesamoid bones develop inside tendons and may be found near joints at the knees, hands, and feet.

    Figure 19.18.

    The patella of the knee is an example of a sesamoid bone.

    Sutural bones are small, flat, irregularly shaped bones. They may be found between the flat bones of the skull. They vary in number, shape, size, and position.

    BONE TISSUE

    Bones are considered organs because they contain various types of tissue, such as blood, connective tissue, nerves, and bone tissue. Osteocytes, the living cells of bone tissue, form the mineral matrix of bones. There are two types of bone tissue: compact and spongy.

    COMPACT BONE TISSUE

    Compact bone (or cortical bone) forms the hard external layer of all bones and surrounds the medullary cavity, or bone marrow. It provides protection and strength to bones. Compact bone tissue consists of units called osteons or Haversian systems. Osteons are cylindrical structures that contain a mineral matrix and living osteocytes connected by canaliculi, which transport blood. They are aligned parallel to the long axis of the bone. Each osteon consists of lamellae, which are layers of compact matrix that surround a central canal called the Haversian canal. The Haversian canal (osteonic canal) contains the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers (Figure 19.19). Osteons in compact bone tissue are aligned in the same direction along lines of stress and help the bone resist bending or fracturing. Therefore, compact bone tissue is prominent in areas of bone at which stresses are applied in only a few directions.

    Figure 19.19.  Compact bone tissue consists of osteons that are aligned parallel to the long axis of the bone, and the Haversian canal that contains the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers. The inner layer of bones consists of spongy bone tissue. The small dark ovals in the osteon represent the living osteocytes. (credit: modification of work by NCI, NIH)

    Which of the following statements about bone tissue is false?

    Compact bone tissue is made of cylindrical osteons that are aligned such that they travel the length of the bone.

    Haversian canals contain blood vessels only.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    chapter 7

    Start studying chapter 7 - bone tissue. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    chapter 7 - bone tissue

    the layer of reticular connective tissue lining internal surfaces of a bone called the?

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    endosteum

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    which osseous tissue is found on the surface of bones and composed tightly arranged parallel osteons?

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    compact

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    1/120 Created by Emily_Egle00

    Terms in this set (120)

    the layer of reticular connective tissue lining internal surfaces of a bone called the?

    endosteum

    which osseous tissue is found on the surface of bones and composed tightly arranged parallel osteons?

    compact

    which are functions of the skeletal system?

    - support - blood formation - protection - acid-base balance

    the connective tissue surrounding the external surface of a bone is called the

    periosteum

    what shape is the humerus?

    long

    _____ bone is always enclosed by more durable compact bone

    spongy

    what is the function of red bone marrow?

    blood cell production

    bone tissue comprised of trabeculae is called ______ bone. it is also called _____ bone

    spongy, cancellous

    T or F: osteocytes and osteoclasts develop from the same type of bone marrow stem cell

    false

    osseous tissue is a connective tissue with a hardened matrix that makes up organs called _____

    bones

    which cartilage has a relatively clear matrix?

    hyaline

    what are the names for a channel that extends vertically through the center of an osteon?

    - haversian canal - central canal

    lacunae are located between concentric rings of compact bone tissue called what?

    lamellae

    mature bone cells found within lacunae of compact bone are called?

    osteocytes

    bone dissolving cells on bone surfaces are called?

    osteoclasts

    which condition is characterized by excessive excitability of the nervous and muscular systems due to low blood calcium levels?

    hypocalcemia

    the shaft of a long bone is called the?

    diaphysis

    which layer of tissue lines the internal surfaces of a bone?

    endosteum

    which of the following are functions of osteocytes?

    - deposit bone - reabsorb bone - strain sensors

    which describes a nutrient foramen?

    an opening into the surface of a bone which allows the passage of blood vessels into bone tissue

    bones such as the carpals that have the same length and width are classified as ____ bones

    short

    what is the term for the bone tissue located between the two layers of compact bone in the skull?

    diploe

    which two ions are deposited by osteoblasts into the bone matrix?

    - phosphate - calcium

    which type of bone growth occurs within mature bone and results in the bone becoming thicker?

    appositional growth

    one function of the skeleton is to store calcium and phosphate to help maintain ______ balance

    electrolyte

    PTH is a hormone released by parathyroid glands in response to which of the following?

    low blood calcium levels

    stem cells in developing bone that give rise to osteoblasts are called ____ cells

    osteogenic

    the process of bone formation is called?

    ossification

    which best describes osseous tissue?

    a connective tissue with a hardened matrix that makes up bone

    what are the layers of bony matrix in compact bone tissue called?

    lamellae

    the basic structural unit of compact bone is the?

    osteon

    in osseous tissue, the narrow channels connecting neighboring lacunae are called?

    canaliculi

    what are the thin plates forming spongy bone called?

    trabeculae

    the study of bone is called?

    osteology

    which mature cell type is found in cartilage?

    chondrocyte

    what is the hollow space in which an osteocyte resides?

    lacunae

    which bone cells produce the soft organic bone matrix?

    osteoblasts

    osteocytes act as ____ sensors to adjust bone shape and density to adapt to stress

    strain

    which osseous tissue is found at the surface of all bones?

    compact

    calcitriol acts on which organs to raise blood calcium levels?

    - small intestines - bones - kidneys

    fatty bone marrow that no longer produces blood cells is called _____ bone marrow

    yellow

    a degenerative bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and an increased risk of fracture is called?

    osteoporosis

    what is an elevated blood calcium called?

    hypercalcemia

    T or F: the bone cells responsible for the formation of the organic bone matrix are called chondrocytes

    false

    what is the purpose of canailculi in compact bone?

    to provide a passageway between the lacunae

    which of the following describes the lacunae of osseous tissue?

    spaces between lamellae that contain osteocytes

    the calcium-phosphate salt that mineralizes bone tissue is called?

    hydroxyapatite

    the branch of dealing with bone disorders is?

    orthopedics

    which hormones affect bone growth and development?

    - parathyroid hormone

    - estrogen - testosterone - calcitonin

    what bone shape are vertebrae classified as?

    irregular

    what is the hyaline cartilage found covering the ends of bones within a joint called?

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