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    which organelle stores hereditary material and coordinates the activities of the cell?

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    Cell

    As a science student, writing can seem confusing, arduous and boring all at the same time. Check out this guide that likens writing to the structure of a cell.

    A cell-based guide to writing

    Writing as a science student can seem like the most arduous and boring task on the planet. Whether you don’t understand where to start or just don’t have the motivation, this resource will hopefully make the whole process a little more interesting and clear for those of us who live and breathe science.

    In order to achieve this, we’re going to make comparisons between your science knowledge and writing a paper. A common base of scientific study is the cell, which allows for life to function as we know it. Just like papers, cells have different parts that are necessary to fulfill their purpose and create life.

    A cell would not exist without a cell membrane, just like your paper would not exist without you. You are the most important component of this entire process. Without you, there would be no paper. The cell membrane keeps the pieces inside; it gives the cell structure. The membrane is semi-permeable and allows for the movement of objects into and out of the cell, just like you as a writer. You hold the entire paper together, and when anything needs to be added or deleted, you’re right there to do it.

    The mitochondrion is the powerhouse of the cell; it takes in nutrients and creates energy for the cell. The purpose of your paper does the same–if there is no purpose, then your paper may end up being lackluster. Everything that needs to go into the paper is run through this purpose; the purpose provides the energy and sustainability of the entire paper.

    The cytoplasm of the cell is a thick solution filling the cell, holding all of the organelles in place. In comparison, the structure of your paper holds all of the ideas and thoughts in place. Without structure, everything in a paper would fly around and not necessarily be readable or understandable.

    The cytoskeleton establishes a cell shape and provides mechanical strength for the cell. Your introduction shapes the paper as a whole, providing the information necessary to tell the reader the direction of your paper.

    The nucleus stores hereditary material and coordinates cell activities. The thesis declares what the paper is covering and how, much like the nucleus declares the cell’s purpose through DNA storage.

    Microtubules are responsible for organization of intracellular structure and intracellular transport, and the supporting evidence is what we can link this organelle to in your paper. The supporting evidence provides structure for your argument and claims, as well as transporting your reader to the end-point of the paper.

    Ribosomes are the protein builders or synthesizers of the cell. They connect one amino acid at a time to build long chains. In the same way that ribosomes synthesize the genetic information to create proteins, you need to synthesize your evidence to make your point. Going through the synthetization process is important for both the existence of cells and papers. Without this process, both a paper and a cell would fail to execute necessary developments.

    Lysosomes serve to digest things in the cell: they may digest food or break down the cell when it is time for it to die. When does your paper “die”? The conclusion. Think of all of the information you provided before the conclusion as food. Your conclusion will take all of that information and digest it, providing the reader with a take-away or a main point.

    Are you still struggling with the paper after this comparison? Fear not, for the vesicle has arrived! Vesicles function in a cell for transportation in and out of the cell, and the University Writing Center functions the same way! You can come in and meet with any of the writing consultants or make an online appointment to help you determine what

    needs to be transported into or out of your paper. We’re here to help!

    Source : www.unr.edu

    Biology Cell Organelles Flashcards

    Start studying Biology Cell Organelles. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Biology Cell Organelles

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    Centrioles

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    These organelles are self-replicating. They are made of nine bunches of microtubules. They are only found in animal cells. They help with cell division but are the main part to the process.

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    Golgi apparatus

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    The Golgi apparatus is the distribution department for a cell's chemical products. It changes proteins and fats that in the endoplasmic reticulum and gets them ready for export to the outside of the cell.

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    1/19 Created by smartestcookie2003

    Terms in this set (19)

    Centrioles

    These organelles are self-replicating. They are made of nine bunches of microtubules. They are only found in animal cells. They help with cell division but are the main part to the process.

    Golgi apparatus

    The Golgi apparatus is the distribution department for a cell's chemical products. It changes proteins and fats that in the endoplasmic reticulum and gets them ready for export to the outside of the cell.

    Microfilaments

    The Microfilament organelles are solid rods that are made of globular proteins. These are actin. The primary function of them is to hold the cell structure especially in the cytoskeleton

    Mitochondria

    These are organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell. They are the main powerhouses. They convert oxygen and nutrients into energy - ATP.

    Nucleus

    The Nucleus processes and administers information in the center of the cell. It has two major functions. It stores hereditary material (DNA) and coordinates the cells activities (growth, metabolism, photosynthesis, and cell division).

    Ribosomes

    All living cells had Ribosomes. They are tiny organelles that are made of 60% RNA and 40% protein.

    Lysosomes

    The main function of Lysosome is digestion. They break down the cellular waste and debris from outside of the cell and transfer it to the cytoplasm as new materials to build the cell.

    Cell wall

    A plant cell has a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane. Its function is to protect the cell and regulate the life cycle of the organisms.

    Chloroplasts

    This is only found in plant cells. It is where photosynthesis occurs. It also contains DNA that has codes for other organelles like ribosomes. They divide when a plant cell divides. A double membrane envelope closes in the Chloroplasts.

    Vacuole

    Every plant cell has one large vacuole that stores compounds, helps the plant grow, and helps hold the structure of the plant.

    Plasma membrane

    It is meant to hold the cell together and help control the substances in the cell so that they do not get out. It allows some substances to pass through it because it is permeable.

    Nucleolus

    The Nucleolus is located with in the Nucleus. It is where the rRNA synthesis takes place.

    Smooth ER

    The smooth ER forms a separate connecting network. Its main function is to the make up of lipids and sometimes the metabolism of them. The ER can break down glycogen and produce steroid hormones as well.

    Rough ER

    It is called a rough Endoplasmic Reticulum because it is lined with Ribosomes that come in contact with the Cytosol. This Endoplasmic Reticulum takes polypeptides and amino acids and continues to form the protein.

    Nuclear envelope

    The Nuclear Envelope is a double-layered membrane that keeps the contents of the nucleus enclosed. Nuclear pores in the layered membrane regulate the passing of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm allowing some to pass through the membrane.

    Cytosol

    Cytosol (Cytoplasm) is the fluid that fills the cell. It is made up of different enzymes that keep the cell alive. The fluid suspends the organelles in the cell. Cytosol uses the dissolved enzymes in its fluid to break down larger molecules.

    Leucoplasts

    The Leucoplasts hold lipids, starches, and proteins. They can also synthesis fatty acids and amino acids.

    Chromatin

    Chromatin is genetic material that chemically directs the cell's activity. It is usually in the form of DNA strands and proteins. When a cell is going to divide the Chromatin cells condense into individual chromosomes.

    Microtubules

    The Microtubule is a protein that helps create the structure of a cell. They are thick and strong. Microtubules help split chromosomes. They also form larger structures that work on the outside of the cells.

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    Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: The Cell Nucleus

    The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information and administrative center of the cell.

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    The Cell Nucleus

    The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division).

    Only the cells of advanced organisms, known as eukaryotes, have a nucleus. Generally there is only one nucleus per cell, but there are exceptions, such as the cells of slime molds and the Siphonales group of algae. Simpler one-celled organisms (prokaryotes), like the bacteria and cyanobacteria, don't have a nucleus. In these organisms, all of the cell's information and administrative functions are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

    The spherical nucleus typically occupies about 10 percent of a eukaryotic cell's volume, making it one of the cell's most prominent features. A double-layered membrane, the nuclear envelope, separates the contents of the nucleus from the cellular cytoplasm. The envelope is riddled with holes called nuclear pores that allow specific types and sizes of molecules to pass back and forth between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is also attached to a network of tubules and sacs, called the endoplasmic reticulum, where protein synthesis occurs, and is usually studded with ribosomes (see Figure 1).

    The semifluid matrix found inside the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. Within the nucleoplasm, most of the nuclear material consists of chromatin, the less condensed form of the cell's DNA that organizes to form chromosomes during mitosis or cell division. The nucleus also contains one or more nucleoli, organelles that synthesize protein-producing macromolecular assemblies called ribosomes, and a variety of other smaller components, such as Cajal bodies, GEMS (Gemini of coiled bodies), and interchromatin granule clusters.

    Chromatin and Chromosomes - Packed inside the nucleus of every human cell is nearly 6 feet of DNA, which is divided into 46 individual molecules, one for each chromosome and each about 1.5 inches long. Packing all this material into a microscopic cell nucleus is an extraordinary feat of packaging. For DNA to function, it can't be crammed into the nucleus like a ball of string. Instead, it is combined with proteins and organized into a precise, compact structure, a dense string-like fiber called chromatin.The Nucleolus - The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures ribosomes, the cell's protein-producing structures. Through the microscope, the nucleolus looks like a large dark spot within the nucleus. A nucleus may contain up to four nucleoli, but within each species the number of nucleoli is fixed. After a cell divides, a nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought together into nucleolar organizing regions. During cell division, the nucleolus disappears. Some studies suggest that the nucleolus may be involved with cellular aging and, therefore, may affect the senescence of an organism.The Nuclear Envelope - The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle. The space between the layers is called the perinuclear space and appears to connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The envelope is perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores. These pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others. The inner surface has a protein lining called the nuclear lamina, which binds to chromatin and other nuclear components. During mitosis, or cell division, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, but reforms as the two cells complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse.Nuclear Pores - The nuclear envelope is perforated with holes called nuclear pores. These pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others. Building blocks for building DNA and RNA are allowed into the nucleus as well as molecules that provide the energy for constructing genetic material.BACK TO ANIMAL CELL STRUCTUREBACK TO PLANT CELL STRUCTURE

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