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    Question

    Which cell organelle packages materials coming from the endoplasmic reticulum?

    A

    Golgi apparatus

    B

    Mitochondria

    C

    Ribosome

    D

    Chloroplast

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    Correct option is A)

    Golgi body has main function of modifying, sorting and packaging the proteins, which are synthesized by cells coming from the endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi bodies form the part of cellular endomembrane system.

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    The Golgi Apparatus

    The Golgi apparatus, or Golgi complex, functions as a factory in which proteins received from the ER are further processed and sorted for transport to their eventual destinations: lysosomes, the plasma membrane, or secretion. In addition, as noted earlier, glycolipids and sphingomyelin are synthesized within the Golgi. In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus further serves as the site at which the complex polysaccharides of the cell wall are synthesized. The Golgi apparatus is thus involved in processing the broad range of cellular constituents that travel along the secretory pathway.

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    The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition.

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    The Golgi Apparatus

    The Golgi apparatus, or Golgi complex, functions as a factory in which proteins received from the ER are further processed and sorted for transport to their eventual destinations: lysosomes, the plasma membrane, or secretion. In addition, as noted earlier, glycolipids and sphingomyelin are synthesized within the Golgi. In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus further serves as the site at which the complex polysaccharides of the cell wall are synthesized. The Golgi apparatus is thus involved in processing the broad range of cellular constituents that travel along the secretory pathway.

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    Organization of the Golgi

    Morphologically the Golgi is composed of flattened membrane-enclosed sacs (cisternae) and associated vesicles (Figure 9.22). A striking feature of the Golgi apparatus is its distinct polarity in both structure and function. Proteins from the ER enter at its face (entry face), which is convex and usually oriented toward the nucleus. They are then transported through the Golgi and exit from its concave face (exit face). As they pass through the Golgi, proteins are modified and sorted for transport to their eventual destinations within the cell.

    Figure 9.22

    Electron micrograph of a Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus consists of a stack of flattened cisternae and associated vesicles. Proteins and lipids from the ER enter the Golgi apparatus at its face and exit at its face. (Courtesy of Dr. L. (more...)

    Distinct processing and sorting events appear to take place in an ordered sequence within different regions of the Golgi complex, so the Golgi is usually considered to consist of multiple discrete compartments. Although the number of such compartments has not been established, the Golgi is most commonly viewed as consisting of four functionally distinct regions: the Golgi network, the Golgi stack (which is divided into the and subcompartments), and the Golgi network (Figure 9.23). Proteins from the ER are transported to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and then enter the Golgi apparatus at the Golgi network. They then progress to the and compartments of the Golgi stack, within which most metabolic activities of the Golgi apparatus take place. The modified proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides then move to the Golgi network, which acts as a sorting and distribution center, directing molecular traffic to lysosomes, the plasma membrane, or the cell exterior.

    Figure 9.23

    Regions of the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles from the ER fuse to form the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and proteins from the ER are then transported to the Golgi network. Resident ER proteins are returned from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (more...)

    Although the Golgi apparatus was first described over 100 years ago, the mechanism by which proteins move through the Golgi apparatus has still not been established and is an area of controversy among cell biologists. One possibility is that transport vesicles carry proteins between the cisternae of the Golgi compartments. However, there is considerable experimental support for an alternative model proposing that proteins are simply carried through compartments of the Golgi within the Golgi cisternae, which gradually mature and progressively move through the Golgi in the to direction.

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    Protein Glycosylation within the Golgi

    Protein processing within the Golgi involves the modification and synthesis of the carbohydrate portions of glycoproteins. One of the major aspects of this processing is the modification of the -linked oligosaccharides that were added to proteins in the ER. As discussed earlier in this chapter, proteins are modified within the ER by the addition of an oligosaccharide consisting of 14 sugar residues (see Figure 9.15). Three glucose residues and one mannose are then removed while the polypeptides are still in the ER. Following transport to the Golgi apparatus, the -linked oligosaccharides of these glycoproteins are subject to extensive further modifications.

    -linked oligosaccharides are processed within the Golgi apparatus in an ordered sequence of reactions (Figure 9.24). The first modification of proteins destined for secretion or for the plasma membrane is the removal of three additional mannose residues. This is followed by the sequential addition of an -acetylglucosamine, the removal of two more mannoses, and the addition of a fucose and two more -acetylglucosamines. Finally, three galactose and three sialic acid residues are added. As noted in Chapter 7, different glycoproteins are modified to different extents during their passage through the Golgi, depending on both the structure of the protein and on the amount of processing enzymes that are present within the Golgi complexes of different types of cells. Consequently, proteins can emerge from the Golgi with a variety of different -linked oligosaccharides.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    The Function of Organelles Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Consider this plant cell. Which organelle is labeled A? nucleus vacuole ribosome mitochondrion, Consider this animal cell. Which organelle is labeled H? cell membrane cell wall endoplasmic reticulum nucleus, What function do chloroplasts perform? and more.

    The Function of Organelles

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    Consider this plant cell.

    Which organelle is labeled A?

    nucleus vacuole ribosome mitochondrion

    Click card to see definition ๐Ÿ‘†

    b

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    Consider this animal cell.

    Which organelle is labeled H?

    cell membrane cell wall

    endoplasmic reticulum

    nucleus

    Click card to see definition ๐Ÿ‘†

    a

    Click again to see term ๐Ÿ‘†

    1/10 Created by noelle_lee6

    Terms in this set (10)

    Consider this plant cell.

    Which organelle is labeled A?

    nucleus vacuole ribosome mitochondrion b

    Consider this animal cell.

    Which organelle is labeled H?

    cell membrane cell wall

    endoplasmic reticulum

    nucleus a

    What function do chloroplasts perform?

    a

    The ________ of the cell directs cell activity and acts like the control center.

    nucleus

    Which organelles are found only in plant cells?

    b

    Which organelle contains digestive enzymes that break down waste material and debris in the cell?

    a

    Consider this animal cell.

    What is the function of the organelles that are labeled F?

    to temporarily store water, waste products, food, and other cellular material

    to produce proteins for the cell

    to move proteins and other substances through the cell

    to contain digestive enzymes that break down waste material and debris in the cell

    c

    Consider this animal cell.

    Which organelle is labeled A?

    mitochondrion ribosome Golgi apparatus lysosome c

    Which organelle packages and distributes proteins that are received from the endoplasmic reticulum?

    c

    Herbicides are being used to kill weeds in a nearby field. The plants absorb the herbicides from the soil. Which organelle in the plant will most likely store the absorbed herbicide waste?

    b

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