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    Influenza cost and cost

    Every year, approximately 10-20% of the world's population is infected with influenza viruses, resulting in a significant number of outpatient and hospital visits and substantial economic burden both on health care systems and society. With recently updated WHO recommendations on influenza vaccinati …

    Review

    . 2013 Nov 4;31(46):5339-48.

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.013. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

    Influenza cost and cost-effectiveness studies globally--a review

    Samuel K Peasah  1 , Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Joseph Breese, Martin I Meltzer, Marc-Alain Widdowson

    Affiliations

    Affiliation

    1 NCIRD/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: [email protected]

    PMID: 24055351

    DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.013

    Review

    Influenza cost and cost-effectiveness studies globally--a review

    Samuel K Peasah et al. Vaccine. 2013.

    . 2013 Nov 4;31(46):5339-48.

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.013. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

    Authors

    Samuel K Peasah  1 , Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Joseph Breese, Martin I Meltzer, Marc-Alain Widdowson

    Affiliation

    1 NCIRD/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: [email protected]

    PMID: 24055351

    DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.013

    Abstract

    Every year, approximately 10-20% of the world's population is infected with influenza viruses, resulting in a significant number of outpatient and hospital visits and substantial economic burden both on health care systems and society. With recently updated WHO recommendations on influenza vaccination and broadening vaccine production, policy makers in middle- and low-income countries will need data on the cost of influenza disease and the cost effectiveness of vaccination. We reviewed the published literature to summarize estimates of cost and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. We searched PUBMED (MEDLINE), EMBASE, WEB of KNOWLEDGE, and IGOOGLE using the key words 'influenza', 'economic cost', 'cost effectiveness', and 'economic burden'. We identified 140 studies which estimated either cost associated with seasonal influenza or cost effectiveness/cost-benefit of influenza vaccination. 118 of these studies were conducted in World Bank-defined high income, 22 in upper-middle income, and no studies in low and lower-middle income countries. The per capita cost of a case of influenza illness ranged from $30 to $64. 22 studies reported that influenza vaccination was cost-saving; reported cost-effectiveness ratios were $10,000/outcome in 13 studies, $10,000 to $50,000 in 13 studies, and ≥$50,000 in 3 studies. There were no studies from low income countries and few studies among pregnant women. Substantial differences in methodology limited the generalization of results. Decision makers in lower income countries lack economic data to support influenza vaccine policy decisions, especially of pregnant women. Standardized cost-effectiveness studies of influenza vaccination of WHO-recommended risk groups' methods are urgently needed.

    Keywords: Cost effectiveness analysis; Global; Influenza; Vaccination.

    Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    Costs associated with influenza

    Seasonal influenza epidemics remain a considerable burden in adults, especially in those at higher risk of complications. The aim of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza-related hospitalization in patients aged ≥65 y ...

    Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Feb; 13(2): 412–416.

    Published online 2016 Dec 7. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1264829

    PMCID: PMC5328227 PMID: 27925855

    Costs associated with influenza-related hospitalization in the elderly

    Núria Torner,a,b,c Encarna Navas,c Núria Soldevila,a Diana Toledo,a Gemma Navarro,d Aurea Morillo,a,e Maria José Pérez,a,f Angela Domínguez,a,b and the Working Group of the Project PI12/02079

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    ABSTRACT

    Seasonal influenza epidemics remain a considerable burden in adults, especially in those at higher risk of complications. The aim of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza-related hospitalization in patients aged ≥65 y admitted to 20 hospitals from 7 Spanish regions during the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. Bivariate analysis was used to compare costs in vaccinated and unvaccinated cases. Costs were calculated according to the Spanish National Health System diagnosis-related group tables for influenza and other respiratory system conditions (GRD 89 and GRD 101). A total of 728 confirmed influenza cases were recorded: 52.9% were male, 46.7% were aged 75–84 years, and 49.3% received influenza vaccine ≥15 d prior to hospital admission. Influenza-related mean hospitalization costs (MHC) were € 1,184,808 in unvaccinated and € 1,152,333 in vaccinated cases (2.75% lower). Influenza vaccination showed significant protection against ICU admission (OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.21–0.59; p < 0001); mechanical ventilation (OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.39–0.80; p = 0.002); secondary bacterial pneumonia (OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.39–0.98; p = 0.04) and a higher degree of dependence (OR 0.74, 95%CI 0.55–0.99; p = 0.04). No association was observed for the Charlson comorbidity index or the mean hospital stay. Although influenza vaccination of the elderly may not achieve significant savings in mean hospitalization costs, it may lessen the degree of severity and avoid complications.

    KEYWORDS: Influenza, hospitalization, cost, elderly, immunization

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    Introduction

    Every year, seasonal influenza causes a large disease burden with large numbers of influenza infections in all age groups. Influenza is a self-limiting illness, but severe secondary complications may occur and often require hospitalization, overwhelming hospital capacities and resulting in excess influenza-related mortality, especially in the elderly. Population aging is undoubtedly going to be a key demographic challenge in many countries. The latest Eurostat projections (Europop2010) show that, over the next 50 years, population aging is likely to attain unprecedented levels in 31 European countries. This increasing trend to an aging population, low birth rates, and increased life-expectancy highlights the importance of assessing the costs these demographic changes imply.1

    Vaccination remains the primary means for reducing the burden of influenza yet, despite the availability of immunization strategies, influenza remains a threat, especially for those at greater risk of severe illness such as young children and the elderly. Each year in the US, influenza is associated with approximately 30,000 excess deaths 1,250,000 hospitalizations, and billions of dollars in health care costs.2,3 The European Centers for Disease Control (ECDC) estimate that nearly 40,000 people in the European Union die prematurely each year due to causes associated with influenza, and that up to 90% of these deaths and nearly 50% of excess hospitalizations occur in persons aged ≥ 65 years, especially those with underlying medical conditions.4,5

    Because the elderly are at increased risk for serious complications due to influenza, they have a high priority in annual vaccination strategies, together with pregnant women, healthcare personnel and people of all ages with underlying comorbidities.Influenza vaccination is recommended annually to ensure an optimal match between the vaccine and the prevailing influenza strains and because, unlike the long-lasting, strain-specific immunity following natural infection, influenza vaccines induce protection of relatively short duration, particularly in the elderly.6 Annual vaccination is safe and effective and a cost-saving means of preventing and controlling influenza in the elderly. In 2009, the Council of the European Union influenza immunization coverage target for people aged ≥65 y was set at 75% by 2014/15, the same goal as applied to all defined target groups.7 Despite these recommendations, influenza vaccination rates remain limited, even in targeted populations.8

    Furthermore, most hospitalizations associated with influenza infections are not correctly recorded in the discharge diagnosis, resulting in substantial uncertainty about the magnitude of the clinical and economic burden.9

    Various factors influence the impact of influenza in the elderly. On the one hand, repeated contact with different influenza viruses produces a wide range of immune memory which may be protective but, on the other hand, impaired immunity due to senesce increases susceptibility to influenza. In addition, underlying medical conditions may greatly worsen the disease course. Thus, although morbidity is usually low in the elderly, influenza may occasionally have a severe and complicated clinical course.10 A study in the elderly by Mullooly et al. found an influenza-associated hospitalization rate of 560 per 100,000 persons in subjects with underlying medical conditions: the rate in healthy persons aged ≥65 y was one third lower.11 Data from the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISS) show cumulative incidence rates in people aged ≥65 y were the lowest of all age groups in the community setting, but that hospitalization rates for severe laboratory-confirmed influenza (SLCI) were the highest, accounting for 59% of all SLCI cases hospitalized and 75% of deaths during 2 influenza seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015).12,13 Excess hospitalization of severe cases during the influenza epidemic season results in greater health costs and a greater work load for hospital services. Reports estimating costs have shown differences between countries, although the magnitude of the economic burden due to influenza excess hospitalizations is of great relevance everywhere.10,14-16

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    What is a significant personal cost associated with the flu.?

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