if you want to remove an article from website contact us from top.

    which of the following statements accurately uses the information presented to support the hypothesis that interruption of m function in a single body cell can result in cancer?

    James

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get which of the following statements accurately uses the information presented to support the hypothesis that interruption of m function in a single body cell can result in cancer? from EN Bilgi.

    AP Cell cycle Review

    Find and create gamified quizzes, lessons, presentations, and flashcards for students, employees, and everyone else. Get started for free!

    AP Cell cycle Review

    Source : quizizz.com

    Cancer and the cell cycle

    How cancer can be linked to overactive positive cell cycle regulators (oncogenes) or inactive negative regulators (tumor suppressors).

    If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

    If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

    Help us do more

    “We'll get right to the point: we're asking you to help support Khan Academy. We're a nonprofit that relies on support from people like you. If everyone reading this gives $12 monthly, Khan Academy can continue to thrive for years. Please help keep Khan Academy free, for anyone, anywhere forever. Thank you!” - Sal, Founder and CEO

    Gifts from now through Dec 31 will be matched. Give Now!

    Donate today!

    Regulation of cell cycle

    Cancer and the cell cycle

    Introduction

    What’s wrong with cancer cells?

    Diagram showing different responses of normal and cancer cells to growth factor presence or absence.

- Normal cells in a culture dish will not divide without the addition of growth factors.

- Cancer cells in a culture dish will divide whether growth factors are provided or not.

    Diagram showing different responses of normal and cancer cells to conditions that would typically trigger apoptosis.

- A normal cell with unfixable DNA damaged will undergo apoptosis.

- A cancer cell with unfixable DNA damage will not undergo apoptosis and will instead continue dividing.

    How cancer develops

    Diagram of a hypothetical series of mutations that might lead to cancer development.

In the first step, an initial mutation inactivates a negative cell cycle regulator.

In one of the descendants of the original cell, a new mutation takes place, making a positive cell cycle regulator overly active.

In one of the descendants of this second cell, a third mutation takes place, inactivating a genome stability factor.

Once the genome stability factor is inactivated, additional mutations accumulate rapidly in the cell's descendants (because mutations are no longer prevented or repaired as efficiently).

Once a critical mass of mutations affecting relevant processes is reached, the cell bearing the mutations acquires cancerous characteristics (uncontrolled division, evasion of apoptosis, capacity for metastasis, etc.) and is said to be a cancer cell.

    Cell cycle regulators and cancer

    Oncogenes

    Oncogenic form of the Ras protein.

Normal Ras is activated when growth factors bind to growth factor receptors. When active, Ras switches to its GTP-bound form and triggers a signaling pathway leading to cell division and proliferation. Normal Ras then exchanges GTP for GDP and returns to its inactive state until the cell perceives more growth factors.

An oncogenic form of Ras becomes permanently locked in its GTP-bound, active form. The oncogenic Ras protein activates a signaling pathway leading to growth and proliferation even when growth factors are not present.

    Tumor suppressors

    Diagram showing normal p53 and nonfunctional p53.

In response to DNA damage, normal p53 binds DNA and promotes transcription of target genes. First, p53 triggers production of Cdk inhibitor proteins, pausing the cell cycle in G1 to allow time for repairs. p53 also activates DNA repair pathways. Finally, if DNA repair is not possible, p53 triggers apoptosis. The net effect of p53's activities is to prevent the inheritance of damaged DNA, either by getting the damage repaired or by causing the cell to self-destruct.

When a cell contains only nonfunctional p53 that cannot bind DNA, DNA damage can no longer trigger any of these three responses. Although p53 is still activated by the damage, it is helpless to respond, as it can no longer regulate transcription of its targets. Thus, the cell does not pause in G1, DNA damage is not repaired, and apoptosis is not induced. The net effect of the loss of p53 is to permit damaged DNA (mutations) to be passed on to daughter cells.

    Check your understanding: viruses and cancer

    Are you a student or a teacher?

    Regulation of cell cycle

    Questions

    Tips & Thanks

    Want to join the conversation?

    Great Answer

    Cancer and the cell cycle

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Do you want to see answer or more ?
    James 10 month ago
    4

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    Click For Answer