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    which of the following statements best illustrates the fact that skeletal muscle is voluntary muscle?

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    Muscle Tissue Practice Exam Flashcards

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    Muscle Tissue Practice Exam

    Tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules

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    What is the role of Tropomyosin in skeletal muscles?

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    Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?

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    Tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules

    What is the role of Tropomyosin in skeletal muscles?

    Smooth Muscle Cells

    Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?

    The I bands to appear smaller

    When a sarcomere contracts and thin filaments move over thick filaments you would expect to see ________?

    a) skeletal muscle fibers are innervated by somatic motor neurons

    Which of the following statements best illustrates the fact that skeletal muscles is voluntary muscle?

    a) skeletal muscle fibers are innervated by somatic motor neurons

    b) the shivering reflex aids in maintaining body temperature

    c) skeletal muscle appears striated due to the structure of the sarcomeres.

    d) skeletal muscle is wrapped in several layers of connective tissues. The deepest layer being the endomysium.

    Produce movement through contractile forces

    Approximately 80% of a muscle fiber's volume are the myofibrils. This characteristic reflects muscles ability to _______?

    Multinucleated muscle fibers that can extend as long as 30 cm

    During development embryonic cells will fuse to form muscle fibers. This will result in _____?

    b) Skeletal muscle is a heavy consumer of energy

    Of the following items listed below, which is the best description for why skeletal muscles store glycogen?

    a) Glycogen provides a smooth surface for filaments to slide on

    b) Skeletal muscle is a heavy consumer of energy

    c) the glycogen is an insulating layer that helps regulate body temperature

    d) Glycogen is part of muscles rigid supporting network

    Refractory Period

    When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which period?

    a mixture of fiber types

    Must skeletal muscles contain _______

    changes in length and moves the "load"

    In an isotonic contraction, the muscle _____

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum

    What structure in skeletal muscles cells functions in calcium storage?

    myofibrils

    the contractile units of skeletal muscles are ____

    actin

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

    endomysium

    Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?

    a) epimysium b) fascicle c) endomysium d) perimysium myoglobin

    The oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is ______?

    Motor neuron action potential

    neurotransmitter release

    muscle cell action potential

    release of calcium ions from SR

    ATP-driven power stroke

    sliding of myofilaments

    What is the correct sequence of events for muscle contraction?

    a sarcomere

    What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle called?

    b) certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers

    Which of the following is true about smooth muscle?

    a) smooth muscle, in contrast to skeletal muscle, cannot synthesize or secret any connective tissue elements

    b) certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers

    c) smooth muscle has well-developed T tubules at the site of invagination

    d) smooth muscle cannot stretch as much as skeletal muscle

    enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction

    What is the functional role of the T tubules?

    Secretion

    Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except _____?

    a) contractility b) excitability c) secretion d) extensibility

    c) striated muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei

    Which of the following statements is true?

    a) smooth muscle cells have T tubules

    b) cardiac muscle cells are found in the heart and large blood vessels

    c) striated muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei

    d) cardiac muscle cells have many nuclei

    lactic acid

    During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficent oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to _____?

    actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping

    The sliding filament model of contraction involves ____

    acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh

    After nervous stimulation stops, what prevents ACh in the synaptic cleft from continuing to stimulate contractions?

    the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy to move the body

    What is the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue?

    d) multiunit smooth muscle

    Of the following muscle types, which has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres, and few gap junctions?

    a) skeletal muscle

    b) visceral smooth muscle

    c) cardiac muscle

    d) multiunit smooth muscle

    motor end plate

    What part of the sarcolemma contains acetylcholine receptors?

    Source : quizlet.com

    Chapter 9 Flashcards

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    Chapter 9

    97cards Tiffany L. Biology

    Human Anatomy & Physiology

    A myosin molecule in the thick filaments can be considered a protein having a quaternary structural level. Which of the following best describes this structural level?

    Myosin molecules consist of two heavy and to light polypeptide chains.

    Of the following items listed below, which is the best description for why skeletal muscle stores glycogen.

    Skeletal muscle is a heavy consumer of energy.

    Oxygen starved tissues can release chemical signals into the blood that can change the diameter of nearby blood vessels delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. In doing so the blood vessels will respond through vasodilation (widening of the vessel). Which muscle type is responsible for this vasodilation?

    smooth muscle

    Although all the anatomical parts of muscle work together to give it it's characteristics, which of the following proteins listed below would be most associated with

    the characteristics of contractility?

    thick (myosin) filaments

    Although all the anatomical parts of muscle work together to give it it's characteristics, which of the following proteins listed below would be most associated with

    the characteristics of excitability?

    acetylcholine receptors in the motor end plate

    Although all the anatomical parts of muscle work together to give it it's characteristics, which of the following proteins listed below would be most associated with

    the characteristics of extensibility?

    elastic (titin) filaments

    What is the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue?

    the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy to move the body

    Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?

    smooth

    Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except ________.

    secretion

    Which of the following statements is true?

    Skeletal muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei.

    One of the important functions of skeletal muscle contraction is production of heat. T/F

    True

    Cardiac muscle has a limited regenerative capacity.T/F

    True

    During development embryonic cells will fuse to form muscle fibers. This will result in ________.

    multinucleated muscle fibers that can extend as long as 30 centimeters

    Approximately 80% of a muscle fiber's volume are the myofibrils. This characteristic reflects muscles ability to ________.

    produce movement through contractile force

    Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?

    endomysium

    What is the role of tropomyosin in skeletal muscles?

    Tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules.

    What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?

    sarcoplasmic reticulum

    What does excess postexercise oxygen consumption represent?

    the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and the amount actually used

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

    actin filaments

    Rigor mortis occurs because ________.

    no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules

    The contractile units of skeletal muscles are ________.

    myofibrils

    What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle called?

    a sarcomere

    What is the functional role of the T tubules?

    enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction

    Which of the following is the correct sequence of events for muscle contractions?

    motor neuron action potential, neurotransmitter release, muscle cell action potential, release of calcium ions from SR, ATP-driven power stroke, sliding of myofilaments

    The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________.

    actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping

    Hypothetically, if a muscle were stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped,

    no muscle tension could be generated

    Myoglobin ________.

    stores oxygen in muscle cells

    An increase in the calcium ion level in the sarcoplasm starts the sliding of the thin filaments. When the level of calcium ions declines, sliding stops. T/F

    True

    When a muscle fiber contracts, the I bands diminish in size, the H zones disappear, and the A bands move closer together but do not diminish in length. T/F

    True

    The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that bears active sites for myosin attachment. T/F

    True

    Curare is a poisonous plant extract. Curare molecules have a chemical structure like the neurotransmitter ACh. Curare can bind to the ACh receptor site on the chemically gated ion channels in the motor end plate. Even though curare will bind to the receptor site it will not open the ion channel and no ions will pass through. What do you think the symptoms of curare poisoning would look like?

    Curare will only affect muscles with ACh receptors, paralyzing them.

    Myasthenia gravis is a disease that is believed to be caused by autoimmune disorder, resulting in the loss of ACh receptors at the motor end plate of muscle fibers. Which of the following is likely to be a symptom of myasthenia gravis?

    weakness of muscle

    Source : www.chegg.com

    Frontiers

    Skeletal muscle represents the largest adipose tissue-free body mass in humans. In addition to its primary function in the maintenance of upright posture and the production of movement, it also plays important roles in many other physiological processes, including thermogenesis, metabolism and the secretion of peptides for communication with other tissues. Research attempting to unveil these processes has traditionally focused on muscle fibers, i.e. the contractile muscle cells. However, it is a frequently overlooked fact that muscle fibers reside in a three-dimensional scaffolding that consists of various collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans and elastin, and is commonly referred to as extracellular matrix (ECM). While initially believed to be relatively inert, current research reveals the involvement of ECM cells in numerous important physiological processes. In interaction with other cells, such as fibroblasts or cells of the immune system, the ECM regulates muscle development, growth and repair and is essential for effective muscle contraction and force transmission. Since muscle ECM is highly malleable, its texture and, consequently, physiological roles may be affected by physical training and disuse, aging or various diseases, such as diabetes. With the aim to stimulate increased efforts to study this still poorly understood tissue, this narrative review summarizes the current body of knowledge on (i) the composition and structure of the ECM, (ii) molecular pathways involved in ECM remodeling, (iii) the physiological roles of muscle ECM, (iv) dysregulations of ECM with aging and disease as well as (v) the adaptations of muscle ECM to training and disuse.

    REVIEW article

    Front. Physiol., 19 March 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00253

    Skeletal Muscle Extracellular Matrix – What Do We Know About Its Composition, Regulation, and Physiological Roles? A Narrative Review

    Robert Csapo1*, Matthias Gumpenberger1 and Barbara Wessner2

    1Research Unit for Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and Injury Prevention, Institute for Sports Medicine, Alpine Medicine & Health Tourism, UMIT - Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall, Austria

    2Department of Sports Medicine, Exercise Physiology and Prevention, Centre for Sport Science and University Sports, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

    Skeletal muscle represents the largest body-composition component in humans. In addition to its primary function in the maintenance of upright posture and the production of movement, it also plays important roles in many other physiological processes, including thermogenesis, metabolism and the secretion of peptides for communication with other tissues. Research attempting to unveil these processes has traditionally focused on muscle fibers, i.e., the contractile muscle cells. However, it is a frequently overlooked fact that muscle fibers reside in a three-dimensional scaffolding that consists of various collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and elastin, and is commonly referred to as extracellular matrix (ECM). While initially believed to be relatively inert, current research reveals the involvement of ECM cells in numerous important physiological processes. In interaction with other cells, such as fibroblasts or cells of the immune system, the ECM regulates muscle development, growth and repair and is essential for effective muscle contraction and force transmission. Since muscle ECM is highly malleable, its texture and, consequently, physiological roles may be affected by physical training and disuse, aging or various diseases, such as diabetes. With the aim to stimulate increased efforts to study this still poorly understood tissue, this narrative review summarizes the current body of knowledge on (i) the composition and structure of the ECM, (ii) molecular pathways involved in ECM remodeling, (iii) the physiological roles of muscle ECM, (iv) dysregulations of ECM with aging and disease as well as (v) the adaptations of muscle ECM to training and disuse.

    Introduction

    Skeletal muscle is an important body-composition component in humans, typically accounting for more than 40% and 30% of total body mass in men and women, respectively (Kim et al., 2002). The most apparent function of skeletal muscles is to generate the forces required to maintain an upright posture and produce movement. However, skeletal muscles do also play important roles in many other physiological processes, including thermogenesis (Rowland et al., 2015), metabolism (Baskin et al., 2015) and the secretion of numerous peptides for communication with other tissues (Pedersen and Febbraio, 2012). Thus, the promotion and maintenance of skeletal muscle health is of vital importance. Although, in recent years, pharmacological exercise mimetics have attracted increasing scientific interest (Fan and Evans, 2017), it is still physical exercise that is considered the by far most potent and universally applicable tool for these purposes.

    Over the past decades, thousands of training studies have been performed in an attempt to identify the exercise modalities most suited to increase muscle size and improve its functional characteristics in different cohorts (for instance, at the time this manuscript was written, Pubmed yielded more than 24,000 results for the search operators “exercise” and “muscle strength”). The outcomes of these studies have inspired various exercise prescription guidelines, probably the best known of which are the position stands published and updated in irregular intervals by the American College of Sports Medicine (2009), Garber et al. (2011). Most studies base their evaluation of the efficacy of training interventions on the examination of contractile muscle cells. Frequently studied parameters involve muscle size as measured at the organ (Fisher et al., 2011) or cellular level (Schoenfeld, 2010), fiber type distribution (Adams et al., 1993), architecture (Aagaard et al., 2001) as well as neural drive to muscles (Folland and Williams, 2007).

    The wealth of information on the malleability of skeletal muscles notwithstanding, it is a frequently overlooked fact that muscle fibers are embedded into an extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of a mesh of collagenous components as well as a mixture of further macromolecules, such as various glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Recent research has demonstrated that the ECM plays an important role in the development (Thorsteinsdóttir et al., 2011), growth (Fry et al., 2017) and repair of muscles (Calve et al., 2010) as well as the transmission of contractile force (Street, 1983). While evidence to demonstrate the malleability of the ECM exists, only a paucity of studies has reported its reactions to different forms of training, suggesting that the physiological role of the ECM is not yet fully appreciated by exercise specialists. Aiming to stimulate further research into the training responses of the non-contractile components of skeletal muscles, we provide an overview over the current state of knowledge concerning the composition, structure and regulation of the ECM, its physiological roles, dysregulations associated with aging and metabolic disorders as well as adaptations to physical exercise.

    Source : www.frontiersin.org

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