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    which of the following statements explains one of the limitations associated with utilizing the measures of development shown in the table above?

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    Development Economics

    Sample Test Questions for Development Economics

    Below are a set of sample test questions taken from previous exams in Development Economics. The answers are indicated by the *. Please note that it is possible that questions have the * in the wrong place. You should think through all of these.

    Also, these are only sample questions. They are put here because students often think it is helpful to see past exams. The fact that these are here does not represent a commitment that questions on your exam will be like these or on the same subject matter. This is especially so because the subject matter and organization of the course has recently been adjusted.  In addition, as the material covered between exams changes semester to semester, the questions here are not broken into specific exams.

    1. A supply side vicious circle of poverty suggests that poor nations remain poor because

    a. saving remains low b. investment remains low c. there is a lack of effective government d. all of the above e.* a and b above

    2. The International Comparisons Project, which used purchasing power parity rates rather than market exchange rates, has found that the real standard of living in many less developed countries (LDCs) is even lower than indicated by their dollar per-capita income.

    a. true b.* false

    3. As incomes rise there tends to be a shift of labor from the services sector to the industrial sector.

    a. true b.* false

    4. Which of the following is not typically an element in the structural change that accompanies development?

    a.* increase in the share of agriculture in GDP (gross domestic product) b. increase in manufacturing as a share of GDP c. increase in urbanization d. All of the above changes accompany development

    5. The essence of Engel's law is that as family incomes rise

    a. the savings rate increases b.* the proportion of income spent on food declines c. expenditure on food declines d. proportion of income spent on luxuries declines

    6. Economic growth measures the

    a. growth of productivity b. increase in nominal income c.* increase in output d. none of the above

    7. Non-traded goods do not enter measured GDP because

    a. they are intermediate goods b.* they are not traded in the market c. there is no value-added in the production of such goods d. their value is not captured by the exchange rate method of conversion to a common unit

    8. The concept of opportunity cost is based upon the principle of

    a. need b. consumption c.* scarcity d. profit

    9. Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement about a budget constraint

    a. Points on a budget constraint represent combinations of the goods that exactly use up income b. Points within the budget constraint represent combinations of the goods that do not use up all the income. c.* If points A and B lie on the budget constraint, we can deduce that people will be indifferent between the two d. If the price of one good decreases, all else the same, the budget constraint will swivel or rotate outward

    10. When the manufacturer of power looms expands, there are forward linkage effects due to

    a. lost employment in the hand-loom sector b. increased incomes of workers that manufacture looms c.* increased output of woven cloth made by the power looms d. increased demand for electric motors

    11. Economic growth is necessary and sufficient to eradicate most of absolute poverty.

    a. true b.* false

    12. Income level or GDP is criticized as an indicator of development mainly because it takes no account of the distribution of income.

    a.* true b. false

    13. A certain amount of goods and services is necessary for a minimum standard of living. This is called

    a.* basic needs b. absolute poverty c. an international standard of living d. the concept of development

    14. With perfect income equality the Gini coefficient in a country would be

    a. infinity b. 1 c. .5 d.* 0

    15. Rawls argued that the income distribution should be determined

    a. by a free vote of all groups on a society b. by whatever the poor decide is an acceptable minimum level c.* by what all society agrees to behind a `veil of ignorance' d. as entirely equal income shares for all groups

    16. All but one of the following are methods to represent overall income inequality:

    a. variance b. Gini coefficient c. ratio of the top income decile to the lowest income decile d. Lorenz curve e.* GDP per capita

    17. The concept of choice would become irrelevant if

    a. we were dealing with a very simple, one-person economy b. poverty were eliminated c.* scarcity was eliminated d. capital was eliminated

    18. Examine the following diagram:

    The Gini coefficient is

    a.* A/(A+B) b. B/(B+A) c. A/B d. (A+B)/A

    19. According to Simon Kuznets, the relationship between GNP per capita and inequality in the distribution of income can be expressed as

    a. a strictly decreasing relationship b. a strictly increasing relationship c. no relationship d.* first increasing and then decreasing

    20. The physical quality of life index (PQLI) is an aggregation of widely available indicators of basic human needs. Which of the following is not a component of the PQLI:

    a. life expectancy b.* per capita income c. infant mortality d. literacy

    Source : www.tulane.edu

    The Human Capital Project: Frequently Asked Questions

    The Human Capital Project: Frequently Asked Questions

    The Human Capital Project: Frequently Asked Questions

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      Human Capital Project FAQs

    1. What is the Human Capital Project?2. What is human capital and why does it matter?3. What is the state of human capital in the world today?4. How is COVID-19 impacting human capital?5. What is the World Bank Group doing to help countries protect human capital?6. What can be done to protect and invest in people beyond the pandemic?7. What is the Human Capital Project expected to achieve?

    Human Capital Index FAQs

    I.         Definition, Data and Methodology

    8.What is the Human Capital Index? How is it calculated?9. What data are used to calculate the HCI?10. What are the data sources for the HCI? How are these data vetted?11. What are harmonized test scores and how are they calculated?12. How has the methodology for the Human Capital Index been reviewed?13. Does the Human Capital Index report country rankings?14. How often is the Human Capital Index updated?15. Why doesn’t the Human Capital Index cover all countries?16.What are the limitations of the HCI?

    II.         HCI Analysis

    17. How has the Human Capital Index evolved since its launch in 2018?18. What does the Human Capital Index show for girls and boys?19. How has COVID-19 affected the Human Capital Index?20. What is the Utilization-Adjusted Human Capital Index?21. How does the Human Capital Index differ from UNDP’s Human Development Index?22. How does the Human Capital Index relate to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?23. How does the Human Capital Index capture all aspects of human capital?1.   What is the Human Capital Project?

    The Human Capital Project is a global effort to accelerate more and better investments in people for greater equity and economic growth. As of July 2021, 82 countries at all income levels are working with the World Bank Group on strategic approaches to transform their human capital outcomes. We are scaling up human capital investments in Sub-Saharan Africa with a strong focus on women’s empowerment, leveraging technology, and accelerating innovation, among other priorities. In the Middle East and North Africa, we are focusing on areas such as early childhood and building the resilience of vulnerable people.

    We have launched a Human Capital Project country network to connect governments that are prioritizing human capital and to channel expertise where it is most needed. Focal points, usually based in the Ministries of Finance, Economy, or Planning (and sometimes in sectoral ministries) connect regularly to exchange knowledge and feedback.

    Human capital is at the center of our global strategy for development. Protecting and investing in people is one of three main ways we are working to reach our goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity in all countries. It is closely integrated with our efforts to promote sustainable, inclusive growth and build resilience across developing countries. It is also a cross-cutting priority for IDA-19, the current cycle of IDA financing covering July 2020 - June 2023, the World Bank Group’s fund for the world’s poorest countries.

    [Top]

    2. What is human capital and why does it matter?

    Human capital consists of the knowledge, skills, and health that people invest in and accumulate throughout their lives, enabling them to realize their potential as productive members of society. Investing in people through nutrition, health care, quality education, jobs and skills helps develop human capital, and this is key to ending extreme poverty and creating more inclusive societies.

    As noted in the , the frontier for skills is moving rapidly, bringing both opportunities and risks. There is mounting evidence that unless they strengthen their human capital, countries cannot achieve sustained, inclusive economic growth, will not have a workforce prepared for the more highly skilled jobs of the future, and will not compete effectively in the global economy. The cost of inaction on human capital development is going up.

    Finance Ministers who have been meeting to discuss human capital at recent Spring and Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group have emphasized the importance of human capital to the jobs and economic transformation agenda in countries at all stages of development.

    [Top]

    3.   What is the state of human capital in the world today?

    Despite unprecedented human development gains over the past 25 years, serious challenges remain, especially for developing countries.

    In 2019, more than 1 in 5 young children were stunted due to under-nutrition (with low height for their age—a red flag indicator for the risk of physical and cognitive deficits) (JME 2020). The current global pandemic may lead to even higher numbers of children stunted.

    A learning crisis is holding many countries back. Data show that in some countries, children acquire significantly fewer years of learning than in other countries, despite being in school the same length of time. This is exacerbated by the pandemic – with many children out of school and losing out on learning.

    Source : www.worldbank.org

    Unit 6 Test Bank AP Human Geography Flashcards

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    Unit 6 Test Bank AP Human Geography

    1. Which of the following best explains a benefit of membership in the European Union?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    E. Member states form a single market, which creates a powerful economic bloc.

    Click again to see term 👆

    2. The port of Los Angeles is the busiest port in the United States and a major break-of-bulk point. Which of the following statements correctly explains why Los Angeles is a break-of-bulk point?

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    B. The port can accommodate large container ships that can be unloaded quickly so that containers can be transferred onto carriers that use California's highway and rail systems.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/40 Created by charlesmartin14 Yuh

    Terms in this set (40)

    1. Which of the following best explains a benefit of membership in the European Union?

    E. Member states form a single market, which creates a powerful economic bloc.

    2. The port of Los Angeles is the busiest port in the United States and a major break-of-bulk point. Which of the following statements correctly explains why Los Angeles is a break-of-bulk point?

    B. The port can accommodate large container ships that can be unloaded quickly so that containers can be transferred onto carriers that use California's highway and rail systems.

    3. Which of the following concepts explains the decision to relocate market-oriented factories in the United States from the Midwest and Northeast to locations in the southern United States or Mexico?

    A. Comparative advantage, because products can be made more efficiently in the southern United States and Mexico. Operating costs and wages are lower, and the manufactured products are easily transported to major United States markets.

    4. Core-periphery models are generally based on the idea that

    C. sharp spatial contrasts in social and economic development exist between economic heartlands outlying subordinate areas

    5-10. FRQ FRQ

    11. Economic activities that involve the extraction of natural resources, such as lumbering, fishing, mining, and agriculture, are called

    D. primary economic activities

    12. Economic complementarities between two places tend to

    C. occur when the places specialize in the same commodities

    13. Which of the following best explains the relationship between GDP per capita and world system theory?

    A. There is an uneven distribution of economic development and geographical division of labor in the world.

    14. A clustering of doctor's offices and pharmacies near hospitals is BEST explained by the benefits of

    C. intervening opportunity

    15. Which of the following statements best explains a limitation of the political map shown in conveying economic information?

    A. In the context of currency, the borders between the member states are irrelevant.

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