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    which of the following sets of data provides evidence that best supports common ancestry for organisms in all three domains?

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    unit 7 progress check: mcq ap bio

    unit 7 progress check: mcq ap bio

    unit 7 progress check: mcq ap bio unit 7 progress check: mcq ap bio

    The degree of relatedness is inversely proportional to genetic diversity; that is, populations with a high degree of relatedness have less genetic diversity. Natural selection acted on variation that was present in both populations A and B, and the lack of gene flow eventually led to the formation of two new species. A closely related species of tobacco that is resistant to the virus becomes established during that same year. Populations with little genetic diversity are less likely to contain individuals that can withstand different selective pressures. A famous study from the nineteenth century involves the peppered moth, Biston betularia, commonly found in Great Britain and Ireland. anask8r. The population was predominantly black throughout the nineteenth century. Of the following, which is the best next step for the researchers to best determine the long-term effectiveness of these insecticides with regards to the development of resistance? To prevent the loss of genes as chromosome ends wear down during DNA replication, the tips of eukaryotic chromosomes have specialized DNA "caps" called telomeres. Observed modern extinction rates will resemble the rates found early in previous extinctions. The geneticist determines the genotypes for a particular trait of all of the mice in the population during generation 1 and then removes all of the mice with the genotype aa. AP Biology Unit 1 Test Review DRAFT. Convergent evolution, because these organisms do not share a recent common ancestor. Students created a model showing one possible mechanism for speciation in which a geographic barrier separated one large population into two smaller populations, A and B. A shift to less polluting fuel in the twentieth led to cleaner air and a lightening of the moth's normal habitat. Some researchers claim that the decrease in plant species richness of this woodlot is unrelated to human activities over the last forty years. One group is given food with an added substance that is known to be a mutagen. may check with the college or university you plan to attend for details. Exercise 1. Which of the following sets of data provides evidence that best supports common ancestry for organisms in all three domains? In a particular region, a species of lizard lives in the lowlands. A group of birds is found in an island chain that have all descended from a single ancestral species. Inspire Science for grades 6–8 is designed to spark your middle school students’ interest and empower them to ask more questions, think more critically, and generate innovative ideas. Because cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, experienced a bottleneck event about ten thousand years ago, living cheetahs exhibit very little genetic variation compared to other living species of large cats. Cells with mitochondria were able to utilize metabolic energy more efficiently. Table 1 presents the genotypic data from sampled mice from all seven locations. In addition to the ABO blood groups, humans have an MN blood type system in which the M and N alleles are codominant to one another. In a particular region, a 40 terms. The degrees of relatedness in several native populations of prairie chickens in Marion and Jasper Counties in Illinois were determined. Multiple-Choice: ~20 questions Free-Response: 2 questions § Interpreting and Evaluating Experimental Results with Graphing (partial) §Scientific Investigation (partial) Cellular 0. A researcher uses the protocol shown in Figure 1 to isolate a eukaryotic gene for the purpose of genetically engineering bacteria to synthesize the corresponding protein. kevingdang. rohanpatel18. Researchers collected mice from six sites in Arizona and recorded their coat colors. The scientists identified a period of stability or stasis, followed by rapid change, and then stasis again with regard to shell shape. In the presence of available energy and the absence of a significant quantity of atmospheric O2O2 simple proteins will form spontaneously from a mixture of amino acids. Positive and normative economics Unit 4. ap psychology unit 11 notes, My name is Ms. We work very hard. In an experiment, the scientist creates two groups of twenty highly inbred mice. Specimen 4 (lowest amount of carbon-14 bcs half life). This is … 497 times. View AP Biology Unit 7 Evolution; MCQ Questions 7.pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at Oakland High School, Oakland. They found that although all 12 populations were exposed to the same environmental pressures, each population had differentiated from one another genetically after 10,000 generations. The second group is fed the same food without the mutagen. A group of scientists found that in one population the frequency of the M allele was 0.82, and the frequency of the N allele was 0.18. Unit 2 Progress Check: MCQ Unit 2 Progress Check: FRQ Part A Unit 2 Progress Check: FRQ Part B Full Assignment List Join another course to get access to AP resources and assignments. He noticed that several caged European robins were becoming restless and attempting to fly to the southwestern part of the cage. Five plant species (1 through 5) were surveyed, with the results shown in Table 1. The researchers built an enclosure to prevent migration into and out of the O'Neill rock pocket mouse population for a period of two years. The animals in population A were reproductively isolated from those in populations B, C, and D. Mollusk fossils were excavated and collected from a coastal cliff. By the end of the twentieth century, the peppered version of the moth was again more common than the black version. 123 UNIT 7: Natural Selection 147 UNIT 8: Ecology LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS ... AP Biology Course and Exam Description V.1 ... with free formative assessments—Personal Progress Checks—that teachers can assign throughout the year Even though the population has rebounded following restrictions on seal hunting, genetic variation is greatly reduced in the northern species compared to that in the southern species. Geographic isolation will create separate gene pools, leading to speciation over time. The results of breeding programs can be seen in the change in winning times of the Kentucky Derby from 1880 to the present, as shown in Figure 1. The increased air pollution of the nineteenth century due to the use of coal led to a darkening of surfaces from soot. Over time, populations A and B developed into two distinct species. Scientists studying the fossils observed patterns of changing shell shape in the mollusks. specks42. Biology. Figure 1 shows the study sites, the rock colors, and the distribution of coat colors. AP Classroom Unit 2 Progress Check: MCQ Part A Sand Question 15 a A food truck owner recorded the temperature at noon, in degrees Fahrenheit, and the number of bowls of soup sold during the lunch hour for a random sample of 5 days. A population of the species has the following allele frequencies: B=0.85 and b=0.15. Populations M1 through M5 are located in Marion County. Start studying A.P BIO unit 7 test. Natural selection acted on variation that was present in both populations A and B, and the lack of gene flow eventually led to the formation of two new species. This hypothesis states that the first genetic material was RNA, not DNA, and a transitional period led to the emergence of DNA as the storage molecule for genetic material. You have remained in right site to start getting this info. AP Biology Scoring Guide Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part A … Table 1 shows the collected data. Scientists monitored the area for the next five years to determine how this change affected the moth population. A drop by 1 pH unit represents which of these? 25 terms. The animals in population A were reproductively isolated from those in populations B, C, and D. The distribution of four populations of giant kangaroo rats, Dipodomys ingens, living on the same island when it was first surveyed in 1789 are shown in Figure 1. The MC1RD allele is not responsible for dark coat color in the Carrizozo population, so the dark coat color is likely a result of convergent evolution. The nectary tube in the resistant species averages 7.5cm. Stevec02041. Scientists studying the fossils observed patterns of changing shell shape in the mollusks. The presence of MC1RdMC1Rd alleles in the East lava flow population is an indication of gene flow from mice populations living on light granite rocks. Most of the species found in the first static period will be absent in the second static period. AP Biology Unit 1 Test Review DRAFT. A mixture of ribonucleotides such as adenine and uracil will spontaneously form single-stranded chains of RNA . Ap Bio: Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ. The telomeric repeat sequences for selected organisms are given in Table 1. Over time, populations A and B developed into two distinct species. Researchers collected samples of mice from all six study sites and sequenced the MC1R gene. The model is shown in Figure 1. A shift to less polluting fuel in the twentieth led to cleaner air and a lightening of the moth's normal habitat. Because cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, experienced a bottleneck event about ten thousand years ago, living cheetahs exhibit very little genetic variation compared to other living species of large cats. Scientific evidence has revealed five mass extinctions in the history of life on Earth. A population geneticist is conducting an investigation on a population of mice. In an exercise to understand how genetically controlled physical traits could affect speciation, a theoretical population was imagined that contained organisms with three shapes and three levels of pigmentation, as illustrated in Figure 1. These alleles code for glycoproteins that act as antigens on the red blood cells. Iridium is an element that is rare on Earth but commonly found in meteorites. After 20 generations of allowing this population of about 1000 flies to mate randomly, 10 females and 10 males were isolated from the rest of the population. Organisms in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya each have adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine bases forming their DNA. Both the larger population and the isolated population were maintained under identical conditions and allowed to mate randomly for another 20 generations. View AP Biology Unit 7 Evolution; MCQ Questions 15.pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at Oakland High School, Oakland. Introduction to APES. The Sino‑Himalayan fern, Lepisorus clathratus is widely distributed on the Qinghai‑Tibetan plateau. Telomeres consist of hundreds or thousands of repeats of the same short DNA sequence, which varies between organisms. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. Figure 1 shows the phylogeny of the birds. There are two species of elephant seals: northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, found off the western coast of North America from Baja California to the Gulf of Alaska, and southern elephant seals, M. leonina, found in the southern oceans. Ap biology unit 2 progress check Inspire Science 6–8 Integrated: A Middle School Science Curriculum. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Some lizards will migrate to new habitats in the mountains and become isolated, leading to allopatric speciation. The heterotroph hypothesis of the origin of life states that basic organic building blocks formed from inorganic molecules under the primitive conditions present early in Earth's development. Based on the phylogenetic relationships shown in Figure 1, which of the following best explains the similarities exhibited by whales, bony fishes, and cartilaginous fishes? rahulv2002. Even though there are numerous mountains in the region, the climate on the mountains is too cold for the lizards to survive. Edit. Personal Progress Check 7 Multiple-choice: ~15 questions Free-response: 1 question §ay and Arr ArrayList (ArrayList focus). The MC1RDMC1RD allele is not responsible for dark coat color in the Carrizozo population, so the dark coat color is likely a result of convergent evolution. unit 5 ap bio test. The researchers determined that the East lava flow population is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. At that time, the moths, normally white with black speckles, known as the peppered variety, became less common than the solid black variety. mmaliekal. Geographic isolation will create separate gene pools, leading to speciation over time. Researchers have undertaken a long-term study of populations of rock pocket mice, Chaetodipus intermedius, in Arizona and New Mexico. The frequency of the MC1RD allele will decline due to natural selection. The darker backgrounds conferred a selective advantage to the black variety, as described by natural selection. In a certain small mammal, fur color is controlled by a pair of alleles, with B being dominant over b. AP Biology Scoring Guide Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part A … The plant species will flower earlier in the spring in response to rising temperatures before the arrival of the pollinators, so seeds will not be produced. The frequency of the MC1RD allele will decline due to natural selection. Students created a model showing one possible mechanism for speciation in which a geographic barrier separated one large population into two smaller populations, A and B. Which of these would be an appropriate null hypothesis to test related to whether meteorites hit the Earth 3.6 billion years ago? Scientists determined the frequencies of the M and N alleles in five localized and stable human populations in the Philippines (Figure 1). Mollusk fossils were excavated and collected from a coastal cliff. Dr. Sidney Fox wished to add to the heterotroph hypothesis of the origin of life by synthesizing simple proteins from a mixture of amino acids. Models of a prokaryote, first eukaryotic common ancestor, and last eukaryotic common ancestor. Based on the data in Table 1, which of the following best describes the relationship between the MC1R gene and coat color in the Carrizozo, New Mexico, rock pocket mouse population? Most of the species found in the first static period will be absent in the second static period. Henslow's sparrow populations came to a peak in the mid‑1900s. The two populations will show significant genetic differences because the founder effect will result in significant losses in diversity in the smaller population. The plant species will flower earlier in the spring in response to rising temperatures before the arrival of the pollinators, so seeds will not be produced. Introns must be removed from eukaryotic DNADNA before the gene is inserted into the plasmid. By 1940, most genetic variation for speed had been lost from the gene pool. 64 terms. Lisaaax. If a fire caused the surface of the ground in the habitat of the species to become darker in color, which of the following claims about the impact on the allele frequencies in this population is most reasonable. By the end of the twentieth century, the peppered version of the moth was again more common than the black version. The model is shown in Figure 1. Continue treating the three insect populations with the same insecticides and determine whether their efficiencies decline significantly after several generations. AP Biology Topic 9 Quiz 1. A group of scientists found that in one population the frequency of the M allele was 0.82, and the frequency of the N allele was 0.18. Populations M1 through M5 are located in Marion County. The frequency of the BB allele will increase because light-colored individuals will be more visible to predators. Evolution Unit 2. 3 years ago. The remaining members of the population are allowed to randomly mate with one another to produce generation 2 and future generations. The Sino‑Himalayan fern, Lepisorus clathratus is widely distributed on the Qinghai‑Tibetan plateau. Jenae_Fernandes. A scientist wishes to provide experimental evidence to support the model shown in Figure 1 by demonstrating the ability to synthesize an RNA molecule. 7 terms. 7 progress check, units 3-4. Figure 1. Which of the following is an alternative hypothesis that can be tested to support the RNA World Hypothesis? Even though there are numerous mountains in the region, the climate on the mountains is too cold for the lizards to survive. The degree of relatedness is inversely proportional to genetic diversity; that is, populations with a high degree of relatedness have less genetic diversity. There is no difference in iridium levels in sediments that were deposited on Earth 3.6 billion years old, compared to recent sediments. A dark coat color provides camouflage to mice on the lava flow rocks; therefore, mice with dark coats have a lower predation rate in that habitat. In a particular region, a species of lizard lives in the lowlands. It looks like your browser needs an update. Figure 1 shows the phylogenetic relationships of selected vertebrates. Bio SAT: structures and functions of Var… 30 terms. A dark coat color provides camouflage to mice on the lava flow rocks; therefore, mice with dark coats have a lower predation rate in that habitat. Of the following, which is the best next step for the researchers to best determine the long-term effectiveness of these insecticides with regards to the development of resistance? Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3 Specimen 4, . The scientists identified a period of stability or stasis, followed by rapid change, and then stasis again with regard to shell shape. Scientists want to determine the age of four fossil specimens. 24 terms. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. The M4 and M5 populations have the lowest genetic diversity of all populations. The M4M4 and M5M5 populations have the lowest genetic diversity of all populations. In the Arizona populations, the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is responsible for coat color phenotype (light or dark). Many of these species rely on pollinators that migrate based on changes in day length and the position of the Sun. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... AP bio semester II answers. The original habitat had many available unoccupied ecological niches that were colonized by populations of the original species. Populations J1 through J5 are located in Jasper County. Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part B. The presence of MC1Rd alleles in the East lava flow population is an indication of gene flow from mice populations living on light granite rocks. The current global warming trend is placing new selective pressures on the species involved in these relationships. Edit. A scientist is studying the impact of mutagens on genetic variation in mice. Humans and mice share a recent common ancestor that had the 5′-TTAGGG-3′5′-TTAGGG-3′ repeat sequence in its telomeres. Rock pocket mouse fur is either dark or light in color. Continue treating the three insect populations with the same insecticides and determine whether their efficiencies decline significantly after several generations. At that time, the moths, normally white with black speckles, known as the peppered variety, became less common than the solid black variety. Oh no! To test their claim, they monitored 12 populations of E. coli for 10,000 generations under the same environmental conditions. In humans, blood pH is around 7.4, and a decrease in blood pH to 6.4 would be fatal. Hunting in the nineteenth century has been blamed for a drastic reduction in the northern elephant seal population. Controlled fires in counties 4 and 5 will lead to an increase in the sparrow population. In addition to the ABO blood groups, humans have an MN blood type system in which the M and N alleles are co-dominant to one another. Each of the fifteen genotypes shown in generation 1 and generation 2 represents 100 mice. Lucille_Koebnick. View AP Biology Unit 7 Evolution; MCQ Questions 14.pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at Oakland High School, Oakland. Some lizards will migrate to new habitats in the mountains and become isolated, leading to allopatric speciation. Some plant species flower in response to increasing daily temperatures in the spring. In the fall of 1957, Hans Fromme was conducting research at the Frankfurt Zoological Institute in Germany. Increasing the number of trials and the number of mice in each treatment group. Many of these species rely on pollinators that migrate based on changes in day length and the position of the Sun. Cattle and sheep are separated by only one node, and they are separated from the other organisms by more than one node. Scientists are concerned that the lowlands will become much warmer by the end of the twenty-first century and will become unsuitable for this lowland lizard species. 25 terms. A recent survey of ten Midwest counties are shown in Figure 1. AP Biology Topic 9 Quiz 2. AP Biology Unit 4 Progress Check. The group of mice fed the mutagen will show a greater ability to digest the food, because the higher genetic variation within the group makes it more likely that some individuals will have a combination of genes better adapted to the new food. answer choices A famous study from the nineteenth century involves the peppered moth, Biston betularia, commonly found in Great Britain and Ireland. A 100 acre woodlot was observed for the last forty years. Numbers above 0.125 indicate a high degree of relatedness. 35 terms. The island was surveyed again in 2015, and scientists determined that the giant kangaroo rats originally in population A are now to be considered as a new species. The population was predominantly black throughout the nineteenth century. 46% average accuracy. Scientists are concerned that the lowlands will become much warmer by the end of the twenty-first century and will become unsuitable for this lowland lizard species. A scientist maintains a large population of the fruit fly Drosophila affinis in the laboratory. Cattle and sheep are separated by only one node, and they are separated from the other organisms by more than one node. AP Bio Unit 2 Progress check questions and answers Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Because the mice are highly inbred, they are essentially identical to one another. A group of researchers claim that chance events play an important role in the evolution of populations. A mixture of ribonucleotides such as adenine and uracil will spontaneously form single-stranded chains of RNA. 58 terms. The darker backgrounds conferred a selective advantage to the black variety, as described by natural selection. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Oh no! Whales, bony fishes, and cartilaginous fishes all have similar adaptations that enable them to live in the ocean. Dark color is selected for in mice from the West, Mid, and East populations. Figure 1 shows some major structural changes between a typical prokaryotic cell, the first eukaryotic common ancestor, and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. View AP Biology Unit 7 Evolution; MCQ Questions 10 and 11.pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at Oakland High School, Oakland. During the last few decades, tall buildings have been built around the woodlot, and species 3, 4, and 5 are shade‑intolerant plants. The logging industry created vast meadow habitats for the sparrow in the late 1800s. Populations with little genetic diversity are less likely to contain individuals that can withstand different selective pressures. One facet of the study of the Over the next year, a virus attacks and rapidly kills almost all plants of the tobacco species. Geologic events such as mountain building can directly affect biodiversity. Figure 1 describes a possible scenario, known as the RNA World Hypothesis, that could have led to the evolution of our modern-day genetic material. The increased air pollution of the nineteenth century due to the use of coal led to a darkening of surfaces from soot. During the last few decades, tall buildings have been built around the woodlot, and species 3, 4, and 5 are shade‑intolerant plants. The MC1RD allele, which results in a dark coat, is dominant to the d allele. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. After the 20 generations, DNA sequencing was used to determine the genetic composition of each population. AP Biology Chapter 1. They also collected mice with dark coats from a location in New Mexico, the Carrizozo lava flow, to determine if the MC1Rgene was also responsible for the dark coat colors observed in that population. A scientist believes that the first organic molecules may have come to Earth on meteorites 3.6 billion years ago. MyAP Bio Unit 5 Progress Check Answers. Convergent evolution, because these organisms do not share a recent common ancestor. AP Bio Final Exam. After several generations, both groups of mice are given a new type of food that is harder to digest than the previous food. 34 terms. View AP Biology Unit 7 Evolution; MCQ Questions 9.pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at Oakland High School, Oakland. They have analyzed the fossils and gathered the data shown in Table 1. Table 1 shows the collected data. Relationships of selected organisms based on catalase structure. One facet of the study of the origin of life focuses on the nature of the first genetic material. The rock pocket mouse population in Carrizozo is isolated from the populations in Arizona. These building blocks combined to form polymers, such as crude proteins.

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    Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part B

    Study Sets for Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part B.

    Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part B

    Organisms In Bacteria, Archaea, And Eukarya Each Have Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, And Cytosine Bases Forming Their DNA.

    In The Presence Of Available Energy And The Absence Of A Significant Quantity Of Atmospheric O2 Simple Proteins Will Form Spontaneously From A Mixture Of Amino Acids.

    There Is No Difference In Iridium Levels In Sediments That Were Deposited On Earth 3.6 Billion Years Old, Compared To Recent Sediments.

    Immigration Of Individuals From Metro Manila Into The Two Populations

    By 1940, Most Genetic Variation For Speed Had Been Lost From The Gene Pool.

    Large Population Size

    The Frequency Of The B Allele Will Increase Because Light-Colored Individuals Will Be More Visible To Predators.

    Increasing The Number Of Trials And The Number Of Mice In Each Treatment Group

    Future Generations Will Eventually Completely Lose The A Allele From The Gene Pool. There Will Not Be Any New Individuals With The Aa Genotype.

    The Group Of Mice Fed The Mutagen Will Show A Greater Ability To Digest The Food, Because The Higher Genetic Variation Within The Group Makes It More Likely That Some Individuals Will Have A Combination Of Genes Better Adapted To The New Food.

    The Original Habitat Had Many Available Unoccupied Ecological Niches That Were Colonized By Populations Of The Original Species.

    Start Each Population With Genetically Identical Bacterial Cells From A Single Culture To Make Sure That The Initial Genetic Variation In All Of The Populations Was Exactly The Same.

    Observed Modern Extinction Rates Will Resemble The Rates Found Early In Previous Extinctions.

    The Two Populations Will Show Significant Genetic Differences Because The Founder Effect Will Result In Significant Losses In Diversity In The Smaller Population.

    Controlled Fires In Counties 4 And 5 Will Lead To An Increase In The Sparrow Population.

    Bacteria And Eukaryotes Use Different MRNA Codons For The Same Amino Acids During Translation.

    Humans And Mice Share A Recent Common Ancestor That Had The 5?-TTAGGG-3?? Repeat Sequence In Its Telomeres.

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    Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part B Flashcards

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    Unit 7 Progress Check: MCQ Part B

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    Which of the following sets of data provides evidence that best supports common ancestry for organisms in all three domains?

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    Organisms in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya each have adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine bases forming their DNA.

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    Which statement below best states an alternative hypothesis Fox could have used to frame his research?

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    In the presence of available energy and the absence of a significant quantity of atmospheric O2 simple proteins will form spontaneously from a mixture of amino acids.

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    Terms in this set (18)

    Which of the following sets of data provides evidence that best supports common ancestry for organisms in all three domains?

    Organisms in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya each have adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine bases forming their DNA.

    Which statement below best states an alternative hypothesis Fox could have used to frame his research?

    In the presence of available energy and the absence of a significant quantity of atmospheric O2 simple proteins will form spontaneously from a mixture of amino acids.

    Iridium is an element that is rare on Earth but commonly found in meteorites. A scientist believes that the first organic molecules may have come to Earth on meteorites 3.6 billion years ago. Which of these would be an appropriate null hypothesis to test related to whether meteorites hit the Earth 3.6 billion years ago?

    There is no difference in iridium levels in sediments that were deposited on Earth 3.6 billion years old, compared to recent sediments.

    Based on the data in Figure 1, which of the following would most affect the allelic frequencies of the populations on Isabela and Butuan?

    Immigration of individuals from Metro Manila into the two populations

    Which of the following best explains the trend shown in Figure 1? (Kentucky Derby)

    By 1940, most genetic variation for speed had been lost from the gene pool.

    There are two species of elephant seals: northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, found off the western coast of North America from Baja California to the Gulf of Alaska, and southern elephant seals, M. leonina, found in the southern oceans. Hunting in the nineteenth century has been blamed for a drastic reduction in the northern elephant seal population. Even though the population has rebounded following restrictions on seal hunting, genetic variation is greatly reduced in the northern species compared to that in the southern species.

    Which of the following conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was most likely not met in the northern elephant seal population following overhunting?

    Large population size

    In a certain small mammal, fur color is controlled by a pair of alleles, with B being dominant over b. The genotypes BB and Bb result in dark-colored fur, the genotype bb results in light-colored fur. A population of the species has the following allele frequencies: B=0.85 and b=0.15. If a fire caused the surface of the ground in the habitat of the species to become darker in color, which of the following claims about the impact on the allele frequencies in this population is most reasonable?

    The frequency of the B allele will increase because light-colored individuals will be more visible to predators.

    A group of researchers noticed that using a particular drug to treat cancer in mice would reduce the size of the tumor, but some of the tumor cells appeared to be resistant to the drug since some of these cells would increase in number over time. The researchers wish to increase the reliability of their experimental observations before investigating new claims that chemotherapy-resistant tumors are an example of continuing evolution.

    Of the following, which is the best next step the researchers might take to increase the reliability of their evidence?

    Increasing the number of trials and the number of mice in each treatment group

    A population geneticist is conducting an investigation on a population of mice. The geneticist determines the genotypes for a particular trait of all of the mice in the population during generation 1 and then removes all of the mice with the genotype aa. The remaining members of the population are allowed to randomly mate with one another to produce generation 2 and future generations. A model of the investigation is shown in Figure 1. Each of the fifteen genotypes shown in generation 1 and generation 2 represents 100 mice.

    Figure 1. Model of effect of selective mouse removal on a population

    Which of the following best illustrates the change in the frequencies of the A and a alleles from generation 1 to generation 2 and to future generations, assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is present after generation 1 ?

    Future generations will eventually completely lose the a allele from the gene pool. There will not be any new individuals with the aa genotype.

    A scientist is studying the impact of mutagens on genetic variation in mice. In an experiment, the scientist creates two groups of twenty highly inbred mice. Because the mice are highly inbred, they are essentially identical to one another. One group is given food with an added substance that is known to be a mutagen. The second group is fed the same food without the mutagen. After several generations, both groups of mice are given a new type of food that is harder to digest than the previous food. After rearing five additional generations of the mice on this new food, the two groups are assessed for how efficiently this new food is digested.

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