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    which of the following organelles plays a role in the disposal of cellular waste and is responsible for processing, sorting, and modifying proteins?

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    bio unit 7 test Flashcards

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    bio unit 7 test

    When a group of cells work together, such as in bones, muscles, or nerves, they are known as _______

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    tissue

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    _______ are the basic building blocks of all living organisms

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    cells

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    Terms in this set (54)

    When a group of cells work together, such as in bones, muscles, or nerves, they are known as _______

    tissue

    _______ are the basic building blocks of all living organisms

    cells

    The diagrams below display different types of cells as viewed by a microscope under low magnification.

    These diagrams demonstrate how cells can be differentiated by their

    cell structures

    What is the single most abundant compound in living organisms?

    water

    To meet cellular needs for food, water, energy, and waste removal, multicellular organisms have developed various _________ specializations, such as organs and organ systems.

    structural

    All living organisms share many characteristics necessary for life. For example, all organisms, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic,

    must obtain and use energy for life processes.

    Which of the following describes the fundamental difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

    Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.

    Which of the following organelles plays a role in the disposal of cellular waste and is responsible for processing, sorting, and modifying proteins?

    golgi apparatus

    Which of the following is true about cells?

    In general, prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, whereas eukaryotic cells contain both a nucleus and organelles enclosed by membranes.

    Which of the following organelles contains most of the cell's DNA?

    nucleus

    Cell theory states that

    new cells are produced by existing cells, all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have many differences, but they also share some common features. Which of the following may be found in either type of cell?

    cell walls

    Membrane organelles known as _______ contain enzymes specialized to break down ingested materials, secretions, and wastes.

    lysosomes

    Which of the following organelles stores information and is considered the control center of the cell?

    nucleus

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to continue to grow and divide in their nonspecialized state for long periods of time (e.g., months or years).Although the genes found within stem cells are the same, stem cells differentiate into unique cell types (e.g., muscle cells, nerve cells, etc.) due to_____________

    different patterns in their gene expression.

    _______ are RNA and protein complexes that are found in all cells. These complexes help cells during protein translation by joining amino acids together to form polypeptides.

    ribosomes

    There are many criteria that are used to define living things. Living things reproduce, grow, and develop. They respond to stimuli, use materials and energy, and evolve and adapt over time to their environment. What is another criteria used to define living things?

    All living things are made of cells.

    Both eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells possess DNA and engage in genetic processes. Which of the following is true of their cellular genetics?

    Eukaryotic DNA is linear, whereas most prokaryotic DNA is circular.

    Within eukaryotic cells, there is an intricate network of _______ with unique functions.

    organelles

    The life forms exhibiting the simplest cellular structure are _______.

    prokaryotes

    What are the most basic building blocks of all organisms?

    cells

    How does the size of a eukaryotic organism normally compare to the size of a prokaryotic organism?

    Eukaryotes are usually much larger than prokaryotes.

    All living organisms use energy. They also grow and reproduce. What is another characteristic of all living organisms?

    All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    Which of the following describes a function of the endoplasmic reticulum within a cell?

    protein modification, intracellular transport, lipid synthesis

    Cellular organelles have different structures. Mitochondria, for example, possess highly folded inner membranes in addition to their outer membranes. Vacuoles, on the other hand, are only surrounded by a single-layer membrane; they do not have an inner membrane.Why do cellular organelles have different structures?

    The structures of cellular organelles are related to their functions.

    Which of the following is true of prokaryotic cells?

    They function as individual organisms.

    When dry environmental conditions exist, guard cells close the openings in leaves to reduce the loss of water from the plant. This process is an example of a feedback mechanism that plants use in order to

    maintain homeostasis

    Homeostasis is the regulation of metabolic processes within an organism in order to maintain the stable internal conditions required for life.The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by

    Source : quizlet.com

    Cellular organelles and structure (article)

    Eukaryotic cells

    Cellular organelles and structure

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    What is a cell

    Right now your body is doing a million things at once. It’s sending electrical impulses, pumping blood, filtering urine, digesting food, making protein, storing fat, and that’s just the stuff you’re not thinking about! You can do all this because you are made of cells — tiny units of life that are like specialized factories, full of machinery designed to accomplish the business of life. Cells make up every living thing, from blue whales to the archaebacteria that live inside volcanos. Just like the organisms they make up, cells can come in all shapes and sizes. Nerve cells in giant squids can reach up to 12m [39 ft] in length, while human eggs (the largest human cells) are about 0.1mm across. Plant cells have protective walls made of cellulose (which also makes up the strings in celery that make it so hard to eat) while fungal cell walls are made from the same stuff as lobster shells. However, despite this vast range in size, shape, and function, all these little factories have the same basic machinery.

    There are two main types of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotes are cells that do not have membrane bound nuclei, whereas eukaryotes do. The rest of our discussion will strictly be on eukaryotes. Think about what a factory needs in order to function effectively. At its most basic, a factory needs a building, a product, and a way to make that product. All cells have membranes (the building), DNA (the various blueprints), and ribosomes (the production line), and so are able to make proteins (the product - let’s say we’re making toys). This article will focus on eukaryotes, since they are the cell type that contains organelles.

    A diagram representing the cell as a factory. The cell membrane is represented as the "factory walls." The nucleus of a cell is represented as the "blueprint room." The ribosome is represented as the "production room" and the final protein made by the ribosome is represented as the "product."

    What’s found inside a cell

    An organelle (think of it as a cell’s internal organ) is a membrane bound structure found within a cell. Just like cells have membranes to hold everything in, these mini-organs are also bound in a double layer of phospholipids to insulate their little compartments within the larger cells. You can think of organelles as smaller rooms within the factory, with specialized conditions to help these rooms carry out their specific task (like a break room stocked with goodies or a research room with cool gadgets and a special air filter). These organelles are found in the cytoplasm, a viscous liquid found within the cell membrane that houses the organelles and is the location of most of the action happening in a cell. Below is a table of the organelles found in the basic human cell, which we’ll be using as our template for this discussion.

    Organelle Function Factory part

    Nucleus DNA Storage Room where the blueprints are kept

    Mitochondrion Energy production Powerplant

    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Lipid production; Detoxification Accessory production - makes decorations for the toy, etc.

    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Protein production; in particular for export out of the cell Primary production line - makes the toys

    Golgi apparatus Protein modification and export Shipping department

    Peroxisome Lipid Destruction; contains oxidative enzymes Security and waste removal

    Lysosome Protein destruction Recycling and security

    Diagram of a cell highlighting the membrane bound organelles mentioned in the table above.

    Nucleus

    Our DNA has the blueprints for every protein in our body, all packaged into a neat double helix. The processes to transform DNA into proteins are known as transcription and translation, and happen in different compartments within the cell. The first step, transcription, happens in the nucleus, which holds our DNA. A membrane called the nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus, and its job is to create a room within the cell to both protect the genetic information and to house all the molecules that are involved in processing and protecting that info. This membrane is actually a set of two lipid bilayers, so there are four sheets of lipids separating the inside of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The space between the two bilayers is known as the perinuclear space.

    Though part of the function of the nucleus is to separate the DNA from the rest of the cell, molecules must still be able to move in and out (e.g., RNA). Proteins channels known as nuclear pores form holes in the nuclear envelope. The nucleus itself is filled with liquid (called nucleoplasm) and is similar in structure and function to cytoplasm. It is here within the nucleoplasm where chromosomes (tightly packed strands of DNA containing all our blueprints) are found.

    Cartoon showing a close up the nucleus and highlighting structures specific to the nucleus.

    A nucleus has interesting implications for how a cell responds to its environment. Thanks to the added protection of the nuclear envelope, the DNA is a little bit more secure from enzymes, pathogens, and potentially harmful products of fat and protein metabolism. Since this is the only permanent copy of the instructions the cell has, it is very important to keep the DNA in good condition. If the DNA was not sequestered away, it would be vulnerable to damage by the aforementioned dangers, which would then lead to defective protein production. Imagine a giant hole or coffee stain in the blueprint for your toy - all of a sudden you don’t have either enough or the right information to make a critical piece of the toy.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Keystone Review #3: Cell Structure

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    QUIZ

    Keystone Review #3: Cell Structure

    Keystone Review #3: Cell Structure 78%

    6 9th - 10th Biology Ms. Luancing 2 years

    31 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A form of life; an animal, plant, fungus, protest or bacterium.

    answer choices organ system organ organism organelle 2. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    An anatomical system composed of a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or task.

    answer choices organ organ system tissue organism 3. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A cellular structure composed of RNA and proteins that is the site of protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

    answer choices

    endoplasmic reticulum

    ribosome lysosome golgi aparatus 4. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    An organelle found in eukaryotic cells responsible for the final stages of processing proteins for release by the cell.

    answer choices

    endoplasmic reticulum

    ribosome lysosome golgi aparatus 5. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.

    answer choices endosymbiosis plastid production

    extracellular integration

    biogenesis 6. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of of its plasma membrane.

    answer choices endocytosis exocytosis passive transport molecular transport 7. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The basic unit of structure and function for all living organisms.

    answer choices organ tissue organelle cell 8. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A group of membrane-bound organelles mainly responsible for breaking down sugars into usable energy.

    answer choices mitochondrion chloroplast ribosome golgi aparatus 9. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and specialized organelles.

    answer choices eukaryote prokaryote virus 10. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    An organelle found in plant cells and the cells of other eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms where photosynthesis takes place.

    answer choices chloroplast mitochondrion golgi aparatus

    endoplasmic reticulum

    11. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells functioning to maintain the integrity of the genetic material and, through the expression of that material, controlling and regulating cellular activities.

    answer choices ribosome mitochondrion golgi aparatus nucleus 12. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A subunit within a cell that has a specialized function.

    answer choices organ organelle organ system tissue 13. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which two structures are common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

    answer choices

    Cell wall and nucleus

    Cell wall and chloroplast

    Plasma membrane and nucleus

    Plasma membrane and cytoplasm

    14. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Life functions are performed at many levels of biological organization. Which level of biological organization is the simplest level at which a structure can support life functions?

    answer choices cell tissue organelle organ system 15. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Alveoli are microscopic air sacs in the lungs of mammals. Which statement BEST describes how the structure of alveoli allows lungs to function properly?

    answer choices

    They increase the amount of energy transferred from the lungs to the blood.

    They increase the flexibility of the lungs as they expand during inhalation.

    They increase the volume of the lungs, allowing more oxygen to be inhaled.

    They increase the surface area of the lungs, allowing efficient gas exchange.

    16. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms?

    answer choices

    the ability to reproduce asexually

    the ability to make their own food

    the need for a source of energy

    the need for oxygen for respiration

    17. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Cells are largely made of organic compounds that contain carbon. Which property of the carbon atom makes it an essential component of organic compounds?

    answer choices

    Carbon is a nonmetal.

    Carbon oxidizes to carbon dioxide.

    Carbon is solid at room temperature.

    Carbon can form four covalent bonds.

    18. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus work together in eukaryotic cells. What is one way that the rough endoplasmic reticulum assists the Golgi apparatus?

    answer choices

    It assembles nucleic acids from monomers.

    It breaks down old, damaged macromolecules.

    It packages new protein molecules into vesicles.

    It determines which protein molecules to synthesize.

    Source : quizizz.com

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