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    which of the following most accurately describes the interactions between china and europe in the nineteenth century?

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    ap japan and china Flashcards

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    ap japan and china

    43cards Lauren F. History World History

    between 1638 and the mid nineteenth century, japan prevented trade w all western societies except?

    the netherlands

    which of the following was NOT a result of the opium war?

    china successfully ended the sale and import of opium

    the success of the meiji restoration was determined by destroying the power of?

    the daimyo and samurai classes

    which was not a result of japan's industrialization?

    rejection of traditional values

    which of the following factors most distinguished the japanese success at obtaining modern power from the failures of the russians, ottomans, and chinese to do the same?

    a pragmatic sense of nationalism that was open to social, political, and economic change

    a key difference between the ottoman empire and the tokugawa shogunate was that?

    the tokugawa shogunate was less influenced by other cultures than the ottoman empire was

    which of the following describes an accurate similarity between the qing and russian empires in the 18th and 19th centuries?

    both had vast territories of peoples of various ethnicities and languages

    which of the following became important New World contributions to the worlds food crops?

    corn and potatoes

    which of the following is true of both Russia and Japan by 1900?

    rapid, state sponsored industrialization had occurred in both countries

    what was a similarity between china and the european imperialistic powers during the nineteenth century?

    both cultures were ethnocentric

    which of the following most accurately describes the interactions between china and europe in the 19th century?

    china effectively lost its economic independence to europe as a result of military losses to european forces

    in china, a sphere of influence was?

    a district in which a foreign power had exclusive trade, transportation, and mineral rights

    which of the following was not a provision of the meiji constitution?

    the lower classes were represented in the lower chamber of the Diet

    all of the following signs of dynastic decline were apparent at the beginning of the nineteenth century in qing china except?

    failure of foreign commerce

    which of the following was not one of the principles of the Taiping rebellion?

    the leaders belief that he was the reincarnation of Buddha

    the capital for early industrialization of Meiji japan came primarily from

    land taxes

    the term samurai describes men in feudal japan who were most like the men in feudal europe known as

    knights

    an important reason for china's rapid population growth in the 17th and 18th centuries was

    the introduction of new crops from the americas

    the british insisted on their right to trade opium with china because

    it was the only trade good they could sell in china at a profit

    what was the impact of the british opium trade on china?

    within years china's favorable balance of trade was reversed and silver began to flow out of the country

    what accounts for the general failure of wing attempts at reform?

    strong resistance from the scholar gentry

    a major difference between industrialization in england and japan was that

    working conditions were better in japan than in england

    the feudal periods in japan and western europe were similar in that both

    saw the development of strong monarchies

    which of the following was not one of the foundations of the meiji restoration

    turning japan into a constitutional republic

    the meiji reforms in japan resulted in

    a shift of power away from regional lords and to the emperor

    the japanese victory in the russo japanese war demonstrated to other non western peoples that

    successful modernization was not strictly a western phenomenon

    in closing japan to the europeans, the tokugawa shogunate was motivated primarily by a desire to limit

    the influence of westerners on japanese government and society

    which of the following goods were in the most demand from china during the 18th and 19th centuries?

    tea

    the opium war ended with the signing of the treaty of

    nanjing

    at the end of the 19th century, the ottoman empire, russian empire, qing dynasty, and tokugawa japan were "societies at crossroads" because

    they discovered through wars and confrontations that they were militarily much weaker than the western power

    a similarity between the ottoman empire and the chinese empire during the nineteenth century was that both empires

    were experiencing a period of decline

    in the early 1800s, qing leaders in china

    met with popular discontent and widespread reaction against corruption and economic malaise

    a primary goal of the meiji restoration was to

    diminish the power of the shogun and the samurai

    which of the following was not a result of the opium war

    china was forced to cede macao to the portuguese who had allied with britain during the war

    based on the charts and your knowledge of world history, how was industrialization in japan different from industrialization in europe?

    japan accomplished in a few decades what had taken europe more than a century

    which of the following was an effect of the japanese industrial and military strength on its relationship with its neighbors in the time period shown in the tables?

    Source : www.chegg.com

    AP World History ch 16

    Start studying AP World History ch 16-17 multiple choice. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    AP World History ch 16-17 multiple choice

    Industrial Revolution

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    Key to european predominance in the world economy durimg the 19th and early 20th centuries?

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    Electricity, steel, chemicals

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    The second industrial refolution in the 2nd half of the 19th century was particularly associated with the mass oroduction of?

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    Terms in this set (22)

    Industrial Revolution

    Key to european predominance in the world economy durimg the 19th and early 20th centuries?

    Electricity, steel, chemicals

    The second industrial refolution in the 2nd half of the 19th century was particularly associated with the mass oroduction of?

    Decline of epidemic disease, expansion of land

    What factors contributed to significant growth in worldwide population from 1750-1900?

    Competition among imperialist powers

    In the late 19th century, European involvement in both Africa and China was characterized primarily by?

    They solidified the power they had gained and dominated world politics

    What best describes the role of Western European countries in the world between 1750 and 1900?

    The location and number of coal deposits

    The beginning of the industrial revolution in Great Britain was most influenced by?

    Creation of wage earning working class centered in urban areas, cities

    What was a widespread social consequence of industrialization in the 1800's?

    Married woman found it difficult to balance work and family responsibilities

    What best describes how 19th century European industrialization affected European women's lives?

    The steam engine

    Which invention allow d the industrial revolution to take place?

    Brazil

    Slavery in the Western Hemisphere lasted longest in?

    Textiles

    Which industry first took the lead in Britain the industrial revolution began?

    The successful slave rebellion in Haiti

    What developments in the Western Hemisphere most directly resulted from the French Revolution?

    Squiring colonies, dominating

    What resulted from Europe's expansion overseas in the 18th and 19th centuries?

    Britain

    In the first half of the 19th century, what European nation dominated overseas trade and empire building?

    Agriculture and food production

    What factor contributed the most to the increase of world population from 1750-1900?

    Precious metals

    What factor played the greatest role in European interest in South Africa in the late 1800's?

    Freeing Serfs so they could work

    Movement to industrialize Russia was most dependent on?

    China lost economic independence because of military loses

    What most accurately describes the interactions between China and Europe in the 19th century?

    Convincing France to sell Louisiana to the United States

    One global effect of the Haitian revolution was?

    Revolutions and Napoleanic wars

    The best reason why industrialization was slower in Western European nations on the continent than in Britain?

    Proletariat

    Term that Marx used to describe the industrial working class

    Karl marx Most influential

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    The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: China, the European Union, and the United States in the Twenty

    La seule façon de comprendre la dynamique des relations euro- asiatiques est en regardant l’histoire à long terme. Au cours des 15 000 dernières années, la géographie a vu croître le développement social à des vitesses différentes selon les différentes parties du monde ; mais en même temps, le développement social croissant a constamment changé la perception de la géographie. Au cours des 15 000 dernières années, l’Europe a surtout été une simple périphérie des grands centres de pouvoir en Asie. C’est seulement au xve siècle que la croissance de développement donne à l’Europe des avantages géographiques cruciaux, et entre 1500 et 1900, que l’Europe arrive à dominer le monde. Son succès, cependant, a modifié le sens de la géographie une fois de plus, et en 1900, la richesse et le pouvoir se sont déplacés au-delà de l’Atlantique en Amérique du Nord – pour que la domination américaine change le sens de la géographie encore plus loin, et que la richesse et le pouvoir traverse le Pacifique vers l’Asie de l’Est. La paix et la prospérité actuelle de l’Europe dépendent de sa position au sein de l’ordre mondial dominé par les Américains, et la montée en puissance de l’Asie de l’Est au xxie siècle amène l’Europe à faire face à des choix stratégiques extrêmement difficiles.

    1 – Introduction

    History is not a very good guide to the future, but it is the only guide we have got. Because of this, the only way to understand Sino-European relations in the twenty-first century is to look into their history; and when we do so, I suggest in this paper, we also see that we can only understand Sino-European relations if we also understand the relations between both parties and the United States.

    “The farther backward you can look,” Winston Churchill is supposed to have said, “the farther forward you are likely to see,” [1] and the great forces driving Sino-European relations in fact only become visible when we look back a very long way indeed. In sections 2–4 of this paper, I do this, looking back first more than fifteen thousand years, to the end of the last Ice Age. In section 5, I suggest that this historical perspective not only goes far toward explaining Western Europe’s place in the American-dominated world of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, but also reveals what Sino-European relations might be like in the increasingly post-American world of the mid and late twenty-first century.

    2 – The very long run: Europe and China, 14,000BC–AD1400

    Through most of history, Europe has been a backwater. Only around 500BC did Europe’s southern fringe become an important part of the world, with the rise of sophisticated civilizations in Greece and Italy; but by AD500, it was sliding back into obscurity. If we are to explain Europe’s rise to globe dominance after AD1500 and its changing position in the last seventy-five years, we must first explain why the continent has usually been—as the Marxist economist Andre Gunder Frank once put it—no more than “a distant marginal peninsula.” [2]

    The explanation for Europe’s general insignificance in the larger scheme of things can be boiled down to just one word: geography. [3] The driving force in history has not been great men, culture, religion, institutions, or even accidents. Genetics and archaeology have shown conclusively that people are much the same all over the world, [4] and anthropology, history, and sociology have shown that—because people are all much the same—human societies have developed in similar ways all over the world. What differs is the places where the societies develop, and that is why geography has been the driving force in history. Geography determined that complex societies would develop in specific parts of the world at the end of the last Ice Age, and geography also determined that they would spread and change in specific ways across the millennia that followed.

    But if that is so, we might well ask, why has history been such a messy and complicated matter? Most historians, after all, think that their subject matter is so messy and complicated that there is no larger pattern behind it. The past, they generally conclude, is just a dismal record of one damned thing after another. [5]

    The reason for this confusion is that geography is itself messy and complicated, which means that the historical patterns it produces are doubly so. We might, in fact, think of geography’s role in history as a two-way street: on the one hand, geography determines how societies develop, but on the other, social development determines what geography means. What we normally call ‘history’ is nothing more than the back-and-forth between geography and social development. [6]

    This is a very abstract way to put things. The anthropologist Clifford Geertz rightly observed forty years ago that “theoretical formulations [in the social sciences] hover so low over the interpretations they govern that they don’t make much sense or hold much interest apart from them”; [7] consequently, the only way to show how the interaction between geography and social development actually worked to shape the past (and how it will continue to work to shape the future) is to plunge into the details. This is what I will now do, providing a brief history of the world in a few thousand words.

    We need to start with the end of the Ice Age, which marked one of the two really important changes since modern humans evolved. When the world warmed up at the end of the last Ice Age, around 9600BC, [8] plants and animals multiplied madly as the solar energy available to them increased. As often happens with population explosions, however, the increase in hungry mouths outran the resources that had made the boom possible, bringing on Malthusian crises and population crashes. All over the world, humans reacted to scarcity by managing their food sources more intensively (herding animals and trying to breed them in captivity, and replanting, watering, and weeding particularly good stands of wild plants). These interventions changed the selective pressures operating on the plants and animals being eaten, pushing them down new evolutionary paths; and in one part of the world, geography determined that the new selective pressures would have spectacular results.

    The part of the world in question was a band of ‘lucky latitudes’ stretching in the Old World from China to the Mediterranean and in the New from Peru to Mexico (Figure 1). [9] Here, human intervention modified the genetic structures of the plants and animals people were eating to the point that these other species evolved into forms that could only survive with continued human intervention. Without really knowing what they were doing, the people of the lucky latitudes turned wolves into dogs, wild aurochs into cattle, and wild rice and barley into domesticated versions that could only grow if humans harvested and replanted them. Botanists call this process domestication, and with it, the hunters and gatherers of the lucky latitudes turned into farmers.

    Source : www.cairn.info

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