Guys, does anyone know the answer?
get which of the following is the highest point in the caucasus mountains? from EN Bilgi.
The Caucasus Mountain range stretches for 1,200 km from northwest to southeast along the wide isthmus separating the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Caucasus Mountain range stretches for 1,200 km between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea at the intersection of Europe and Asia. The Caucasus region spans an area of 440,000 sq. km and extends southward from the lowlands of the Kuma and Manych river basins in western Russia to the northern frontiers of Turkey and Iran in the south.
Geography of Caucasus Mountains
The mountain consists of two ranges: the Greater Caucasus in the north and the Lesser Caucasus in the south. The Greater Caucasus runs west-northwest to east-southeast, from the Caucasian Natural Reserve near Sochi, Russia on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea to Baku, Azerbaijan on the Caspian Sea. The Lesser Caucasus runs parallel to the Greater Caucasus for about 100 km in the south. These two regions are connected by the Likhi range in Georgia, whereby the Colchis Plain and the Kur-Araz Lowland lie to the west and east of this range, respectively.
The Caucasus Mountain range is surrounded by the Caucasus region, and it boasts eight mountains higher than the highest mountains in the Alps, including Mount Elbrus, which is the highest peak in Europe, reaching an elevation of 5,642 meters above sea level. Caucasia does not only include the mountain range but also the country immediately north and south of the range. The land north of the Greater Caucasus is called Ciscaucasia while its southern counterpart is called Transcaucasia. The Transcaucasian Highland, formed by the Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland, converge with the highland plateau of Eastern Anatolia at their western end.
Western Caucasia consists mainly of plains, such as the lowland north of the Kuban River. Central Caucasia includes the Stavropol Upland which is characterized by tablelands of limestone or sandstone separated by valleys. The lower Terek River end traverses Eastern Caucasia in addition to the Kuma River from the north. In addition to Mount Elbrus, the range contains many prominent peaks, such as Mounts Shkhara (5,193m elevation), Dykhtau (5,205m elevation) and Kazbek (5,054 m elevation) in the central sector in addition to Mounts Tebulosmta and Bazardyuzyu, both reaching 4,550 m in the east.
The Caucasus Mountains are estimated to be 25 million years old from the late Oligocene Epoch, having a rugged and volcanic origin. The range belongs to the Alpine belt system that extends from southeastern Europe into Asia. This belt is a seismic and orogenic belt that includes a variety of mountain ranges along the southern margin of Eurasia. Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks in addition to Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks constitute the Greater Caucasus Mountains. On the other hand, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are formed mainly of Paleogene rocks and a smaller portion of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks.
The uplift of the Greater Caucasus is dated to the Miocene epoch during the Alpine orogeny and the evolution of the Caucasus began from the Late Triassic to the Late Jurassic period during the Cimmerian orogeny at the active margin of the Tethys Ocean. Tectonic plate collision between the Arabian plate moving north with the respect to the Eurasian plate led to the formation of the Caucasus mountains. The Arabian Plate collided with the Iranian plate and the Eurasian plate moved clockwise until it collided with the Iranian plate. These collisions led to the folding of the rocks deposited in the basin from the Jurassic and Miocene eras to form the Greater Caucasus mountains. These collisions also caused the uplift and the Cenozoic volcanic activity in the Lesser Caucasus mountains. Hence, the Greater Caucasus mountains have a predominantly folded sedimentary structure while the Lesser Caucasus mountains are predominantly of volcanic origin. Moreover, these collisions led the region to be an earthquake hotspot, as it is subject to strong earthquakes.
Contemporary seismic activity reflects the active faulting and crustal shortening. Clusters of seismicity occur in Dagestan and in northern Armenia. However, intense volcanic activity recently occured in the Caucasus area, where the Armenian Highland was flooded by calc-alkaline basalts and andesites in the Pliocene epoch and the highest summits of the Caucasus (Elbrus and Kazbek) formed as Pleistocene-Pliocene volcanoes. The Elbrus erupted in postglacial times and fumarole activity is registered near its summit where sulfuric gases leak out on the eastern face. The Elbrus has two glacier shrouded cones: the western one with an 5,642m high summit and an eastern one with a slightly lower summit, reaching 5,621m high only. However, the Kazbek is no longer active. River valleys cut deep into the mountains and create deep gorges and canyons, the majority of which have eroded. The Kuban River originates from the northern slope of the main range and flows into the Black Sea, in addition to the Kuma and Terek Rivers that flow into the Caspian Sea.
The climate of the Caucasus varies both with elevation and latitude, and the temperature generally decreases as elevation increases. The northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range are about 3oC colder than the southern slopes. There are sharp temperature contrasts between the summer and winter months due to a more continental climate in the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. While precipitation increases from east to west in most areas, the mountains in the Caucasus receive higher amounts of precipitation than the low-lying areas. The minimum annual precipitation is 250 mm in the northeastern Caspian Depression. However, the western parts of the range receive higher amounts of precipitation than the northern slopes, where the annual precipitation in the western part ranges from 1,000 to 4,000 mm while that of the eastern and northern Caucasus ranges from 600 to 1,800 mm. The maximum precipitation recorded was in Mount Mitrala area in the Meskheti Range in Ajaria, Georgia. Moreover, the Caucasus Mountain range is known for high amounts of snowfall, prominently the southwestern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains. The Lesser Caucasus portion receives less snowfall as it is not subject to the moist influences of the Black Sea.
Ten Highest Peaks
The Caucasus Mountains is a mountain system in Eurasia lying between the Black and the Caspian Seas in the Caucasus region. It occupies parts of Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, drifting mainly from northwest to southeast. The Caucasus Mountains are made up of two separate ranges, the Greater Caucasus in the north and the Lesser Caucasus in the south. In addition, some sources recognize a Middle Caucasus Range. Its highest peak is Mount Elbrus, at 18,510 feet (5,642 meters), in the Greater Caucasus range.
Historically, the Caucasus Mountain Range has served as a geographic barrier at the convergence of the continents of Europe and Asia. Because the tectonic plate is geologically stable in this region, it has been hard to determine the exact course of the continental borderline, causing the border to change throughout history. While there continues to be disagreement over where the border lies in relation to the range, there is a general acceptance of assigning the Caucasus to Asia due to the strong Asian influences throughout the region.
The Western Caucasus has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site based upon its diversity of geology, ecosystems and species. It is recognized as the "only large mountain area in Europe that has not experienced significant human impact, containing extensive tracts of undisturbed mountain forests unique on the European scale."
The Caucasus Mountains formed ca. 28.49–23.8 million years ago as the result of a tectonic plate collision between the Arabian plate moving northward with respect to the Eurasian plate. The mountain system forms a continuation of the Himalayas, which are being pressed upwards by a similar collision zone with the Eurasian and Indian plates. The entire region is regularly subjected to strong earthquakes from this activity, especially as the fault structure is complex with the Anatolia/Turkey and Iranian Blocks flowing sidewise, which prevents subduction of the advancing plate edge and hence the lack of volcanoes on the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range (although stratovolcanoes such as Mount Elbrus, Mount Kazbek, and others do exist). The Lesser Caucasus Mountains on the other hand, are largely of volcanic origin. The Javakheti Volcanic Plateau in Georgia and the surrounding volcanic ranges which extend well into central Armenia are some of the youngest and the most unstable geological features of the region.
There are large granite, gneiss, petroleum (estimated reserves: Up to 200 billion barrels) and numerous natural gas deposits found in the area.
Mountain systems within the Caucasus range
The Caucasus Mountains are made up of two separate ranges, the Greater Caucasus in the north and the Lesser Caucasus in the south. In addition, some sources recognize a Middle Caucasus Range.
The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range (Middle Range), which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura Depression (Kura Lowland). In the southeast are the Talysh Mountains. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland.
The Greater Caucasus is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains system. It stretches from west-northwest to east-southeast, between the Taman Peninsula of the Black Sea to the Absheron Peninsula of the Caspian Sea: From the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian.
This range is traditionally separated into three parts:
The border of Russia with Georgia and Azerbaijan runs along most of its length. The Georgian Military Road (Darial Gorge), Ossetian Military Road, and Trans-Caucasus Highway traverse this mountain range at altitudes of up to 3,000 meters.
The Western Caucasus has been designated a World Heritage Site under the criteria that "it is the only large mountain area in Europe that has not experienced significant human impact, containing extensive tracts of undisturbed mountain forests unique on the European scale."
The Lesser Caucasus is the second of the two main mountain ranges forming the Caucasus. It runs parallel to the Greater Caucasus, at a distance averaging about 100 km (60 mi) south and limits the Armenian Highland from the north and northeast.
It is connected to the Greater Caucasus by the Likh Range (Suram Range) and separated from it by the Kolkhida Lowland in the west and Kura Depression (by Kura River) in the east.
The borders of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran run through the range, although its crest does not usually define the border.
There is no clear agreement on whether the Caucasus Mountains are a part of Europe or Asia. Depending on the varying perspectives, Europe's highest mountain is either Mount Elbrus 5,642 m (18,510.5 ft) or Mont Blanc in the Alps, at the Italian-French border, with a height of 4,810 m (15,780.8 ft).
The Caucasus Mountains are located in the middle of the Eurasian plate between Europe and Asia. Because the plate is geologically stable in this region, it is hard to determine the exact course of the continental borderline. Therefore, throughout history the borderline has changed from one place to another. The ancient Greeks saw the Bosporus and the Caucasus Mountains as the border of Europe. Later this view changed several times for political reasons. In the Migration Period and the Middle Ages, the Bosporus and the river Don divided the two continents.
The border was historically defined by the Swedish military officer and geographer Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, who suggested the border follow the peaks of the Urals, and then the lower Emba and the coast of the Caspian Sea, before passing through the Kuma-Manych Depression, which lies 300 km north of the Caucasus Mountains. In 1730, this course was approved by the Russian Tsar and since that time has been adopted by many scientists. Following this definition, the mountains are a part of Asia and according to this view, the highest European mountain is Mont Blanc.
On the other hand, La Grande Encyclopédie clearly draws the border between Europe and Asia south of both Caucasian mountain ranges. Both Elbrus and Kazbek are here European mountains.
In political terms, the present-day division is either considered to be between Russia (Europe) on one side and Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan (Asia) on the other, inclusive of Georgia and Azerbaijan within Europe but not Armenia, or inclusive of all three nations.
The table below lists some of the highest peaks of the Caucasus. With the exception of Shkhara, the heights are taken from Soviet 1:50,000 mapping. There are higher and more prominent, but nameless, peaks than some of the peaks included below. (The chart reports elevation and prominence in meters.)
The climate of the Caucasus varies both vertically (according to elevation) and horizontally (by latitude and location). Temperature generally decreases as elevation rises. Average annual temperature in Sukhumi, Abkhazia at sea level is 15 degrees Celsius while on the slopes of Mount Kazbek at an elevation of 3,700 meters, average annual temperature falls to -6.1 degrees Celsius. The northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range are 3 degrees (Celsius) colder than the southern slopes. The highlands of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are marked by sharp temperature contrasts between the summer and winter months due to a more continental climate.
Precipitation increases from east to west in most areas. Elevation plays an important role in the Caucasus and mountains generally receive higher amounts of precipitation than low-lying areas. The northeastern regions (Dagestan) and the southern portions of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are the driest. The absolute minimum annual precipitation is 250mm (8.4 inches) in the northeastern Caspian Depression. Western parts of the Caucasus Mountains are marked by high amounts of precipitation. The southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range receive higher amounts of precipitation than the northern slopes. Annual precipitation in the Western Caucasus ranges from 1,000-4,000 mm (39-157 inches) while in the Eastern and Northern Caucasus (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Ossetia, Kakheti, Kartli, and so on) precipitation ranges from 600-1,800 mm (23.6-70.9 inches). The absolute maximum annual precipitation is 4,100mm (161 inches) around the Mt. Mtirala area which lies on the Meskheti Range in Ajaria. The precipitation of the Lesser Caucasus Mountain Range (Southern Georgia, Armenia, western Azerbaijan), not including the Meskheti Range, varies from 300-800mm (11.8-31.5 inches) annually.
The Caucasus Mountains are known for their high amount of snowfall, although many regions which are not located along the windward slopes do not receive nearly as much snow. This is especially true for the Lesser Caucasus Mountains which are somewhat isolated from the moist influences coming in from the Black Sea and receive considerably less precipitation (in the form of snow) than the Greater Caucasus Mountains. The average winter snow cover of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains ranges from 10-30cm (4-12 inches). The Greater Caucasus Mountains (especially the southwestern slopes) are marked by heavy snowfall. Avalanches are common from November through April.
Snow cover in several regions (Svanetia, northern Abkhazia) may reach 5 meters (16.4 feet). The Mt. Achishkho region, which is the snowiest place in the Caucasus, often records snow depths of 7 meters (23 feet).
The Caucasus Mountains have a varied landscape which mainly changes vertically and according to the distance from large bodies of water. The region contains biomes ranging from subtropical low-land marshes/forests to glaciers (Western and Central Caucasus) as well as highland semideserts/steppes and alpine meadows in the south (mainly Armenia and Azerbaijan).
The northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains are covered by oak, hornbeam, maple, and ash forests at lower elevations while birch and pine forests take over at higher elevations. Some of the lowest locations/slopes of the region are covered by steppes and grasslands. The slopes of the Northwestern Greater Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria, Cherkessia among others) also contain spruce and fir forests. The alpine zone replaces the forest around 2,000 meters above sea level. The permafrost/glacier line generally starts around 2,800-3,000 meters. The southeastern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains are covered by beech, oak, maple, hornbeam, and ash forests. Beech forests tend to dominate in higher locations. The southwestern slopes of the Greater Caucasus are covered by Colchian forests (oak, buxus, beech, chestnut, hornbeam, elm) at lower elevations with coniferous and mixed forests (spruce, fir and beech) taking over at higher elevations. The alpine zone on the southern slopes may extend up to 2,800 meters above sea level while the glacier/snow line starts from 3,000-3,500 meters.
The northern and western slopes of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are characterized both by Colchian and other deciduous forests at lower elevations while mixed and coniferous forests (mainly spruce and fir) dominate at higher elevations. Beech forests are also common at higher elevations. The southern slopes of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are largely covered by grasslands and steppes up to an elevation of 2,500 meters. The highest areas of the region contain alpine grasslands as well.
Volcanic and other rock formations are common throughout the region. The volcanic zone extends over a large area from southern Georgia into Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan. Some of the prominent peaks of the region include Mt. Aragats, Didi Abuli, Samsari, and others. The area is characterized by volcanic plateaus, lava flows, volcanic lakes, volcanic cones, and other features. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains lack the type of glaciers/glacial features that are common on the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range.
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Do you know these 29 giants from the Caucasus
The Elbrus, the highest mountain in the Caucasus at 5,642 meters, is still fairly familiar to us. And for those who have visited Georgia before, Kazbek also says something. But you have probably never heard of most of the other peaks in the Caucasus. Today, we introduce you to 29 giants from the Caucasus.
The Caucasus is a mountain range between the Black Sea in the west and the Caspian Sea in the east. The mountain range consists of the Great Caucasus in the north and the Small Caucasus in the south. It covers Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
In this article, we introduce you to the 29 highest peaks of the Caucasus Mountains. Why 29 of all places? Simply because Armenia should also be represented. And Armenia's highest peak in the Caucasus only makes it to 29th place. In the list, you will also find 2 mountains from Azerbaijan, 15 from Georgia, and 21 from Russia.
The 29 highest mountains in the Caucasus
1. Elbrus (5,642 m)
The biggest mountain of the Caucasus is also the biggest in Russia and probably the most famous peak of the whole region: the Elbrus. At a height of 5,642 metres, it overlooks Mont Blanc by more than 800 metres and the Matterhorn by more than 1,100 metres.
The Elbrus is mainly located in Kabardino-Balkaria, but partly also in Karachay-Cherkessia. It is only a little more than 11 kilometres to the border with Georgia.
The mountain is of volcanic origin, but the last eruption took place about 2,000 years ago. The Elbrus consists of two peaks which are 1.5km apart. The west summit (5,642m) is 21 meters higher than the east summit. At Elbrus, there are 22 glaciers covering an area of 145 square kilometres with ice.
The first people to make it to the highest point of Elbrus were three Englishmen who climbed the mountain in 1874 under the leadership of the Swiss Peter Knubel. Today, the mountain has a fairly well-developed infrastructure. Every year, around 17,000 people try to climb the summit between May and September. Although the ascent requires a high level of fitness, it is not particularly difficult from a technical point of view. Nevertheless, 15 to 30 mountaineers die every year – mostly due to poor equipment, poor preparation or the lack of a mountain guide.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
2. Dykhtau (5,205 m)
Dykhtau, also located in the Great Caucasus, is the second-highest peak in Europe behind Elbrus. Together with Koshtan Tau, the fourth highest peak in the Caucasus, it forms the «Brothers of Bezengi». The two mountain peaks are only 6 kilometres apart, the ascent of the Dykhtau is part of the «Seven Second Summits». This challenge is based on the «Seven Summits» and is about climbing the second highest summit of each continent.
As with the Elbrus, a Swiss mountain guide was involved in the first ascent: Heinrich Zurfluh from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland. He climbed the Dychtau for the first time in 1888 with Englishman Albert Mummery.
The Dychtau lies in the Russian region of Kabardino-Balkaria.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
3. Shkhara (5,201 m)
The Shkhara belongs to the Bezingi massif, a 12km long, glaciated mountain range. Among mountaineers, it is considered one of the most difficult mountains to climb in Europe. It was not until 1888 that the summit was climbed for the first time – by a British-Swiss team.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
4. Koshtan Tau (5,152 m)
The Koshtan rope lies in Kabardino-Balkaria and near the Russian-Georgian border. Its summit is only 6 kilometres away from that of Dykhtau, which is, however, about 50 metres higher. This also explains the translation of Koshtan Tau, which in English means «paired mountain».
The first ascent of Koshtan Tau may be written on the banner of a team around Herman Woolley.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
5. Jangi Tau (5,059 m)
Like the Dychtau and the Koshtan Tau, the Jangi Tau lies in the Bezingi Massif in the North Caucasian Kabardino-Balkaria. Its summit is not far from the border with Svaneti, a high valley in the northwest of Georgia.
Its flanks are covered by thick glaciers, among which there are sleeping volcanoes.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
6. Kazbek (5,047 m)
Although Kazbek only is the third largest mountain in Georgia, it probably is the most famous in the country. Not only because of the myths surrounding it. Prometheus (Greek mythology) is said to have been chained to this mountain after he stole the fire from the gods to give it to the people.
Kazbek is an extinct volcano covered by several glaciers. One of its glaciers forms the origin of the Terek, a river that flows through North Ossetia, Chechnya and Dagestan and flows into the Caspian Sea 623km later.
At the foot of Kazbek, on the Georgian side, lies the village of Stepantsminda. Together with Goristsikhe, Gudauri, Kobi, Sioni and Sno, it forms the municipality of Qasbegi. Through Stepantsminda and east of Kazbek runs the Georgian Military Road, currently the only passable border crossing between Georgia and Russia.
The ascent to the summit, first made in 1868, isn't particularly difficult technically.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
7. Pushkin (5,033 m)
The Pushkin peak belongs to the Bezingi massif in Kabardino-Balkaria and, at 5,033 meters, is the seventh highest peak in the Caucasus Mountains and the smallest five-thousand-metre peak in the region.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
8. Katyn Tau (4,979 m)
Another representative of the Bezingi massif is the Katyn Tau. It also lies on the border between Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) and Svaneti (Georgia).
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: none
9. Gistola (4,860 m)
The 4,860m (15,940ft) high Gistola lies in the Georgian region of Svaneti and is the sixth-largest mountain in the country. Its slopes are covered with ice and snow all year round. The mountain is a popular photo subject. It was first climbed by a Georgian group in 1937.
Similar large mountains in the Alps: Mont Blanc, the largest mountain in the Alps, is 50 metres smaller than Gistola.
10. Shota Rustaveli Peak (4,860 m)
We have now got to know some giants of the Caucasus, which are located on the border between Svaneti and Kabardino-Balkaria. With the Shota Rustaveli Peak, another one is added. With its height of 4,860m (15,940ft), it just makes it into the Top 10 in the Caucasus. Its slopes are largely glaciated.
It owes its name to the famous Georgian writer and poet Shota Rustaveli, who worked in the 12th and 13th century. One of his most famous works is «The Knight in the Panther's Skin».
Similar large mountains in the Alps: Mont Blanc, the largest mountain in the Alps, is 50 metres smaller than Shota Rustaveli.
11. Tetnuldi (4,858 m)
Mount Tetnuldi, located in the Svaneti region, is one of the most famous peaks in Georgia. From a height of 3,000 metres, the 4,848-meter high mountain is glaciated. The first ascent was made in 1896 by Douglas Freshfield from England.
In Mestia (Svaneti), one of the two ski resorts is named after the mountain – the Tetnuldi ski resort opened in 2015.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: Mont Blanc, the largest mountain in the Alps, is 48 metres smaller than Tetnuldi.
12. Jimara (4,780 m)
The 4,780m (15,680ft) high Jimara is the twelfth highest mountain in the Caucasus and the second highest in North Ossetia-Alanya, the Russian region in the North Caucasus. Its southern part is in Georgia, only about nine kilometres from Mount Kazbek.
Similarly large mountains in the Alps: Mont Blanc, the largest mountain in the Alps, is 30 metres higher than Jimara.
13. Ushba (4,710 m)
The 4,710m high Ushba, together with Kasbek and Shchara, is one of the most famous mountains in Georgia. This is mainly due to its special double-peak shape. It lies in Svaneti, in the northwest of the country and is bordered by the Russian Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria.
Ushba is considered as the most difficult peak of the whole Caucasus by many mountaineers. This is partly due to the unpredictable and changeable weather in this region. Ushba was first climbed in 1888 (north summit) and 1903 (south summit) respectively. The north summit is slightly higher than the south summit.
Comparison with the Alps: Ushba would be the second-highest mountain in the Alps after Mont Blanc.
14. Dumala Tau (4,682 m)
At 4,682 metres, the Dumala Tau is number 14 in the Caucasus. It is located in Kabardino-Balkaria close to the border to Svaneti (Georgia).
Dumala Tau is almost 50 metres higher than Dufour Peak (the highest point in Switzerland).
15. Uilpata (4,649 m)
The peak of Uilpata lies in the Russian region of North Ossetia-Alanya, more precisely in the Alanian National Park, the highest point of which is 4,649 metres high.
Comparison with the Alps: Uilpata would be the second-highest mountain in the Alps.
16. Tikhtengen (4,618 m)
The Tikhtengen is a 4,618m (15,151ft) high mountain located on the border between Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) and Svaneti (Georgia).
The Tikhtengen would be the third highest mountain in the Alps.
17. Aylama (4,547 m)
The 4,547m high Aylama (or Ahlama) is two metres higher than the Dom and thus higher than the highest mountain completely located in Switzerland. It lies between the Georgian region of Samegrelo and Upper Svaneti and the Russian region of Kabardino-Balkaria. The higher slopes of the Aylama are glaciated.
18. Tiutiun-Tau (4,540 m)
The 4,540-meter high Tiutiun-Tau is located in the heart of Kabardino-Balkaria. It is five metres smaller than the Swiss mountain Dom.
19. Jailik (4,533 m)
At 4,533 metres, the Jailik is exactly the same height as the Liskamm, which is located between the Monte Rosa massif and the Matterhorn in the Alps.
20. Salinan (4,508 m)
The Salinan summit is located in Kabardino-Balkaria and lies far from the border with Georgia (Svaneti). If the twentieth-largest mountain of the Caucasus was in the Alps, it would be its third highest peak.
21. Tebulosmta (4,499 m)
The Tebulosmta (Mta is the Georgian word for mountain) or in Chechen «Tuloy-Lam» is the highest mountain in Chechnya and the entire Eastern Caucasus. It is located a little east of Mount Kasbez. A part of the Tebulosmta is located in Georgia.
Only 3 square kilometres of its slopes are covered with glaciers.
22. Bazardüzü Daghi (4,466 m)
At 4,466 metres, Bazardüzü is both the highest mountain in Azerbaijan and the Russian Republic of Dagestan. At the same time, it forms the border between these two countries.
It was first climbed in 1847 by a Russian climber.
23. Shani (4,451 m)
Shani is the highest mountain in Ingushetia and is located on its border with Georgia. The next bigger village on the Georgian side is Stepantsminda. Shani is about 30 meters smaller than the Matterhorn in Switzerland.
24. Tepli (4,431 m)
Tepli is located in the south of Russia in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alanya. The summit is 47 metres lower than that of the Matterhorn.
25. Diklosmta (4,285 m)
The highest point of Diklosmta, which is also simply called Diklo, is at 4,285m (14,058ft). It is located in the Great Caucasus on the border between Russia (Chechnya and Dagestan) and the Georgian region of Tushetia, which belongs to Kakheti.
On the mountain, there are several glaciers, some of which reach far down into the valleys (e.g. Pirikita).
26. Shahdagh (4,243 m)
With its 4,243m (13,921ft), Mount Shahdagh is the second-highest mountain in Azerbaijan and one of seven four thousand meter peaks in the country. It lies in the Great Caucasus in the Qusar region and near the border with Dagestan (Russia). At the foot of the Shahdagh, caves were found which, according to researchers, must have been inhabited more than 9,000 years ago.
27. Addala-Shukhgelmeer (4,152 m)
The Addala-Shukhgelmeer is the third highest mountain in Dagestan, a Russian republic in the northeast of the Caucasus Mountains. In the ranking of the highest mountains of Russia, it occupies the 40th place.
28. Dyultydag (4,127 m)
Like the Addala-Shukhgelmeer, the Dyultydag is located in Dagestan. Its peak is only 15km from the border to Azerbaijan.
29. Aragaz (4,090 m)
The Aragaz is an extinct stratified volcano in the highlands of Armenia. With its 4,090 meters, it is the highest mountain in the country. The Aragaz lies in the northwest of Yerevan and on the border of the two provinces Shirak and Aragazotn.
The Aragaz consists of four peaks. The one in the north is the highest. The western summit (4,080m), the eastern summit (3,916m) and the southern summit (3,879m) are smaller.
At an altitude of 3,200 metres, there is an observation station of the Yerevan Institute of Physics. The Orgow station is used for the study of cosmic particles.
If the Ararat in Turkey would be included, it would be on the 5th place with its 5,137m, but the Ararat is located a bit south of the Caucasus Mountains.