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    which of the following is not a way a squid can defend itself?

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    Inked and Eaten: how squid have adapted a defense mechanism to help them capture prey – oceanbites

    Just when we thought squids couldn’t get any cooler, researchers have discovered that squid use ink clouds not just to help them escape from predators, but to be predators themselves! Read on to find out how.

    BEHAVIOR BIOLOGY ECOLOGY

    Inked and Eaten: how squid have adapted a defense mechanism to help them capture prey

    May 19, 2016 Gordon Ober

    Article: Sato, Noriyosi, et al. “Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) use ink for predation as well as for defence.”  163.3 (2016): 1-5.Background:

    Fig. 1: Squid have these pigmented cells which they can change the size of to alter the color (GIF from Deep Sea News).

    Squid are, no doubt, fascinating and mysterious creatures. Think about it, one of the largest creatures on earth, the Giant Squid, has rarely ever been seen alive. Squid can also camouflage, using pigmented cells called chromatophores, to blend in with their background and hide from predators (Fig. 1). Even squid that are seen can shoot out a cloud of ink and vanish within seconds (Fig. 2). The fact that squid produce and use ink has been known for quite sometime. Most squid that live in the photic zones of the oceans, those receiving light, have ink-producing sacs. It is well established that squid use ink for defense, to avoid predation. Since ink takes a lot of energy to produce, it is only used as a secondary defense, the primary defense being their keen ability to camouflage themselves. Squids are known to use their ink defensively in two different ways: first, they may use it as a decoy to attract their predators, or second, they may use it as a “smokescreen” and hide behind it.

    Fig. 2: Squid can release a cloud of ink to help escape a predator (Photo: Colin Marshall).

    As there is a lot left to learn and understand about squid, scientists continue to study aspects of their physiology, behavior, and ecology. In studying predator-prey dynamics and feeding behavior in squid, researchers in Japan recently observed something unexpected. Their study species of squid was not using their ink for defense but was using their ink for something else – catching prey. This was a first, so what did they find out?

    The Study:

    Fig. 3: The Japanese Pygmy Squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) (Photo: tumblr.com).

    Researchers were investigating predation and feeding in the Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) (Fig. 3). Squid were collected from seagrass meadows off the coast of Japan and brought back to be acclimated to lab conditions. Predation was tested by offering squid one of three common prey items, all species of shrimp of various sizes, found in their native habitat. It was during these tests that researchers discovered something quite interesting.

    Overall, 322 predation events were observed and recorded. Overwhelmingly, most predation events were pretty standard, with the squid capturing their prey using normal methods. But researchers did observe 17 instances (of the 322 total) in which the squid used ink to aide their effort. Remember, using ink as a predation tool has never been observed in squid, so while 17 seems like a pretty low number, these are likely the first 17 instances ever recorded (Fig. 4). If you are curious as to how this actually works, check out this great video put together by New Scientist which shows the predation in action!

    Fig. 4: Here you can see the squid directing an ink cloud towards it’s prey (along the gravel bottom) essentially hiding itself before attacking (Photo: N. Sato).

    Interestingly, squid only used ink in predation when going after the two larger prey items, and was never observed to use ink in preying on the smallest prey, which turned out to be the most common prey. Surprisingly, the researchers noted that using ink didn’t increase the success of their predation and capture rates were essentially the same for squid using ink and not using ink. They found that ink could be used as a predatory aide in two ways, first squid could use it as a “smokescreen” the same way they use it in escaping predation, but rather than fleeing behind it, they use it to hide before launching through it to attack their prey (Fig. 5). Second, squid could use the ink cloud as a decoy that would distract prey so that they could blindside them.

    Fig. 5: The process by which this squid uses ink clouds to help capture prey (Photo: N. Sato).

    The Significance:

    Researchers here were able to document a novel use of ink clouds, where instead of using ink to escape being eaten, they are using ink to help themselves eat. Seeing as squid traditionally use ink defensively, there are cues in the ink that attract predators, allowing the squid to escape. This cue associated with the ink could help explain why ink was used in such a small percentage of predation events by squid. When squid are focused on hunting, if they use ink to help them hunt they may be attracting unwanted predators. Clearly, there is a lot left to learn about squid, as researchers here found that these creatures have figured out ways to make the most of their abilities. At this point, it is likely that by the time the ink dries on this predatory aide, squid will have shown us something else to get excited about!

    Source : oceanbites.org

    What is the defense mechanism of a squid?

    Answer: A squid’s first defense is its excellent mobility of which it has two modes: (1) It can swim forward using its paired flukes at its posterior end. This presents its head, eyes, tentacles with suckers, and sharp, beak-like mouth to its target or enemy. If the other creature it encounters ...

    What is the defense mechanism of a squid?

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    Selwyn Clyde M. Alojipan

    , I studied marine biology so I could be a certified beach bum.

    Answered 5 years ago · Author has 454 answers and 2.6M answer views

    A squid’s first defense is its excellent mobility of which it has two modes:

    (1) It can swim forward using its paired flukes at its posterior end. This presents its head, eyes, tentacles with suckers, and sharp, beak-like mouth to its target or enemy. If the other creature it encounters is smaller, not dangerous, and possibly edible, the squid can quickly identify it, scoop it up with its tentacles, and bite it with its beak.

    (2) If the other creature is much larger or is identified to be dangerous and a threat, the squid can eject a volume of water from its mantle cavity out through its out-vent nozzle, which it can point in the direction of the threat. The jet of water propels the squid rapidly backward with its pointed tail-end first as if it was a rocket so it can scoot away quickly before the other creature can react.

    To create surprise, a diversion, a distraction, and a temporary visual obscurement, the squid can eject a black ink-like substance while jetting away backward so that by the time the attacker can react, the squid is hopefully long gone.

    Unfortunately, the squid has enemies like sharks, tuna, and other predatory fish, as well as toothed whales that can swim very fast and at a sustained speed that could eventually overtake the fleeing squid. The ink could serve to distract sharks, tuna, and billfish that depend on sight to detect their prey.

    Against dolphins, porpoises, orcas, and sperm whales that have sonar echolocation ability, the squid is at a bigger disadvantage because the echolocation can still be used to find them even in dark water or beyond the single emergency squirt of ink (it will take the squid a few more days to replenish its ink supply). Those toothed cetaceans can easily hunt those squids down unless the squid dives downward very deeply. Cetaceans are air-breathing so they can’t spend too much time performing strenuous breath-hold swims into the depths.

    In the dark abyssal depths of the oceans, squids can use their ink together with their jet propulsion to avoid the big bad fish in the deep water that might use bioluminescence to try to find their prey.

    3K viewsView upvotes

    Jim Nieberding

    , Studied and kept octopuses for over 25 years

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 376 answers and 1.8M answer views

    Related

    Can squids hurt you?

    Most squid are completely harmless. I won’t even start with Giant squid or Colossal squid, because we know next to nothing about their predation style, and they live so deep in the ocean (>1.5 MILES down) that no human will ever encounter a healthy one. They pose no danger to people whatsoever.

    But there is one other, very serious squid that can and has harmed people. The Humboldt squid (Dosidicas gigas) are a large species of squid native to Eastern regions of the Pacific Ocean near the Americas. These monsters are also known as Jumbo squid, Jumbo flying squid, Pota, and Red Devils. Sport fish

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    Antonieta Contreras

    , Curriculum Chair at Institute for Contemporary Psychotherapy

    Answered 1 year ago · Author has 1.5K answers and 16M answer views

    Related

    What is a defense mechanism?

    There are already extensive and great answers to your question. I’m going to take advantage of your question to talk about something with a similar name but with a very different meaning: defense responses. I use the word defense or defenses very often when I talk about Trauma, and a Quoran helped me realize that several people can get confused.

    A defense mechanism is a psychoanalytic theory construct that states that unconscious psychological mechanisms reduce anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli.

    A defense response is part of something called The Defense Cascade (Ko

    Michele Trainer

    , Studying the ocean from below the surface internationally for over 35 years.

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 382 answers and 875.7K answer views

    Related

    What is the difference between a colossal squid and a giant squid?

    Image public domain Wikimedia commons Alphonse de Neuville - Hetzel edition of 20000 Lieues Sous les Mers, p. 400.

    Colossal squid is the kraken :).

    They are all mollusks which is fascinating because so are clams. These species are the top two largest mollusks and two largest cephalopods. They both have eight tentacles. They also both have super sharp sizable beaks (hard like a parrot’s beak, but huge).

    Both of these squid species have hooks in their tentacles. Octopus do not. Look these up online, Google “colossal squid tentacle hooks and suckers” or “giant squid tentacle hooks and suckers” so yo

    Peter Carlson

    , I have a healthy obsession with squids

    Source : www.quora.com

    Squids Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like What animals do squid eat?, What animals eat squid?, How do squid protect themselves from predators? and more.

    Squids

    14 studiers in the last day

    What animals do squid eat?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Fish and shrimp

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    What animals eat squid?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Swordfish, sea lions, seagulls, pelicans, sharks, larger squid

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/17 Created by tobdan

    Terms in this set (17)

    What animals do squid eat?

    Fish and shrimp

    What animals eat squid?

    Swordfish, sea lions, seagulls, pelicans, sharks, larger squid

    How do squid protect themselves from predators?

    1- squirts ink to distract predators.

    2. Shoots thru water backward with its siphon.

    3. Changing color to camouflage.

    How do squid catch their prey?

    They grab prey with their tentacles and suckers and pull prey towards their mouth

    How do squids change color?

    They make their color sacs grow and shrink.

    What happens to female squid after they mate and lay eggs?

    They become weak and die.

    Arms

    Squid have 10 arms total. 8 short arms and 2 long tentacles.

    Beak

    Located in the mouth of the squid, under its arms; used to bite and tear food

    Cephalopod

    Means head-foot. It is the class of mollusks to which squid, octopus, nautilus and cuttlefish belong.

    Fins

    The triangular folds on mantle if the squid that balance and stabilize the body. They can also be used for movement.

    Ink

    The substance that the squid squirts from its body to protect itself from enemies. This confuses the enemy so that squid can escape.

    Jet propulsion

    Moving or propelling through the water like a rocket.

    Mantle

    A muscular sac which contains the internal organs of the squid.

    Mollusk

    A soft bodied invertebrate. Squid belong to this family

    Pen

    The internal shell of a squid

    Siphon

    A funnel like organ through which squid forces water to propel itself - by moving this, the squid can move any direction.

    Tentacles

    2 long arms which squid used to catch prey. They are longer and thinner than the other 8 arms and the ends are covered w suckers.

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