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    which of the following inhibits/reduces the respiratory rate?

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    Physiology, Respiratory Drive

    Breathing is a complex process that relies heavily on the coordinated action of the muscles of respiration and the control center in the brain. The primary function of the lungs is to facilitate gas exchange between inspired air and the circulatory system. It helps bring oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Oxygen is critical for proper metabolism on a cellular level, while carbon dioxide is crucial for achieving adequate PH levels. Several mechanisms exist to ensure a rigorous balance between supply and demand. In response to a change in blood gases, the pulmonary system adapts by adjusting breathing patterns to help meet the body's metabolic demand. Exercise, for instance, increases oxygen consumption and raises carbon dioxide production. Should, at any point, the available oxygen supply fails to meet the necessary demand, aerobic metabolism ceases, and energy production declines. Likewise, if carbon dioxide were to accumulate without proper disposal, the blood becomes more acidic, and cellular damage ensues, ultimately leading to organ failure. Neither outcome is desirable; therefore, numerous mechanisms exist to match respiration with the continually changing demands. Central and peripheral chemoreceptors, as well as mechanoreceptors in the lungs, convey neural and sensory input to the brain to help modulate respiratory drive. The respiratory center responds in return by changing its firing pattern to alter breathing rhythm and volume.[1][2][3][4]

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    Physiology, Respiratory Drive

    Joshua E. Brinkman; Fadi Toro; Sandeep Sharma.

    Author Information

    Last Update: August 24, 2021.

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    Introduction

    Breathing is a complex process that relies heavily on the coordinated action of the muscles of respiration and the control center in the brain. The primary function of the lungs is to facilitate gas exchange between inspired air and the circulatory system. It helps bring oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Oxygen is critical for proper metabolism on a cellular level, while carbon dioxide is crucial for achieving adequate PH levels. Several mechanisms exist to ensure a rigorous balance between supply and demand. In response to a change in blood gases, the pulmonary system adapts by adjusting breathing patterns to help meet the body's metabolic demand. Exercise, for instance, increases oxygen consumption and raises carbon dioxide production. Should, at any point, the available oxygen supply fails to meet the necessary demand, aerobic metabolism ceases, and energy production declines. Likewise, if carbon dioxide were to accumulate without proper disposal, the blood becomes more acidic, and cellular damage ensues, ultimately leading to organ failure. Neither outcome is desirable; therefore, numerous mechanisms exist to match respiration with the continually changing demands. Central and peripheral chemoreceptors, as well as mechanoreceptors in the lungs, convey neural and sensory input to the brain to help modulate respiratory drive. The respiratory center responds in return by changing its firing pattern to alter breathing rhythm and volume.[1][2][3][4]

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    Function

    Each respiratory cycle begins with inspiration and ends with expiration. During inspiration, the diaphragm and the external intercostals contract, causing enlargement of the thoracic cavity. As a result, intra-pleural pressure decreases, and so does alveolar pressure, forcing the lungs to expand and air to move in. Expiration, on the other hand, occurs passively when the diaphragm relaxes, owing to the lungs' elastic properties. The respiratory control system drives respiratory cycles and consists of three components: the central neural respiratory generator, the sensory input system, and the muscular effector system. The rate and strength at which the diaphragm contracts, hence the frequency and volume of respiration, depend heavily on the firing pattern of pacemaker cells in the brainstem. The sensory input system, on the other hand, sends signals to the brain to modulate respiratory patterns depending on metabolic demand. Together, these processes aim to optimize the lungs' function of taking in oxygen from the air and expelling carbon dioxide from the body.[5][6]

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    Mechanism

    Intrinsic Respiratory drive

    The respiratory center is composed of three distinct neuronal groups in the brain: the dorsal respiratory group in the nucleus tractus solitarius, the ventral respiratory group in the medulla, and the pontine respiratory group in the pons. The latter is further classified into the pneumotaxic center and the apneustic center.

    The dorsal respiratory group is mainly inspiratory, while the ventral medullary group is primarily expiratory. The rostral half of the ventral medullary group additionally contains neurons responsible for rhythm generation. Of particular significance is the preBötzinger complex, whose neurons possess neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors, a potential target for many pharmacological, physiological, and anatomical studies. The pontine groupings are responsible for modulating the intensity and frequency of the medullary signals with their pneumotaxic groups limiting inspiration, and their apneustic centers prolonging and encouraging inhalation. Each of these groups communicates with one another in a concerted effort as the pace-making potential of respiration.[7][8][9]

    Thoracic Neural Receptors

    Mechanoreceptors found in the airways, trachea, lung, and pulmonary vessels provide sensory information to the respiratory center in the brain with regards to lung volume, airway stretch, and vascular congestion. There are two primary types of thoracic sensors: slow adapting stretch spindles and rapid adapting irritant receptors. The former conveys only volume information while the latter additionally responds to irritative chemical triggers such as harmful foreign agents and dust. Both types of mechanoreceptors transmit information to the respiratory center via cranial nerve X (the Vagus Nerve) to increase the rate of breathing, volume of breathing, or to stimulate cough. A notable example is the Pulmonary stretch reflex, also called the Herring-Breuer reflex, which prevents the lungs from over-inflating by sending inhibitory impulses to the inspiration center. Another type of receptor worth mentioning is the juxta-capillary receptors that respond to vascular congestion and interstitial edema in the lungs by sending signals to the brain to increase the breathing rate.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Solved Part A Which of the following inhibits/reduces the

    Answer to Solved Part A Which of the following inhibits/reduces the

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    Question: Part A Which Of The Following Inhibits/Reduces The Respiratory Rate? Higher Brain Centers (Cerebral Cortex-Voluntary Control Over Breathing) Other Receptors (E.G.. Pain) And Emotional Stimuli Acting Through The Hypothalamus Respiratory Centers (Medulla And Pons) Peripheral Chemoreceptors 102,400, 1H Stretch Receptors In Lungs Central Chemoreceptors 100% FH

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    Answer:- STIMULATION OF STRECTCH RECEPTOR IN LUNG . Explaination:- 1) Normal pCO2 in blood is 80 to 100 mmHg. If it i…

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    Transcribed image text: Part A Which of the following inhibits/reduces the respiratory rate? Higher brain centers (cerebral cortex-voluntary control over breathing) Other receptors (e.g.. pain) and emotional stimuli acting through the hypothalamus Respiratory centers (medulla and pons) Peripheral chemoreceptors 102,400, 1H Stretch receptors in lungs Central chemoreceptors 100% fH Irritant receptors Receptors in muscles and joints partial pressure of oxygen below 60 millimeters of mercury at chemoreceptors a rise in body temperature stimulation of stretch receptors in the lungs elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood

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    Respiratory System Flashcards & Practice Test

    Start studying Respiratory System. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Respiratory System

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    What is the most common method of carbon dioxide transport?

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    as bicarbonate ions in the plasma

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    If the compliance of the thoracic wall is decreased, ______.

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    the intrapleural pressure would not decrease normally during inhalation

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    1/66 Created by kcavaz20

    Terms in this set (66)

    What is the most common method of carbon dioxide transport?

    as bicarbonate ions in the plasma

    If the compliance of the thoracic wall is decreased, ______.

    the intrapleural pressure would not decrease normally during inhalation

    Which of the following inhibits/reduces the respiratory rate?

    stimulation of stretch receptors in the lungs

    Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement relating to the behavior of gases?

    The volume of a gas and the pressure on it are directly proportional. As pressure increases, volume increases.

    Which of the following pressures rises and falls with the phases of breathing but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure?

    intrapulmonary pressure

    The indentation on the medial surface of each lung through which pulmonary and systemic blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and leave is called the __________.

    hilum

    Which of the following would induce the loss of oxygen from the hemoglobin and the blood?

    a drop in blood pH

    Calculate the intrapleural pressure if atmospheric pressure is 765 millimeters of mercury, assuming that the subject is at rest (not inhaling or exhaling).

    761 millimeters of mercury

    In babies born prematurely, pulmonary surfactant may not be present in adequate amounts ______.

    due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells

    During pleurisy, the inflamed parietal pleura of one lung rubs against the inflamed ______.

    visceral pleura of the same lung

    Which of the following pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse?

    intrapleural pressure

    In this activity, you will follow oxygen on its path from the lungs to the body tissues.

    To review how oxygen is transported in the body, watch this BioFlix animation: Gas Exchange: Transporting Oxygen.

    Part A - Oxygen transport

    Drag each label to the appropriate location on the flowchart.

    1. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli

    2. Oxygen enters a red blood cell

    3. Oxygen binds to a molecule of hemoglobin

    4. Oxygen is carried through blood vessels to a capillary

    5. Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the body's tissues

    In this activity, you will follow carbon dioxide on its path out of the body.

    To review how carbon dioxide is transported in the body, watch this BioFlix animation: Gas Exchange: Transporting Carbon Dioxide.

    Part A - Carbon dioxide transport

    Drag each label to the appropriate location on the flowchart.

    1. Carbon dioxide is released from the mitochondria

    2. Carbon dioxide diffuses into a capillary

    3. Carbon dioxide is carried to the lungs

    4. Carbon dioxide diffuses into an alveolus.

    5. Air exits through nose or mouth.

    Which volumes are combined to provide the inspiratory capacity?

    tidal volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

    Which of the following modifies and smoothes the respiratory pattern?

    pontine respiratory centers

    Which of the following initiate(s) inspiration?

    ventral respiratory group (VRG)

    Which muscles are activated during forced expiration?

    the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal wall muscles

    Using the graph in Part A as reference, drag the correct value item of PO2 mm Hg to the correct target molecule of hemoglobin.

    PO2 0 mm Hg: No bound O2

    PO2 15 mm Hg: One bound O2

    PO2 25 mm Hg: Two bound O2

    PO2 40 mm Hg: Three bound O2

    PO2 100 mm Hg: Four bound O2

    Focus your attention on the graph shown, from the left side of the Focus Figure. The percent of O2 saturation of hemoglobin is plotted (on the y-axis) against PO2 (mm Hg) (on the x-axis). Use this graph to complete Parts A-C below. On this graph, the y-axis (the vertical edge) tells you how much O2 is bound to hemoglobin (Hb). At 100%, each Hb molecule has four bound oxygen molecules. The x-axis (the horizontal edge) tells you the relative amount (partial pressure) of O2 dissolved in the fluid surrounding the Hb.

    If more O2 is present, more O2 is bound. However, because of Hb's properties (O2 binding strength changes with saturation), this is an S-shaped curve, not a straight line.

    Which of the following represents a correct statement about data presented in the graph?

    In blood with a PO2 of 30 mm Hg, the average saturation of all hemoglobin proteins is 60%.

    Using the same graph as in Part A, what is the average number of oxygens bound to hemoglobin at a saturation of 50%?

    two

    Focus your attention on the graph shown, from the top right box, "In the lungs," of the Focus Figure.

    Drag and drop the numerical terms to the appropriate blank target locations in the sentences. Terms may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

    1. P O 2 of ~100 mm Hg..

    2. ~98% O2 saturation

    3. ~95% O 2 saturation..

    4. ~90% O 2 saturation..

    Source : quizlet.com

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