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    which of the following did general douglas macarthur do in the southwest pacific during world war ii? he commanded half of the american naval fleet. he led us ground forces in an “island-hopping” campaign. he worked behind the scenes with australian leaders. he was a field marshal in the filipino armed forces.

    James

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    get which of the following did general douglas macarthur do in the southwest pacific during world war ii? he commanded half of the american naval fleet. he led us ground forces in an “island-hopping” campaign. he worked behind the scenes with australian leaders. he was a field marshal in the filipino armed forces. from EN Bilgi.

    Turning Points in the Pacific Flashcards

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    early setback for allies

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    by may 1942 Japan had captured

    -Hong Long and Singapore

    -Wake Island and Guam

    -the Philippines -Java -much of South Asia

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    Japan: Nearly unstoppable

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    75,000 US and Filipino troops surrendered in the Philippines

    60,000 British troops surrendered in Singapore

    Japan captured dozens of islands and held larger parts of Asia Meanwhile, Japan suffered few loses

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    1/25 Created by annavogt22 unit 1: lesson7

    Terms in this set (25)

    early setback for allies

    by may 1942 Japan had captured

    -Hong Long and Singapore

    -Wake Island and Guam

    -the Philippines -Java -much of South Asia

    Japan: Nearly unstoppable

    75,000 US and Filipino troops surrendered in the Philippines

    60,000 British troops surrendered in Singapore

    Japan captured dozens of islands and held larger parts of Asia Meanwhile, Japan suffered few loses

    island hopping

    the strategy of invading and recapturing only strategic island held by the Japanese in the Pacific

    kamikaze

    a Japanese fighter trained to make a suicide attack

    the battle of the coral sea (may 1942)

    Japan sent a fleet to attack Port Moresby, New Guinea, which they hoped to use as a base for an attack on Australia

    -allied ships intercepted the Japanese fleet

    -the battle was fought by carrier-based ware-planes

    -there was no clear victor, but Japan lost many aircraft

    For the first time in the war, Japan was denied victory

    the battle of Midway (June 1942)

    Japan planned to seize the American island of Midway

    US intelligence broke the Japanese navy's code

    Admiral Chester Nimitz:

    -ambushed the Japanese task force

    -attacked the Japanese while they were hundreds of miles from Midway

    battle of midway key turning points

    the june 1942 American victory was a turning point in the war

    -the United States sank all four Japanese carriers

    -this battle evened the naval strength of the two powers

    -japan would not be able to replace its losses

    the US could go on the attack in the pacific

    Admiral Chester Nimitz

    commander in chief of the pacific fleet

    -oversaw the rebuilding of the disable fleet

    -developed key strategies for winning the war

    -led the fleet to victory in major battles, including the battle of the midway

    the battle of Guadalcanal

    Guadalcanal was the first major allied offensive

    -fighting raged on land, at sea, and in the air

    -the battle last for six months

    24,000 Japanese died in the fighting

    1,600 Americans died and 4,200 more injured. thousands more were lost to disease

    Japan was defeated and forced to retreated towards its homeland

    island-hopping

    the united states attacked Japan from newly gained territory

    -used amphibious landings to storm beaches

    -by passed Japanese strongholds and cut them off from their supplies

    -sped up the war and saved lives

    General Douglas MacArthur

    Commanded the defense of the Philippines when the Japanese attacked

    -was commander of the allied forces in the southwest pacific

    -declared "i shall return" after leaving Philippines

    -recaptured the Philippines in 1944

    Iwo Jima

    Iwo Jima was one of the costliest American victories in the pacific

    Americans:

    -wanted to use the island as an air base

    -attacked with more than 100,000 soldiers

    more than 25,000 Americans were killed or wounded

    Japanese:

    -fortified the island into a maze of tunnels

    -planned for "no survivors"

    almost all20,000 defenders died, just 216 were taken as prisoners

    Kamikaze

    as 1945 progressed Japan grew increasingly desperate

    Japan used Kamikaze to attack allied warships

    American military leaders began to fear the cost of invading the Japanese mainland

    the battle of Okinawa

    Okinawa was defended by 100,000 Japanese soldiers the US attacked in April 1945

    the casualties were very heavy

    12,000 Americans were killed

    100,000 Japanese soldiers were killed

    up to 100,000 civilians were killed

    Japan itself was in reach

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The United States used atomic weapons to force Japanese surrender

    Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945

    70,000 to 100,000 died in the initial blast

    -Japan refused to surrender

    Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945

    -40,000 people died in the initial blast

    On august 15, Japan announced its unconditional surrender

    During World War II, which battle denied the Japanese the opportunity to attack Australia?

    Battle of the Coral Sea

    Battle of Midway

    Battle of Guadalcanal

    Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of the Coral Sea

    As a result of Japan's increasing use of suicide attacks in 1945, Allied leaders began

    decreasing the number of bombing raids on Japanese cities.

    developing more accurate and effective anti-aircraft weapons.

    thinking of a new strategy besides invading the Japanese mainland.

    weighing the pros and cons of surrendering to the Japanese.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Second Sino

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Part of the Interwar period and the Pacific Theater of World War II

    (clockwise from top left)

    Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of ShanghaiJapanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-GoVictims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai RiverChinese machine gun nest in the Battle of WuhanJapanese aircraft during the bombing of ChongqingChinese Expeditionary Force marching in India

    Date 7 July 1937 – 2 September 1945

    (8 years, 1 month, 3 weeks and 5 days)

    Minor fighting since 18 September 1931

    (13 years, 11 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)

    Location

    Mainland China and Burma

    Result

    Chinese victory as part of the Allied victory in the Pacific War

    Surrender of Japanese forces in mainland China (excluding Manchuria), Taiwan, and French Indochina north of 16° north to the Republic of China after losing territory to China[1]

    China as one of the Big Four of the Allies becomes permanent member of the UN Security Council

    Resumption of the Chinese Civil War

    Territorial

    changes China recovers all territories lost to Japan since the Treaty of Shimonoseki.

    Belligerents

     China[a]

    Nationalist Party Communist Party : Soviet Union

    (1937–1941, 1944–1945)

    United States (1941–1945) British Empire (1942–1945)

     Japan

    :

    Nanjing Government (1940–1945)

    Manchukuo (1932–1945)

    Mengjiang (1936–1945)

    Provisional Government

    (1937–1940) Reformed Government (1938–1940) East Hebei (1935–1938)

    Commanders and leaders

    Chiang Kai-shek

    He Yingqin Chen Cheng Cheng Qian Bai Chongxi Li Zongren Wei Lihuang Yan Xishan Xue Yue Gu Zhutong Fu Zuoyi Zhang Fakui Sun Lianzhong Mao Zedong Zhu De Peng Dehuai Joseph Stilwell Claire Chennault Vasily Chuikov

    Hirohito

    Shunroku Hata Yasuji Okamura Kotohito Kan'in Otozō Yamada Hajime Sugiyama Toshizō Nishio Hisaichi Terauchi Hayao Tada Iwane Matsui Seishirō Itagaki Hideki Tōjō Rikichi Andō Kenkichi Ueda Naozaburo Okabe Puyi Demchugdongrub Wang Jingwei Chen Gongbo Strength 14,000,000 total[2]

    Chinese Nationalists (including regional warlords and centralized Nationalist Air Force of China):

    1,700,000 (1937)[3] 2,600,000 (1939)[4] 5,700,000 (1945)[5]

    Chinese Communists:

    640,000 (1937) (including Peasants and Eighth Route Army):[6]

    166,700 (1938)[7] 488,744 (1940)[8] 1,200,000 (1945)[9] 4,100,000 total[10]

    Japanese:

    600,000 (1937)[11]

    1,015,000 (1939)[12]

    1,124,900 (1945)[13] (excluding Manchuria and Burma campaign)

    Puppet states and collaborators:

    900,000–1,006,086 (1945)[14]

    [15]: 314

    Casualties and losses

    Chinese Nationalists:

    : 1,320,000 killed 1,797,000 wounded 120,000 missing

    Total: 3,237,000[16][17]

    :

    1,319,000–4,000,000+ military dead and missing

    500,000 captured[18][19]

    Total: 3,211,000–10,000,000+ military casualties[19][20]

    Chinese Communists:

    :

    160,603 military dead

    290,467 wounded 87,208 missing 45,989 POWs

    Total: 584,267 military casualties[21]

    : 446,740 total[20]

    Total:

    3,800,000–10,600,000+ military casualties after July 1937 (excluding Manchuria and Burma campaign)

    1,000,000+ captured[18][19]

    266,800–1,000,000 POWs dead[18][19]

    Japanese:

    :

    455,700[22]–700,000 military dead[23][b]

    1,934,820 wounded and missing[24]

    22,293+ captured[c]

    Total: 2,500,000+ military casualties (1937 to 1945 excluding Manchuria and Burma campaign

    Total: 2,227,200[25]

    Puppet states and collaborators:

    288,140–574,560 dead

    742,000 wounded

    Middle estimate: 960,000 dead and wounded[26][27]

    Total:

    c. 3,000,000–3,600,000 military casualties after July 1937 (excluding Manchuria and Burma campaign)[d]

    Total casualties:

    15,000,000[28]–22,000,000[17]

    ^ The Nationalist Government led a Chinese united front which included Nationalists, Communists, and regional warlords.^ This number does not include Japanese killed by Chinese forces in the Burma campaign and does not include Japanese killed in Manchuria.^ Excluding more than 1 million who were disarmed following the surrender of Japan^ Including casualties of Japanese puppet forces. The combined toll is most likely around 3,500,000: 2.5 million Japanese, per their own records, and 1,000,000 collaborators.

    show vte

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    show vte Pacific War

    The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific Theater of the Second World War. The beginning of the war is conventionally dated to the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on 7 July 1937, when a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops in Peking escalated into a full-scale invasion. This full-scale war between the Chinese and the Empire of Japan is often regarded as the beginning of World War II in Asia.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    America and World War II, 1941–1945

    Chapter 8 America and World War II, 1941–1945

    In response to Japanese aggression throughout Asia, the United States placed a trade embargo on the Japanese Empire. President Roosevelt hoped that halting Japan’s access to oil would cripple Japan’s military and halt its aggression in Asia. Instead, it led to a surprise attack by the Japanese against the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. America responded with a declaration of war against both Japan and Germany. The declaration revealed that the nation was not yet prepared for a global war. As had been the case in World War I, American leaders quickly sought to mobilize all of the nation’s resources in support of the war effort. For the next four years, American industry concentrated on maximizing production of war materiel while 11 million women and men joined the armed forces.

    The American way of war was based on developing an overwhelming force that could defeat an enemy with the minimum loss of life among its own troops. This required a superior amount of weaponry and support material and was also based on training and logistics. As a result, the United States was slow to mobilize and its allies in Europe and Asia were left to fight much of the war on their own until American troops arrived. Once those soldiers arrived, however, the tide of war shifted decisively toward the Western Allies.

    The war would have an equally dramatic impact on the American home front. Japanese Americans were forced into internment camps until it was shown that such prejudices did nothing to advance the security of the American homeland. Other forms of discrimination were equally slow in being surmounted, with prohibitions against the service of women and minorities being only partially removed in the face of military necessity. As America raced to maximize its human resources to increase industrial production, it also decided that the price of prejudice was too high and began to celebrate its increasingly diverse workforce.

    Ideas about limited government were also tested by the crucible of war. In response to the need to coordinate production and maximize efficiency, the federal government expanded its authority over the private sector. Although some feared that central planning might lead the nation to become more like the socialist and fascist nations of Europe, the American way of preparing for war was also unique. Although the government maintained the coercive power to seize factories it rarely did so, offering instead the possibility of high profits and high wages for those who produced the equipment and weapons it needed. By 1945, the US home front produced approximately half of the world’s weaponry and the empires of Germany and Japan surrendered.

    8.1 Pearl Harbor and the Arsenal of Democracy

    Learning Objectives

    Explain why Japan took the calculated risk of attacking the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. Summarize their tactical and strategic thinking, and evaluate what other options the Japanese military might have considered.

    Detail the transition from civilian to military production. Explain the federal government’s role in managing the economy and the lasting changes that wartime mobilization brought to US society.

    Describe how the United States financed the war effort. Explain the importance of civilian opinion regarding the war and the role of the general public in making the transition from peacetime to war.

    Explain how the United States was able to create a large army and navy within a year of the attack against Pearl Harbor. Describe how the emergency of war challenged prevailing notions of race, gender, and sexual orientation, as well as how these notions affected wartime mobilization.

    Pearl Harbor

    Few Americans were willing to consider military action against the Japanese in 1940 and 1941, and most considered Asian affairs to be of secondary importance to the events in Europe. To the Japanese, however, the United States embargo was an act of aggression that would make its empire vulnerable at the very moment it was expanding throughout Asia. From this perspective, there appeared little reason to maintain diplomatic relations with the United States. The Japanese now viewed the US-controlled Philippines much in the same context as the Dutch, French, and British colonies in Southeastern Asia. Hitler’s war on these European powers could not have occurred at a better time for Japanese imperialists. They convinced the Japanese emperor that their alliance with Germany provided an opportunity for Japanese expansion into Southeastern Asia. With these European nations fighting for their very survival, Japan attacked their colonies throughout the region and seized control of raw materials and trade routes. Before these attacks were launched, however, Japanese officials launched a surprise attack on the United States they believed was necessary to prevent US interference.

    With China and the Europe fighting for survival, Japan expected little resistance in Southeastern Asia. In fact, the Japanese recognized that only one major naval power stood in their way of conquest—the United States. Japanese planners recognized that further aggression in Asia might lead to a more aggressive response than a trade embargo. (Historians now know that US military and civilian leaders had already determined not to intervene with military in Asia, even if Japan attacked US bases in the Philippines.) The Japanese fully recognized the industrial power of the United States; however, they believed a sudden and devastating attack on America’s Pacific Fleet at Pearl HarborA surprise attack launched by the Japanese navy on the American Pacific Fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. The attack resulted in the deaths of over 2,000 US servicemen and servicewomen and greatly reduced the effectiveness of the fleet. However, the attack failed to destroy US aircraft carriers and resulted in the US declaration of war against Japan, Germany, and Italy. would cripple the US navy for at least a year. During the interim, Japan planned to complete its conquest of Southeast Asia and build impenetrable defenses throughout the region. America’s first opportunity to launch a counterattack would not occur until the summer of 1943, and by this time, the Americans would be ill-advised to send their newly rebuilt navy into the Japanese stronghold for its second slaughter.

    Source : saylordotorg.github.io

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