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    which of the following correctly pairs a region with its percent increase in electricity demand between 2016 and 2040?


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    TURKEY’S INTERNATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY / Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs


    Turkey has the fastest growing energy demand among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the past 2 decades. In this period, Turkey ranks second to China in the increase in electricity and natural gas demand in the world.

    Located in a region adjacent to approximately 60% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, Turkey has become one of the biggest natural gas and electricity markets in its region.

    On the other hand, Turkey has a 74% import dependency to meet its energy demand. The versatile structure of Turkey's energy strategy and its energy import dependency brings international relations into prominence in this field.

    One of the main goals of Turkey's energy strategy is to diversify routes and resources to strengthen its energy supply security. Turkey also aims to contribute to regional and global energy security and to become a regional trade center in energy. The fundamental elements that constitute the international dimension of Turkey's energy strategy are:

    1. To ensure the diversification of routes and resources in the supply of oil and natural gas, taking into account the increasing demand and import dependency,

    2. To contribute to regional and global energy security,

    3. To be a regional trade center in energy,

    4. To consider social and environmental impacts in the context of sustainable development in every phase of the energy chain,

    5. To increase the share of domestic and renewable energy in electricity production,

    6. To include nuclear power in its energy mix.

    Further information on Turkey's energy production, consumption and installed power potential can be found in the following link of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR):


    Information regarding Turkey's oil, natural gas and electricity markets, including import and export figures, can be found in the following link of Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA):


    Improvement of the National Energy Mix

    Turkey continues its efforts towards increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the national energy mix and adding nuclear power to its energy mix, in line with the goals of reducing its energy import dependency, maximizing the use of indigenous resources and combating climate change.

    Renewable Energy

    Turkey attaches great importance to the development of renewable energy sources. In accordance with the National Energy Policy adopted in 2017, increasing the use of domestic and renewable energy resources is among the main priorities. Furthermore, Turkey has ranked 5th in Europe and 12th in the world in terms of installed capacity in renewable energy. The share of renewables in Turkey’s installed power reached to 52% at the beginning of 2021.

    Further information on Turkey’s data regarding renewable energy potential can be found in the following websites:







    Nuclear Energy

    Turkey aims to add nuclear power into its energy mix in order to decrease negative environmental effects of energy production, to meet its energy demand increase as well as to reduce its energy import dependency. To this end, construction of Akkuyu nuclear power plant (NPP) is underway. The first reactor of Akkuyu NPP is aimed to be commissioned in 2023.

    Akkuyu NPPs are Generation III+ plants to be designed and equipped with the most advanced safety systems. Their safety measures are in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency standards. Furthermore, NPPs to be constructed in Sinop and Thrace region are on the agenda.

    Further information on Turkey’s nuclear energy policy can be found in the following website:


    Turkey’s Role in Global Energy Trade

    Turkey aims to be a center in energy trade in its region. In accordance with this aim, Turkey has undertaken and carried out several important natural gas and oil pipeline projects in the region.

    Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline (BTC), South Caucasus Natural Gas Pipeline (SCP), Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline (BTE), Turkey-Greece Natural Gas Interconnector (ITG), Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP), and TurkStream are among the projects within this scope.

    Turkey's contribution to Europe's energy supply security has reached a new level in 2020: The Southern Gas Corridor, the 4th natural gas artery of Europe, has been realized upon the completion of Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) at the end of 2020.

    The backbone of the Southern Gas Corridor is the Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) passing through Turkey. TANAP aims to reach an annual capacity of 31 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2026.

    Another project that has recently contributed to the strengthening of the natural gas supply security of Turkey is the TurkStream Natural Gas Pipeline project. This project consists of two pipelines, each with a capacity of 15.75 bcm, laid under the Black Sea. The first line delivers natural gas to Turkey and the second to European countries.

    The Turkish Straits have a particular importance in terms of global energy security, as approximately 3% of the global oil demand is transported through the Turkish Straits.

    Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline Projects

    A. Crude Oil Pipelines

    i. Kirkuk-Yumurtalık Crude Oil Pipeline (Iraq-Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline)

    ii. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline (BTC)

    Further information on crude oil pipelines and projects can be accessed through the following website:


    B. Natural Gas Pipelines

    i. Iran – Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline

    ii. Blue Stream Natural Gas Pipeline

    iii. Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline (BTE)

    iv. Turkey-Greece Natural Gas Interconnector (ITG)

    v. Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project (TANAP)

    vi. TurkStream Natural Gas Pipeline

    Further information on natural gas pipelines can be accessed through the following website:


    Turkey-EU Energy Relations

    Energy constitutes one of the most important issues of Turkey-EU relations. As an indication of the importance given to regional energy cooperation, Turkey, with its indispensable position on ensuring energy security of Europe, joined the Energy Community with an observer status in 2006.

    Within the scope of Turkey’s accession negotiations with the EU, the screening process of the Energy Chapter was completed in 2007. Turkey wishes to open the Energy Chapters for negotiations as early as possible.

    Long Term Agreement between TEİAŞ and ENTSO-E

    Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEİAŞ) and the relevant boards of European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) signed a long-term agreement on 15 April 2015, to ensure the physical integration of the European electricity market and Turkey's electricity market, providing for the permanent connection of the Turkish electricity system to the European continents electricity system. Hence an advanced integration between the Turkish electricity system and electricity market and the European internal electricity market has been realized.

    Energy Statistics

    Main statistics and monthly sector reports regarding Turkey in the field of energy can be found in the following links of TURKSTAT and EMRA:



    Major International Organizations in the Energy Field

    International Energy Agency - IEA ( https://www.iea.org/ )

    IEA was established under the OECD in 1974 to ensure oil supply security. Today, it operates in a much wider framework in the field of energy. Turkey is one of IEA’s founding members. Its headquarters is in Paris.

    International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA ( https://www.iaea.org/ )

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in 1957 as an independent intergovernmental organization. The establishment purpose of IAEA is to disseminate potential peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Within this scope, IAEA conducts activities to prevent the use of atomic energy for other than peaceful purposes. Turkey was among the first countries to become a member of IAEA in 1957. The agency's headquarters is in Vienna.

    International Renewable Energy Agency - IRENA ( https://www.irena.org )

    Turkey is a founding member of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), with the agreement signed at the end of the conference held in Bonn on January 26, 2009. IRENA started its operations in 2011 as an international organization that aims to promote the widespread and increased use of renewables towards sustainable development. As of 2020, it has 162 members. Its headquarters is in Abu Dhabi.

    Energy Charter Treaty ( https://www.energycharter.org/ )

    The Energy Charter Treaty is an agreement that aims to ensure energy security and is based on the principles of establishing transparent, competitive markets and supporting sustainable development. Within this framework, it includes regulations on matters such as investments in the field of energy, energy trade, energy efficiency and conflict resolution. Turkey is a party to the treaty. Its secretariat is in Brussels.

    TURKEY’S INTERNATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY / Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Source : www.mfa.gov.tr

    EIA projects 28% increase in world energy use by 2040

    EIA projects 28% increase in world energy use by 2040

    graph of world energy consumption by energy source, as explained in the article text

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest International Energy Outlook 2017 (IEO2017) projects that world energy consumption will grow by 28% between 2015 and 2040. Most of this growth is expected to come from countries that are not in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and especially in countries where demand is driven by strong economic growth, particularly in Asia. Non-OECD Asia (which includes China and India) accounts for more than 60% of the world's total increase in energy consumption from 2015 through 2040.

    Through 2040, the IEO2017 projects increased world consumption of marketed energy from all fuel sources, except for coal demand, which is projected to remain essentially flat. Renewables are expected to be the fastest-growing energy source, with consumption increasing by an average 2.3% per year between 2015 and 2040. The world’s second fastest-growing source of energy is projected to be nuclear power, with consumption increasing by 1.5% per year over that period.

    graph of world renewables and nuclear consumption, as explained in the article text

    Even though IEO2017 expects the nonfossil fuels (renewables and nuclear) to grow faster than fossil fuels, fossil fuels still account for more than three-quarters of world energy consumption through 2040. Natural gas, which has a lower carbon intensity than coal and petroleum, is the fastest-growing fossil fuel in the outlook, with global natural gas consumption increasing by 1.4% per year. The relatively high rate of natural gas consumption growth is attributed to abundant natural gas resources and rising production—including supplies of tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane.

    graph of world natural gas consumption, as explained in the article text

    Although liquid fuels—mostly petroleum-based—remain the largest energy source throughout the IEO2017 projections, the liquids share of world marketed energy consumption is projected to fall slightly, from 33% in 2015 to 31% in 2040. As oil prices rise, energy consumers are expected to turn to more energy-efficient technologies and switch away from liquid fuels where possible.

    graph of world petroleum and other liquids consumption, as explained in the article text

    Compared with the strong growth in coal use in the 2000s, global coal use remains flat in EIA’s international projection. Coal is increasingly replaced by natural gas, renewables, and—in China and a few other countries—nuclear power for electricity generation. Demand for coal in industrial processes is also expected to slow.

    graph of world coal consumption, as explained in the article text

    China is the world’s largest consumer of coal, but coal use is projected to decline in China by 0.6% per year from 2015 to 2040. In OECD countries, coal’s expected decline is similar, falling by 0.6% per year. The coal share of total world energy consumption declines significantly over the projection period, from 27% in 2015 to 22% in 2040. World coal consumption would be even lower in 2040 were it not for the projected increases in its use by non-OECD Asian nations outside of China.

    EIA’s IEO2017 presents an assessment of long-term world energy markets. IEO2017 energy consumption projections are provided for 16 regions of the world divided according to OECD and non-OECD membership. Projections for the United States in IEO2017 are consistent with those released in the Annual Energy Outlook 2017. The IEO2017 report focuses on energy markets through 2040, but all projections of energy consumption and production are available on an annual basis through 2050 in the International Energy Outlook online table browser.

    Principal contributor: Linda Doman

    Tags: coal, consumption/demand, forecasts/projections, IEO (International Energy Outlook), liquid fuels, natural gas, nuclear, OECD, renewables

    EIA projects 28% increase in world energy use by 2040

    Source : www.eia.gov

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