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    which of the following best describes one reason that the national association for the advancement of colored people was formed?

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    Swann v. Charlotte

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), interracial American organization created to work for the abolition of segregation and discrimination in housing, education, employment, voting, and transportation; to oppose racism; and to ensure African Americans their constitutional rights. The NAACP was created in 1909 by an interracial group consisting of W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, Mary White Ovington, and others concerned with the challenges facing African Americans, especially in the wake of the 1908 Springfield (Illinois) Race Riot. Some of the founding members had been associated with the Niagara Movement, a civil rights group led by Du

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    American organization

    Alternate titles: NAACP, National Negro Committee

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    See all media

    Date: 1909 - present

    Headquarters: New York City Baltimore

    Areas Of Involvement: African Americans civil rights racism discrimination racial segregation

    Related People: W.E.B. Du Bois Madam C.J. Walker Robert Williams Ida B. Wells-Barnett Daisy Bates

    See all related content →

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), interracial American organization created to work for the abolition of segregation and discrimination in housing, education, employment, voting, and transportation; to oppose racism; and to ensure African Americans their constitutional rights. The NAACP was created in 1909 by an interracial group consisting of W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, Mary White Ovington, and others concerned with the challenges facing African Americans, especially in the wake of the 1908 Springfield (Illinois) Race Riot. Some of the founding members had been associated with the Niagara Movement, a civil rights group led by Du Bois.

    In 1910 the NAACP began publishing a quarterly magazine called The Crisis. For its first 24 years it was edited by Du Bois. Many of the NAACP’s actions have focused on national issues; for example, the group helped persuade U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson to denounce lynching in 1918. Other areas of activism have involved political action to secure enactment of civil rights laws, programs of education and public information to win popular support, and direct action to achieve specific goals. In 1939 the NAACP established as an independent legal arm for the civil rights movement the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, which litigated to the Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the case that resulted in the high court’s landmark 1954 school-desegregation decision. The organization had also won a significant victory in 1946, with Morgan v. Virginia, which successfully barred segregation in interstate travel, setting the stage for the Freedom Rides of 1961.

    The Crisis

    Cover of The Crisis's October 1914 issue, which was dedicated to children's issues.

    The New York Public Library

    The murder of NAACP field director Medgar Evers in 1963 gave the group national prominence, likely contributing to the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965. In the 1980s the NAACP publicized opposition to apartheid policies in South Africa. The organization moved its headquarters from New York City to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1986. It also operates a bureau in Washington, D.C., and has branch offices in dozens of cities across the United States. At the turn of the 21st century, the NAACP sponsored campaigns against youth violence, encouraged economic enterprise among African Americans, and led voter drives to increase participation in the political process.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

    This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt.

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    The U.S. Postal Service has no official motto. The famous “Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night..." line was written about Persian mail carriers almost 2,500 years ago.

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    Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

    Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

    United States law case

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, case in which, on April 20, 1971, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously upheld busing programs that aimed to speed up the racial integration of public schools in the United States.

    In 1954 the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. However, because of racially segregated housing patterns and resistance by local leaders, many schools remained as segregated in the late 1960s as they were at the time of the Brown decision.

    In Charlotte, North Carolina, for example, in the mid-1960s less than 5 percent of African American children attended integrated schools. Indeed, busing was used by white officials to maintain segregation. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), on behalf of Vera and Darius Swann, the parents of a six-year-old child, sued the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district to allow their son to attend Seversville Elementary School, the school closest to their home and then one of Charlotte’s few integrated schools. James McMillan, the federal district judge in the case, ruled in favour of the Swanns and oversaw the implementation of a busing strategy that integrated the district’s schools. McMillan’s decision was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which upheld it. The busing strategy was adopted elsewhere in the United States and played an instrumental role in integrating U.S. public schools.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Which of the following best describes one reason that the National Association for the Advancement of

    Which of the following best describes one reason that the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was formed? - 13952921

    11/22/2019 History Middle School

    answered • expert verified

    Which of the following best describes one reason that the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was formed?

    A. to start a “back to Africa” movement

    B. to make slavery illegal in the United States

    C. to stop violence against African Americans

    D. to form an African American political party

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    Genius 5.5K answers 32M people helped

    The correct answer is letter C.

    Explanation: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People the leading association for the defense of black rights and the fight against racism in the United States. Mainly composed of black Americans, but with many whites as members, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation, the entity was formed as a result of the lynching of two blacks in Springfield, Illinois, in 1908.

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    Answer:

    to stop violence against African Americans

    Explanation:

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    55 elcat asked 09/19/2016

    Which best describes the purpose of the Niagara Movement? -to support legislation that banned the practice of lynching -to support social and political rights for African Americans -to encourage African Americans to move back to Africa -to encourage African Americans to adopt the accommodationist approach

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    The Segregation Era (1900–1939)

    As segregation tightened and racial oppression escalated across the U.S., black leaders joined white reformers to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Early in its fight for equality, the NAACP used federal courts to challenge segregation. Job opportunities were the primary focus of the National Urban League.

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    The Library of Congress > Exhibitions > The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom > The Segregation Era (1900–1939)

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    The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom

    The Segregation Era (1900–1939)

    Home | Exhibition Overview | Exhibition Items | Timelines | Multimedia | Public Programs | Learn More | Acknowledgments

    Sections: Prologue | The Segregation Era (1900–1939) | World War II and Post War (1940–1949) | Civil Rights Era (1950–1963) | The Civil Rights Act of 1964 | Immediate Impact of the Civil Rights Act | Epilogue

    Flag flown at NAACP headquarters, ca. 1920. NAACP Records, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (030.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP

    As segregation tightened and racial oppression escalated across the United States, some leaders of the African American community, often called the talented tenth, began to reject Booker T. Washington’s conciliatory approach. W. E. B. Du Bois and other black leaders channeled their activism by founding the Niagara Movement in 1905. Later, they joined white reformers in 1909 to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Early in its fight for equality, the NAACP used the federal courts to challenge disenfranchisement and residential segregation. Job opportunities were the primary focus of the National Urban League, which was established in 1910.

    During the Great Migration (1910–1920), African Americans by the thousands poured into industrial cities to find work and later to fill labor shortages created by World War I. Though they continued to face exclusion and discrimination in employment, as well as some segregation in schools and public accommodations, Northern black men faced fewer barriers to voting. As their numbers increased, their vote emerged as a crucial factor in elections. The war and migration bolstered a heightened self-confidence in African Americans that manifested in the New Negro Movement of the 1920s. Evoking the “New Negro,” the NAACP lobbied aggressively for a federal anti-lynching law.

    In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal provided more federal support to African Americans than at any time since Reconstruction. Even so, New Deal legislation and policies continued to allow considerable discrimination. During the mid-thirties the NAACP launched a legal campaign against de jure (according to law) segregation, focusing on inequalities in public education. By 1936, the majority of black voters had abandoned their historic allegiance to the Republican Party and joined with labor unions, farmers, progressives, and ethnic minorities in assuring President Roosevelt’s landslide re-election. The election played a significant role in shifting the balance of power in the Democratic Party from its Southern bloc of white conservatives towards this new coalition.

    See timeline for this period

    NAACP Founder William English Walling

    William English Walling (1877–1936) was a prominent socialist and journalist. He was a founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, the Women’s Trade Union League, the Social Democratic League, and the NAACP. In 1908 he traveled to Springfield, Illinois, to investigate a recent race riot in which whites had targeted blacks. In his article, The Race War in the North, Walling declared: “the spirit of the abolitionists, of Lincoln and Lovejoy, must be revived and we must come to treat the negro on a plane of absolute political and social equality.” He appealed for a “large and powerful body of citizens to come to [blacks] aid.” The article aroused the conscience of Mary White Ovington, who wrote a letter to Walling offering her support.

    William English Walling, Chairman of the NAACP Executive Committee (1910–1911), 1906. Reproduction. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (317.00.00)

    Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/segregation-era.html#obj317

    NAACP Founder Mary White Ovington

    Mary White Ovington (1865–1951), a social worker and freelance writer, was a principal NAACP founder and officer for almost forty years. Born in Brooklyn, New York, into a wealthy abolitionist family, she became a socialist while a student at Radcliffe College. Ovington befriended W.E.B. Du Bois in 1904, when she was researching her first book, Half a Man (1911), about black Manhattan. In 1906 she covered the Niagara Movement and the Atlanta anti-black riot for the New York Evening Post. Ovington played a crucial role in the NAACP’s evolution. She recruited women into the ranks, mediated disputes, and guided the transition to black leadership. She served as secretary (1911–1912), acting secretary, treasurer, and board chairman.

    Source : www.loc.gov

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