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    which of the following best explains a reason for the end of the cold war in the late 1980s and early 1990s?

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    Explaining the End of the Cold War on JSTOR

    Jeremi Suri, Explaining the End of the Cold War, Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Fall 2002), pp. 60-92

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    JOURNAL ARTICLE Jeremi Suri

    Journal of Cold War Studies

    Vol. 4, No. 4 (Fall 2002), pp. 60-92 (33 pages)

    Published By: The MIT Press

    https://www.jstor.org/stable/26925239

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    Despite the many books and articles written about the end of the Cold War, scholars have not produced a truly international history of this seminal event. This article shows how some of the most important monographs on the end of the Cold War can be synthesized to yield a preliminary account. In particular, the article outlines an interpretation that connects the immediate crisis of the early 1980s, long-term ideological and institutional trends, and transformational choices made from 1985 to 1991. No single decision or variable brought the Cold War to an end. Personalities, trends, and institutions interacted to create an outcome that few predicted.

    The Journal of Cold War Studies features peer-reviewed articles based on archival research in the former Communist world, in Western countries, and in other parts of the globe. Articles in the journal draw on declassified materials and new memoirs to illuminate and raise questions about numerous historical and theoretical concerns: theories of decision-making, deterrence, bureaucratic politics, institutional formation, bargaining, diplomacy, foreign policy conduct, and international relations. Using the latest evidence, the authors subject these theories, and others, to rigorous empirical analysis. The journal also includes an extensive section of reviews of new books pertaining to the Cold War and international politics. The journal is published by the MIT Press for the Harvard Project on Cold War Studies.

    Among the largest university presses in the world, The MIT Press publishes over 200 new books each year along with 30 journals in the arts and humanities, economics, international affairs, history, political science, science and technology along with other disciplines. We were among the first university presses to offer titles electronically and we continue to adopt technologies that allow us to better support the scholarly mission and disseminate our content widely. The Press's enthusiasm for innovation is reflected in our continuing exploration of this frontier. Since the late 1960s, we have experimented with generation after generation of electronic publishing tools. Through our commitment to new products—whether digital journals or entirely new forms of communication—we have continued to look for the most efficient and effective means to serve our readership. Our readers have come to expect excellence from our products, and they can count on us to maintain a commitment to producing rigorous and innovative information products in whatever forms the future of publishing may bring.

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    © 2002 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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    Source : www.jstor.org

    APUSH Period 9 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like "Reaganomics," or supply-side economics, led to which of the following? A A decline in unemployment and poverty B Greater tax revenues than government expenditures C Large increases in the incomes of wealthy Americans D An increase in appropriations for school lunches E Lower military expenditures than during the Carter administration, The 1970's and the 1980's saw an increase in all of the following EXCEPT A the influence of Christian fundamentalism B the average age of Americans C support for consumer and environmental movements D the number of women holding political office E the percentage of two-parent households, Which of the following most directly represents an attempt to put the principles stated in the excerpt into action? A Curtailing domestic civil liberties through federal legislation to improve security against terrorism B Participating in peacekeeping interventions in the Balkans to stop ethnic cleansing C Constructing the Star Wars missile defense system to reduce the nuclear threat D Creating a powerful military-industrial complex and more.

    APUSH Period 9

    5.0 1 Review

    "Reaganomics," or supply-side economics, led to which of the following?

    A

    A decline in unemployment and poverty

    B

    Greater tax revenues than government expenditures

    C

    Large increases in the incomes of wealthy Americans

    D

    An increase in appropriations for school lunches

    E

    Lower military expenditures than during the Carter administration

    Click card to see definition 👆

    C

    Click again to see term 👆

    The 1970's and the 1980's saw an increase in all of the following EXCEPT

    A

    the influence of Christian fundamentalism

    B

    the average age of Americans

    C

    support for consumer and environmental movements

    D

    the number of women holding political office

    E

    the percentage of two-parent households

    Click card to see definition 👆

    E

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/42 Created by supercaleighelise

    Terms in this set (42)

    "Reaganomics," or supply-side economics, led to which of the following?

    A

    A decline in unemployment and poverty

    B

    Greater tax revenues than government expenditures

    C

    Large increases in the incomes of wealthy Americans

    D

    An increase in appropriations for school lunches

    E

    Lower military expenditures than during the Carter administration

    C

    The 1970's and the 1980's saw an increase in all of the following EXCEPT

    A

    the influence of Christian fundamentalism

    B

    the average age of Americans

    C

    support for consumer and environmental movements

    D

    the number of women holding political office

    E

    the percentage of two-parent households

    E

    Which of the following most directly represents an attempt to put the principles stated in the excerpt into action?

    A

    Curtailing domestic civil liberties through federal legislation to improve security against terrorism

    B

    Participating in peacekeeping interventions in the Balkans to stop ethnic cleansing

    C

    Constructing the Star Wars missile defense system to reduce the nuclear threat

    D

    Creating a powerful military-industrial complex

    B

    The principles on human rights articulated by President Bush are most similar to

    A

    the ideas expressed by President George Washington in his 1796 Farewell Address

    B

    President James K. Polk's support for Manifest Destiny in the 1840s

    C

    the ideas expressed by President Woodrow Wilson during and after the First World War

    D

    President Ronald Reagan's support for reinvigoration of anticommunism in the 1980s

    C

    Which of the following events most directly led to President Bush believing that a new "world order" was emerging?

    A

    United States military forces withdrawing from Vietnam

    B

    The spread of computers and global information networks

    C

    The end of the Cold War with the Soviet Union

    D

    Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon

    C

    Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan were similar as presidential candidates in that both

    A

    articulated the public's desire for less involvement in foreign affairs

    B

    capitalized on their status as Washington outsiders

    C

    promised Congress increased control over domestic matters

    D

    renounced private fund-raising in support of their campaigns

    E

    had built national reputations as legislators

    B

    The ideas in the excerpts best reflect which of the following about United States foreign policy during Reagan's administrations?

    A

    Conservatives were willing to increase government spending in order to support Cold War military interventions.

    B

    Political leaders shifted focus to provide aid in humanitarian crises rather than to directly engage in conflicts.

    C

    Military and national security priorities changed to reflect the aim to combat terrorism around the world.

    D

    The United States public widely supported sending military forces to countries to stop the expansion of communism.

    A

    Which of the following best describes a similarity between the arguments made by Rossinow and Berman in the excerpts?

    A

    Voters' increased approval for liberal programs changed Republican tactics.

    B

    Debates over foreign policy caused a split within the Democratic Party.

    C

    Conservatism had a widespread impact beyond the election of Reagan.

    D

    A defiant Soviet Union tested the strength of the United States military.

    C

    Which of the following claims is supported by the arguments made by both Rossinow and Berman?

    A

    Evangelical support for liberal social policies expanded during the 1980s.

    B

    Supporters of the Democratic Party pushed initiatives to increase taxes.

    C

    Conservative supporters wanted Reagan to expand the power of the federal government.

    D

    The influence of cultural debates persisted throughout politics in the 1980s.

    D

    Which of the following describes a difference between the arguments made by Rossinow and Berman in the excerpts?

    A

    Rossinow argues that the public was skeptical of the new conservative consensus, while Berman argues that conservative policies were widely supported.

    Source : quizlet.com

    READ: The Cold War — An Overview (article)

    8.1: The Cold War

    READ: The Cold War — An Overview

    Created by World History Project.

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    The article below uses “Three Close Reads”. If you want to learn more about this strategy, click here.

    First read: preview and skimming for gist

    Before you read the article, you should skim it first. The skim should be very quick and give you the gist (general idea) of what the article is about. You should be looking at the title, author, headings, pictures, and opening sentences of paragraphs for the gist.

    Second read: key ideas and understanding content

    Now that you’ve skimmed the article, you should preview the questions you will be answering. These questions will help you get a better understanding of the concepts and arguments that are presented in the article. Keep in mind that when you read the article, it is a good idea to write down any vocab you see in the article that is unfamiliar to you.

    By the end of the second close read, you should be able to answer the following questions:

    According to the author, what was the basic difference at the heart of the Cold War conflict?

    What does this author identify as the three main features of the Cold War?

    Why did Stalin want to expand Soviet influence in Eastern Europe?

    What was the policy of containment and what does the author use as an example of this policy?

    Third read: evaluating and corroborating

    Finally, here are some questions that will help you focus on why this article matters and how it connects to other content you’ve studied.

    At the end of the third read, you should be able to respond to these questions:

    The Cold War was a conflict that was all about methods of production and distribution that divided communities across the world along communist and capitalist lines. Which of the course frames do you think best describes why the Cold War happened?

    Now that you know what to look for, it’s time to read! Remember to return to these questions once you’ve finished reading.

    Cold War: An Overview

    By Burleigh Hendrickson

    The aftermath of World War Two shifted the global balance of power and created a bi-polar world led by two competing superpowers: The United States (US) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). We call this global competition the Cold War.

    What was the Cold War?

    The destruction of World War II reduced many European cities to rubble. It also led world leaders to seek new ways to protect against future attacks. While the United States and the Soviet Union had worked together to defeat the Axis powers, their partnership quickly turned to a 50-year-long confrontation. They disagreed about how to rebuild Europe, and their efforts to increase their own security often conflicted. This fierce conflict is called the "Cold War" since the two superpowers never directly engaged in combat ("hot war"). Instead, they increased their military capabilities, tried to expand their global influence, and undermined the other's way of life in the eyes of the world. While the United States believed in a capitalist system of free markets and multiple political parties, the Soviet Union was founded on a communist system controlled by a centralized state and a single political party.

    The Cold War came down to some basic differences between the world-views of the United States and the Soviet Union. Communist societies believed in redistributing wealth (taking from the rich and giving to the poor) and promoted workers and state-run economies. These resulted in low unemployment rates but sometimes led to the unequal distribution of consumer goods. They also viewed organized religion as dangerous. The US capitalist system let free markets determine the production and distribution of goods, and promoted freedom of religion. This led to more productivity but often created massive economic inequalities. Both sides also used propaganda to paint a negative picture of their enemies. From 1945 until the collapse of the USSR in the 1990s, these two nations competed for global influence in the areas of military, economics, politics, and even culture.

    Three key features defined the Cold War: 1) the threat of nuclear war, 2) competition over the allegiance (loyalty) of newly independent nations, and 3) the military and economic support of each other's enemies around the world. The United States showed its global military dominance when it dropped two atomic bombs on Japan to end the war. This act prompted the USSR to seek nuclear technology to discourage American aggression. The United States held other advantages as well. Having entered World War II late in the conflict, it lost far fewer soldiers and civilians. The USSR lost 8-10 million soldiers (25 million including civilians) yet the United States lost 300,000 in the war. While the Soviet Union faced a devastating invasion, most of the United States emerged unscathed from the war. Finally, the US economy expanded during the war as it made profits selling weapons and supplies to the Allied forces.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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