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    Period 6 Flashcards & Practice Test

    DAVIS BACK AT IT AGAIN BEING THE WORST Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

    Period 6

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    The intent of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to

    A

    assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American culture

    B

    recognize and preserve the tribal cultures of American Indians

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    a

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    The perspective expressed in the excerpt most directly supported the national expansion of

    C

    exams for civil service jobs

    D

    access to higher education

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    d

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    DAVIS BACK AT IT AGAIN BEING THE WORST

    Terms in this set (107)

    The intent of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to

    A

    assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American culture

    B

    recognize and preserve the tribal cultures of American Indians

    a

    The perspective expressed in the excerpt most directly supported the national expansion of

    C

    exams for civil service jobs

    D

    access to higher education

    d

    In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, American agriculture was characterized by

    D

    an increase in wholesale prices for farm products

    E

    an increase in acres under civilization

    e

    Which of the following constitutes a significant change in the treatment of American Indians during the last half of the nineteenth century?

    D

    The admission of all American Indians to the full rights of United States citizenship

    E

    The division of the tribal lands among individual members

    e

    The Ghost Dance, a religious movement that developed in the late nineteenth century, emerged from which of the following?

    A

    American Indians' distress over loss of tribal authority

    B

    African Americans' efforts to cope with Jim Crow laws

    a

    Which of the following was a result of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 ?

    A

    It encouraged cooperative landownership among American Indians.

    B

    American Indians in the West led attacks on United States forts.

    C

    American Indians lost control of millions of acres of land.

    c

    From the 1880's to the beginning of the New Deal, the dominant American Indian policy of the United Stated government sought to

    D

    encourage American Indians to preserve their languages and religions

    E

    break up tribal landholdings

    e

    From the 1880s to the New Deal, the dominant United States government policy toward American Indians was to try to

    D

    preserve native languages and customs

    E

    assimilate them into White culture

    e

    Frederick Jackson Turner's theory emphasized the significance of the frontier for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

    D

    The western frontier had land that could be distributed to former slaves.

    E

    The frontier was a safety valve for the excess population of eastern cities.

    d

    Which of the following developments best explains the reasons for the growth of a new urban culture in the late 1800s?

    A

    Ideas and definitions of citizenship changed and became more inclusive.

    B

    International and internal migration increased urban populations and brought diverse people to cities.

    b

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    Freedmen and Southern Society Project: Selected Documents

    A selection of documents from Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867

    Documents from Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861–1867

    Documents from Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861–1867 Editorial Method and Copyright

    The following are selected documents from the volumes of Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation. Like all documents published in Freedom, they are transcriptions (or, in a few cases, images) of originals housed in the National Archives of the United States. They have been transcribed exactly as written, with no correction of spelling, punctuation, or syntax and no editorial supply of absent punctuation. Extra space marks the end of sentences that lack terminal punctuation or are punctuated unconventionally. Inferential readings of illegible or mutilated passages appear in brackets and roman type, [like this]; additions and corrections by the editors appear in brackets and italics, []. Omission of material is indicated by a four-dot ellipsis centered on the line. Place and date lines appear on a single line at the top of each document, regardless of their placement in the manuscript. Inside addresses are omitted. Salutations and complimentary closings are run into the body of the document.

    A full discussion of editorial method appears in each volume.

    Because of the limitations of HTML and variations among web browsers and viewing devices, the documents presented here will not appear exactly as they do in the volumes of Freedom. For example, paragraphs are not indented but instead are set apart by blank lines. Graphical elements that cannot be reliably rendered online, including braces and wavy vertical lines alongside multi-line headings, have been omitted. In endnotes and footnotes, abbreviations in the editors' text and short titles in citations have been spelled out, so that users will not need to consult each volume's list of abbreviations.

    Following each document is a citation to the original in the National Archives, as well as to the transcription published in Freedom.

    Material from Freedom and other publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project is under copyright. It may be used without permission for teaching, research, and other noncommercial purposes. It may not be used for profit without permission from the publisher.

    Selected Documents

    (Arranged Chronologically)

    1861

    Missouri Unionist to the Commander of the Department of the West, May 14, 1861; and the Commander's Reply, May 14, 1861

    Writing to the Union commander at St. Louis, a white Missourian sought and received assurances that the federal government would protect slavery.

    Commander of the Department of Virginia to the General-in-Chief of the Army, May 27, 1861

    General Benjamin F. Butler, the federal commander at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, explained his rationale for accepting and providing for fugitive slaves who had come into his lines, despite the Union's commitment to noninterference with slavery.

    Order by the Commander of the Corps of Observation, Army of the Potomac, September 23, 1861

    In response to complaints that soldiers in his command were encouraging insubordination among slaves in the Union state of Maryland, General Charles P. Stone reminded his troops of their duty to uphold the laws, including those protecting slavery.

    Order by the Commander of the Department of Virginia, November 1, 1861

    General John E. Wool, the Union commander at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, instituted an arrangement in which ex-slave men employed by the army drew rations and were credited with wages – most of which were not paid to the workers but applied to the support of ex-slave women, children, and aged or disabled men.

    Commander at Camp Nevin, Kentucky, to the Commander of the Department of the Cumberland, November 5, 1861; and the Latter's Reply, November 8, 1861

    A general in the Union state of Kentucky found fugitive slaves useful as military laborers, but hesitated to employ them for fear of alienating their owners. His superior, General William T. Sherman, directed him to avoid the dilemma by excluding runaways from his lines altogether.

    Governor of Maryland to the Secretary of War, November 18, 1861

    When a Maryland slaveowner trying to recover his fugitive slave was driven away from a camp of Massachusetts soldiers, he appealed to Thomas H. Hicks, the governor of Maryland, who urged the Secretary of War to enforce the law, protect slave property, and thereby ensure the state's loyalty.

    Order by the Commander of the Department of the Missouri, November 20, 1861

    The chief Union commander in the west, General Henry W. Halleck, cited military, rather than legal or political, grounds for excluding fugitive slaves from the lines of his army.

    Black Ohioan to the Secretary of War, November 27, 1861

    Initially barred from serving as Union soldiers, black men in parts of the North nevertheless formed militia companies and began drilling on their own. A freeman in Ohio beseeched Secretary of War Simon Cameron for a chance to strike a blow against the rebels.

    Michigan Quaker to the Secretary of War, December 5, 1861

    Writing to Secretary of War Simon Cameron, a white Northerner denounced the Union's policy of turning away fugitive slaves as militarily counterproductive and morally bankrupt.

    Governor of Massachusetts to the Secretary of War, December 7, 1861, Enclosing an Excerpt from a Letter from an Unidentified Correspondent, November 28, 1861

    Governor John A. Andrew protested when he learned that soldiers from his state had been ordered to engage in the “dirty and despotic work” of returning slaves to captivity.

    Source : www.freedmen.umd.edu

    Abolition, Anti

    Black and white abolitionists in the 1st half of the 19th century waged a biracial assault against slavery. Their efforts heightened the rift that had threatened to destroy the unity of the nation even as early as the Constitutional Convention.

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    The Library of Congress > Exhibitions > The African American Odyssey > Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy

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    The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship

    Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy

    Home | Exhibition Overview | Exhibition Items | Learn More | Public Programs | Acknowledgments

    Sections: Slavery—The Peculiar Institution | Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period | Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy | The Civil War | Reconstruction and Its Aftermath | The Booker T. Washington Era | World War I and Postwar Society | The Depression, The New Deal, and World War II | The Civil Rights Era

    Black and white abolitionists in the first half of the nineteenth century waged a biracial assault against slavery. Their efforts proved to be extremely effective. Abolitionists focused attention on slavery and made it difficult to ignore. They heightened the rift that had threatened to destroy the unity of the nation even as early as the Constitutional Convention.

    Although some Quakers were slaveholders, members of that religious group were among the earliest to protest the African slave trade, the perpetual bondage of its captives, and the practice of separating enslaved family members by sale to different masters.

    As the nineteenth century progressed, many abolitionists united to form numerous antislavery societies. These groups sent petitions with thousands of signatures to Congress, held abolition meetings and conferences, boycotted products made with slave labor, printed mountains of literature, and gave innumerable speeches for their cause. Individual abolitionists sometimes advocated violent means for bringing slavery to an end.

    Although black and white abolitionists often worked together, by the 1840s they differed in philosophy and method. While many white abolitionists focused only on slavery, black Americans tended to couple anti-slavery activities with demands for racial equality and justice.

    Anti-Slavery Activists

    Christian Arguments Against Slavery

    Benjamin Lay, a Quaker who saw slavery as a “notorious sin,” addresses this 1737 volume to those who “pretend to lay claim to the pure and holy Christian religion.” Although some Quakers held slaves, no religious group was more outspoken against slavery from the seventeenth century until slavery's demise. Quaker petitions on behalf of the emancipation of African Americans flowed into colonial legislatures and later to the United States Congress.

    Benjamin Lay. All Slave Keepers that Keep the Innocent in Bondage . . . . Philadelphia: Printed for the Author, 1737. Franklin Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (3–22)

    Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/african-american-odyssey/abolition.html#obj1

    Plea for the Suppression of the Slave Trade

    In this plea for the abolition of the slave trade, Anthony Benezet, a Quaker of French Huguenot descent, pointed out that if buyers did not demand slaves, the supply would end. “Without purchasers,” he argued, “there would be no trade; and consequently every purchaser as he encourages the trade, becomes partaker in the guilt of it.” He contended that guilt existed on both sides of the Atlantic. There are Africans, he alleged, “who will sell their own children, kindred, or neighbors.” Benezet also used the biblical maxim, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” to justify ending slavery. Insisting that emancipation alone would not solve the problems of people of color, Benezet opened schools to prepare them for more productive lives.

    Anthony Benezet. Observations on the Inslaving, Importing and Purchasing of Negroes. Germantown, Pennsylvania: Christopher Sower, 1760. American Imprints Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (3–1)

    Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/african-american-odyssey/abolition.html#obj2

    The Conflict Between Christianity and Slavery

    Connecticut theologian Jonathan Edwards, born 1745, echoes Benezet's use of the Golden Rule as well as the natural rights arguments of the Revolutionary era to justify the abolition of slavery. In this printed version of his 1791 sermon to a local anti-slavery group, he notes the progress toward abolition in the North and predicts that through vigilant efforts slavery would be extinguished in the next fifty years.

    Jonathan Edwards, D.D. The Injustice and Impolicy of the Slave Trade and of the Slavery of Africans . . . A Sermon. New Haven, Connecticut: Thomas and Samuel Green, 1791. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (3–2)

    Source : www.loc.gov

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