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    Ribosomes, Transcription, Translation

    The decoding of information in a cell's DNA into proteins begins with a complex interaction of nucleic acids. Learn how this step inside the nucleus leads to protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.

    The genetic information stored in DNA is a living archive of instructions that cells use to accomplish the functions of life. Inside each cell, catalysts seek out the appropriate information from this archive and use it to build new proteins — proteins that make up the structures of the cell, run the biochemical reactions in the cell, and are sometimes manufactured for export. Although all of the cells that make up a multicellular organism contain identical genetic information, functionally different cells within the organism use different sets of catalysts to express only specific portions of these instructions to accomplish the functions of life.

    How Is Genetic Information Passed on in Dividing Cells?

    When a cell divides, it creates one copy of its genetic information — in the form of DNA molecules — for each of the two resulting daughter cells. The accuracy of these copies determines the health and inherited features of the nascent cells, so it is essential that the process of DNA replication be as accurate as possible (Figure 1).

    Figure 1: DNA replication of the leading and lagging strand

    The helicase unzips the double-stranded DNA for replication, making a forked structure. The primase generates short strands of RNA that bind to the single-stranded DNA to initiate DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase. This enzyme can work only in the 5' to 3' direction, so it replicates the leading strand continuously. Lagging-strand replication is discontinuous, with short Okazaki fragments being formed and later linked together.

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group Bell, S. D. Molecular biology: Prime-time progress. 439, 542-543 (2006). All rights reserved.

    Figure Detail

    One factor that helps ensure precise replication is the double-helical structure of DNA itself. In particular, the two strands of the DNA double helix are made up of combinations of molecules called nucleotides. DNA is constructed from just four different nucleotides — adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) — each of which is named for the nitrogenous base it contains. Moreover, the nucleotides that form one strand of the DNA double helix always bond with the nucleotides in the other strand according to a pattern known as complementary base-pairing — specifically, A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G (Figure 2). Thus, during cell division, the paired strands unravel and each strand serves as the template for synthesis of a new complementary strand.

    Each nucleotide has an affinity for its partner: A pairs with T, and C pairs with G.

    © 2009 Nature Education All rights reserved.

    In most multicellular organisms, every cell carries the same DNA, but this genetic information is used in varying ways by different types of cells. In other words, what a cell "does" within an organism dictates which of its genes are expressed. Nerve cells, for example, synthesize an abundance of chemicals called neurotransmitters, which they use to send messages to other cells, whereas muscle cells load themselves with the protein-based filaments necessary for muscle contractions.

    What Are the Initial Steps in Accessing Genetic Information?

    Figure 3: RNA polymerase at work

    RNA polymerase (green) synthesizes a strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA template strand below it.

    © 2009 Nature Education All rights reserved.

    Transcription is the first step in decoding a cell's genetic information. During transcription, enzymes called RNA polymerases build RNA molecules that are complementary to a portion of one strand of the DNA double helix (Figure 3).

    RNA molecules differ from DNA molecules in several important ways: They are single stranded rather than double stranded; their sugar component is a ribose rather than a deoxyribose; and they include uracil (U) nucleotides rather than thymine (T) nucleotides (Figure 4). Also, because they are single strands, RNA molecules don't form helices; rather, they fold into complex structures that are stabilized by internal complementary base-pairing.

    Figure 4: DNA (top) includes thymine (red); in RNA (bottom), thymine is replaced by uracil (yellow)

    © 2009 Nature Education All rights reserved.

    Three general classes of RNA molecules are involved in expressing the genes encoded within a cell's DNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules carry the coding sequences for protein synthesis and are called transcripts; ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules form the core of a cell's ribosomes (the structures in which protein synthesis takes place); and transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis. In eukaryotic cells, each class of RNA has its own polymerase, whereas in prokaryotic cells, a single RNA polymerase synthesizes the different class of RNA. Other types of RNA also exist but are not as well understood, although they appear to play regulatory roles in gene expression and also be involved in protection against invading viruses.

    Source : www.nature.com

    Protein Synthesis Pre

    Start studying Protein Synthesis Pre-Test answer keys. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Protein Synthesis Pre-Test answer keys

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    Which is the purpose of transfer RNA?

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    to bring amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins

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    During which process is mRNA synthesized from a DNA template with the aid of RNA polymerase?

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    transcription

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    1/17 Created by aniyjahu

    Terms in this set (17)

    Which is the purpose of transfer RNA?

    to bring amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins

    During which process is mRNA synthesized from a DNA template with the aid of RNA polymerase?

    transcription

    Which occurs during transcription?

    mRNA is synthesized from a strand of DNA.

    What must first occur for transcription to begin?

    RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter.

    Which does not occur during translation?

    DNA is transcribed into a complementary strand of mRNA.

    Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod studied Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria by using lab experimentation. What revision to their initial hypothesis did they come up with?

    Two operons control bacterial respiration.

    During transcription, what happens to the RNA polymerase if a repressor protein attaches to the operator?

    It begins translation.

    James is working with the lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). He places the bacteria on a plate of growth media.

    mc025-1.jpg

    Based on the current understanding of this operon, which hypothesis would be useful for James to test?

    Addition of allolactose to the bacterial growth media should increase the speed at which the bacteria metabolize the sugar lactose.

    Which is composed of amino acids and determines all the structures and functions of organisms?

    protein

    Which is the purpose of transfer RNA?

    to bring amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins

    The diagram shows one step in the process of protein synthesis.

    mc010-1.jpg

    Which step is shown?

    transcription

    During which process is mRNA converted into a sequence of amino acids for protein production?

    mRNA synthesis

    The diagram shows one step in the process of protein synthesis.

    mc015-1.jpg

    What is the purpose of the peptide bond that is shown in the diagram?

    it connects amino acids.

    Which mRNA sequence is the complement to the DNA sequence GATCAC?

    CUAGUG

    The molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins is .

    tRNA

    James is working with the lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). He places the bacteria on a plate of growth media.

    mc025-1.jpg

    Based on the current understanding of this operon, which hypothesis would be useful for James to test?

    Addition of allolactose to the bacterial growth media should increase the speed at which the bacteria metabolize the sugar lactose.

    The diagram shows one step in the process of protein synthesis.

    mc020-1.jpg

    Which step is shown?

    translation

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    Verified questions

    BIOLOGY

    Which statement is true about energy in an ecosystem? A. Energy for most ecosystems originates from the Sun. B. Energy most often is released as light from an ecosystem. C. Energy flows from heterotrophs to autotrophs. D. Energy levels increase toward the top of the food chain.

    Verified answer BIOLOGY

    Lupita has a houseplant. Which method would be the best way of producing a similar plant for a friend? Explain your answer.

    Verified answer BIOLOGY

    The “carbonyl process" is a method of refining nickel that involves passing carbon monoxide gas over impure nickel at high temperature. This produces a compound called nickel carbonyl:

    Ni(s) + CO(g) → Ni(CO)_4(g)

    Ni(s)+CO(g)→Ni(CO) 4 ​ (g)

    Nickel carbonyl is then strongly heated to produce pure nickel and carbon monoxide gas:

    Ni(CO)_4(g)→Ni(s) + CO(g)

    Ni(CO) 4 ​ (g)→Ni(s)+CO(g)

    (a) Classify each of these reactions. (b) Research the properties of nickel carbonyl and carbon monoxide. Why must the reactions be conducted in an airtight chamber?

    Verified answer BIOLOGY

    Summarize the key concepts that led to the development of the technique for producing chymosin: (a) Concept 1: _____ (b) Concept 2: _____ (c) Concept 3: _____ (d) Concept 4: _____ (e) Concept 5: _____

    Source : quizlet.com

    RNA

    transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes, where they are linked into proteins. In addition to tRNA there are two other major types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of proteins was demonstrated by several scientists, including American biochemist Robert William Holley, who also developed techniques to separate different transfer RNAs from cells and determined the composition of the tRNA that incorporates the amino acid alanine into protein molecules. Ribosomal molecules of mRNA determine the order of tRNA molecules that

    RNA

    biochemistry

    Alternate titles: ribonucleic acid

    By Kunal Chatterjee See All • Edit History

    transcription and translation

    See all media

    Key People: Jack W. Szostak Craig C. Mello Ada Yonath Venki Ramakrishnan Sidney Altman

    Related Topics: ribosomal RNA transfer RNA messenger RNA ribose nucleotide sequence

    See all related content →

    Summary

    Read a brief summary of this topic

    RNA, abbreviation of ribonucleic acid, complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses. RNA consists of ribose nucleotides (nitrogenous bases appended to a ribose sugar) attached by phosphodiester bonds, forming strands of varying lengths. The nitrogenous bases in RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil, which replaces thymine in DNA.

    The ribose sugar of RNA is a cyclical structure consisting of five carbons and one oxygen. The presence of a chemically reactive hydroxyl (−OH) group attached to the second carbon group in the ribose sugar molecule makes RNA prone to hydrolysis. This chemical lability of RNA, compared with DNA, which does not have a reactive −OH group in the same position on the sugar moiety (deoxyribose), is thought to be one reason why DNA evolved to be the preferred carrier of genetic information in most organisms. The structure of the RNA molecule was described by R.W. Holley in 1965.

    READ MORE ON THIS TOPIC

    What Is the Difference Between DNA and RNA?

    DNA is the master blueprint for life, and RNA codes for the structure of proteins.

    RNA structure

    RNA typically is a single-stranded biopolymer. However, the presence of self-complementary sequences in the RNA strand leads to intrachain base-pairing and folding of the ribonucleotide chain into complex structural forms consisting of bulges and helices. The three-dimensional structure of RNA is critical to its stability and function, allowing the ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases to be modified in numerous different ways by cellular enzymes that attach chemical groups (e.g., methyl groups) to the chain. Such modifications enable the formation of chemical bonds between distant regions in the RNA strand, leading to complex contortions in the RNA chain, which further stabilizes the RNA structure. Molecules with weak structural modifications and stabilization may be readily destroyed. As an example, in an initiator transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that lacks a methyl group (tRNAiMet), modification at position 58 of the tRNA chain renders the molecule unstable and hence nonfunctional; the nonfunctional chain is destroyed by cellular tRNA quality control mechanisms.

    RNAs can also form complexes with molecules known as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). The RNA portion of at least one cellular RNP has been shown to act as a biological catalyst, a function previously ascribed only to proteins.

    Types and functions of RNA

    Of the many types of RNA, the three most well-known and most commonly studied are messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which are present in all organisms. These and other types of RNAs primarily carry out biochemical reactions, similar to enzymes. Some, however, also have complex regulatory functions in cells. Owing to their involvement in many regulatory processes, to their abundance, and to their diverse functions, RNAs play important roles in both normal cellular processes and diseases.

    In protein synthesis, mRNA carries genetic codes from the DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes, the sites of protein translation in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and protein. The ribosome protein subunits are encoded by rRNA and are synthesized in the nucleolus. Once fully assembled, they move to the cytoplasm, where, as key regulators of translation, they “read” the code carried by mRNA. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA specifies incorporation of a specific amino acid in the sequence that makes up the protein. Molecules of tRNA (sometimes also called soluble, or activator, RNA), which contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, bring the specified amino acids to the ribosomes, where they are linked to form proteins.

    In addition to mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNAs can be broadly divided into coding (cRNA) and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). There are two types of ncRNAs, housekeeping ncRNAs (tRNA and rRNA) and regulatory ncRNAs, which are further classified according to their size. Long ncRNAs (lncRNA) have at least 200 nucleotides, while small ncRNAs have fewer than 200 nucleotides. Small ncRNAs are subdivided into micro RNA (miRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small-interfering RNA (siRNA), and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA).

    The miRNAs are of particular importance. They are about 22 nucleotides long and function in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. They can inhibit (silence) gene expression by binding to target mRNA and inhibiting translation, thereby preventing functional proteins from being produced. Many miRNAs play significant roles in cancer and other diseases. For example, tumour suppressor and oncogenic (cancer-initiating) miRNAs can regulate unique target genes, leading to tumorigenesis and tumour progression.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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