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    which layer of earth is in the liquid state of matter?

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    Which layers of the earth are solid and which are liquid?

    The crust and the inner core are solid, whereas the outer core and inner mantle are liquid. The outer mantle is semi solid. The inner core is solid due to the massive pressure on it. Scientists theorize that the heat of the solid inner core is keeping the outer core in a semi-liquid state which allows the inner core to spin at a slightly different rate than the rest of the earth. This gives the earth its magnetic poles which diverts damaging cosmic rays from colliding with earth. The theories are the result of measurements during volcanic activity and sound waves. The mantle is a plastic solid of varying densities which allow convection currents to flow molten rock towards the earth's surface resulting in volcanic activity, tectonic plate movement, earthquakes, and movement of continents. There are a lot of drawings here: https://www.google.ca/search?q=layers+of+earth+that+are+liquid&rlz=1C1CHFX_enCA758CA758&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj9najqieLVAhXm5YMKHXnKAYkQsAQIXw&biw=1366&bih=662 The formation of the solar system is here: http://atropos.as.arizona.edu/aiz/teaching/nats102/mario/solar_system.html

    Which layers of the earth are solid and which are liquid?

    Astronomy Our Solar System The Planets

    1 Answer

    EET-AP · Joy Jan 4, 2016

    The crust and the inner core are solid, whereas the outer core and inner mantle are liquid. The outer mantle is semi solid.

    Explanation:

    The inner core is solid due to the massive pressure on it. Scientists theorize that the heat of the solid inner core is keeping the outer core in a semi-liquid state which allows the inner core to spin at a slightly different rate than the rest of the earth. This gives the earth its magnetic poles which diverts damaging cosmic rays from colliding with earth. The theories are the result of measurements during volcanic activity and sound waves.

    The mantle is a plastic solid of varying densities which allow convection currents to flow molten rock towards the earth's surface resulting in volcanic activity, tectonic plate movement, earthquakes, and movement of continents.

    There are a lot of drawings here:

    https://www.google.ca/search?q=layers+of+earth+that+are+liquid&rlz=1C1CHFX_enCA758CA758&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj9najqieLVAhXm5YMKHXnKAYkQsAQIXw&biw=1366&bih=662

    The formation of the solar system is here:

    http://atropos.as.arizona.edu/aiz/teaching/nats102/mario/solar_system.html

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    What is the layer of earth that is liquid?

    Answer (1 of 9): > What is the layer of earth that is liquid? (1) The liquid layers (plural) of Earth(our planet) are the mantle(molten rock, semi-liquid (think lava))and the outer core(liquid metal). The image below was lifted from volcano.oregonstate.eduarticle The Earth’s Layers: (2) Liquid ...

    What is the layer of earth that is liquid?

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    9 Answers Edward Hart

    , former Industrial Chemist at Xerox (1988-2011)

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 4.7K answers and 560.2K answer views

    Originally Answered: What layer of the Earth is liquid?

    The Inner layer of Magma, more than 60 miles inside Earth ! But the pressure is so high the Magma acts like a Solid ! (Unless it can get to the surface as in a Volcanic eruption ! )

    59 views Related questions More answers below

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    Pankaj T , UX Designer

    Answered 7 months ago

    The outer core is the liquid largely iron layer of the earth that lies below the mantle. Geologists have confirmed that the outer core is liquid due to seismic surveys of Earth's interior.

    129 views

    Itay Marlov (איתי מרלוב)

    , lives in Israel

    Answered 1 year ago · Author has 657 answers and 154.9K answer views

    Originally Answered: What is Earth’s only liquid layer?

    The earth has 4 layers, from the shallowest to the deepest - the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core. The outer core and some parts of the deep mantle are made from liquid molten matels.

    80 views

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    Prashant Patel Saurabh

    , lives in Gorakhpur, India

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 136 answers and 253.2K answer views

    Originally Answered: What is the Earth's only liquid layer?

    The only major layer of the earth that's liquid is the outter core, which is basically metal with the same composition of the inner core (mainly nickel and iron) but molten instead of solid. All the other major layersabove and below it are though to be solid.

    268 viewsView upvotes

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    Gregory Benson

    , Retired Research Geoscientist (2015-present)

    Answered 3 years ago · Author has 13.1K answers and 3.5M answer views

    Other answers concentrate on the liquid outer core. Volumetrically the largest liquid layer of the Earth.

    There is also the hydrosphere, the water in oceans, lakes, seas, and rivers.

    641 viewsView upvotes

    Henry K.O. Norman

    , Retired Programmer, Studying Geology

    Answered 3 years ago · Author has 6.6K answers and 9.8M answer views

    What is the layer of earth that is liquid?

    (1) The liquid layers (plural) of Earth

    (our planet) are the mantle

    (molten rock, semi-liquid (think lava))

    and the outer core

    (liquid metal). The image below was lifted from volcano.oregonstate.edu

    article The Earth’s Layers:

    (2) Liquid layers of earth — soil, dirt mixed with water — are most commonly called mud.

    8.6K viewsView upvotes

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    Sarah Forrester

    , lives in Memphis, TN

    Answered 4 years ago

    The only liquid layer of the earth is the outer core. The inner core is solid because of the intense pressure from the other layers, and the other layers are made of igneous rock. However, the inner and outer core have the same composition: iron and nickel.

    1.6K viewsView upvotes

    Peter Kennard

    Answered 3 years ago · Author has 400 answers and 81.2K answer views

    Hmm seems like all the “layers” have liquid in them. Rain in the air, water on the surface, lava and magma at some places just under the surface and in volcanoes, water and oil underground we drill holes to get, more molten rocks under that and various forms of liquid stuff all the way down to molten iron in the center.

    It is as many things are, more nuanced than a simple has or doesn’t.

    1.5K views Andrew Patton

    , studied at University of San Francisco

    Answered 7 years ago

    Originally Answered: What is the layer of earth that is liquid?

    The Outer Core is a liquid, and the Mantle is a semisolid (convection), although not actually a liquid.

    7.2K viewsView upvotes

    Related answers Related Answer Ruben Valenzuela

    , Laboratory Technician at Compton Community College (1994-present)

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 1.4K answers and 3.7M answer views

    Is the mantle a solid layer or a liquid layer?

    Source : www.quora.com

    Layers Of The Earth: What Lies Beneath Earth's Crust

    The layers of Earth provide geologists and geophysicists clues to how Earth formed

    SCIENCE

    Layers Of The Earth: What Lies Beneath Earth's Crust

    Trevor NaceSenior Contributor

    Explore More

    Jan 16, 2016,11:37pm EST

    This article is more than 6 years old.

    The layers of Earth (Credit: www.phys.org)

    The layers of Earth provide geologists and geophysicists clues to how Earth formed, the layers that make up other planetary bodies, the source of Earth's resources, and much more. Modern advances have allowed scientists to study what lies beneath our feet in more detail than ever before and yet there still remains significant gaps in our understanding.

    I hope this guide will walk you through the layers of the Earth, provide a general sense of our understanding and our current gaps. Keep in mind that this is an area of ongoing research and is likely to become more refined in the coming years and decades.

    During my second year at Edinburgh [1826-27] I attended Jameson's lectures on Geology and Zoology, but they were incredible dull. The sole effect they produced on me was the determination never as long as I lived to read a book on Geology. - Charles Darwin

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    The Layers Of Earth

    The Earth has layers not unlike an onion and can be dissected to understand the physical and chemical properties of each layer and its influence on the rest of the Earth. Generally speaking, Earth has 4 layers:

    The outer crust that we live on

    The plastic-like mantle

    The liquid outer core

    The solid inner core

    A cartoon block of the layers of earth (Credit: USGS)

    When differentiating the layers, geologists lump subdivisions into two categories, either rheologically or chemically. Rheological differentiation speaks to the liquid state of rocks under tremendous pressure and temperature. For instance, rock will respond very differently to strain under normal atmospheric temperatures and pressures as compared to fewer than thousands of kilometers of rock. If we subdivide the Earth based on rheology, we see the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, and inner core. However, if we differentiate the layers based on chemical variations, we lump the layers into crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core.

    To understand the difference in various portions of the mantle or outer versus inner core you must understand phase diagrams, which I will speak on below.

    Earth's Crust

    The crust is what you and I live on and is by far the thinnest of the layers of earth. The thickness varies depending on where you are on earth, with oceanic crust being 5-10 km and continental mountain ranges being up to 30-45 km thick. Thin oceanic crust is denser than the thicker continental crust and therefore 'floats' lower in the mantle as compared to continental crust. You will find some of the thinnest oceanic crust along mid ocean ridges where new crust is actively being formed. In comparison, when two continents collide as in the case of the India Plate and Eurasia Plate, you get some of the thickest sections of crust as it is crumpled together.

    The temperatures within Earth's crust will vary from air temperatures at the surface to approximately 870 degrees Celsius in deeper sections. At this temperature, you begin to melt rock and form the below-lying mantle. Geologists subdivide Earth's crust into different plates that move about in relation to one another.

    Given that Earth's surface is mostly constant in area, you cannot make crust without destroying a comparable amount of crust. With convection of the underlying mantle, we see insertion of mantle magma along mid ocean ridges, constantly forming new oceanic crust. However, to make room for this, oceanic crust must subduct (sink below) continental crust. Geologists have studied extensively the history of this plate movement, but we are sorely lacking in determining why and how these plates move the way they do.

    Plate tectonic map of the Earth (Credit: USGS)

    Earth's crust "floats" on top of the soft plastic-like mantle below. In some instances mantle clearly drives changes in the crust, as in the Hawaiian Islands. However, there is ongoing debate whether oceanic crust subduction and mid ocean ridge spreading is driven by a push or pull mechanism.

    In very broad terms, oceanic crust is made up of basalt and continental crust is made up of rocks similar to granite. Below the crust is a solid relatively cooler portion of the upper mantle that is combined with the crust to make the lithosphere layer. The lithosphere is physically distinct from the below-lying layers due to its cool temperatures and typically extends 70-100 km in depth.

    Below the lithosphere is the asthenosphere layer, a much hotter and malleable portion of the upper mantle. The asthenosphere begins at the bottom of the lithosphere and extends approximately 700 km into the Earth. The asthenosphere acts as the lubricating layer below the lithosphere that allows the lithosphere to move over the Earth's surface.

    Source : www.forbes.com

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