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    which information should be included in a caption for the image? check all that apply. the photographer’s name the date the photo was taken the file format of the photo a concise explanation of the photo the complete url of the source


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    Captioning and Citing Images

    LibGuides: Images for Designers and Art Researchers: Captioning and Citing Images

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    About Finding Images Toggle Dropdown

    Captioning and Citing Images

    Examples Using Images

    Citing Museum Labels

    Mediated Images Physical Images Videos


    The caption contains a description of the image and a credit line.

    The citation contains enough information as necessary to locate the image. 

    Some captions do both - they serve as both the caption and citation.


    Title or Description. Credit Line.

    caption appears next to the image and identifies or describes the image, and credits the source.  There is no standard format for captions.


    Point out any aspects of the image that you think are noteworthy or relevant.  You may want to include:

    Names of people who deserve creative credit for the image (photographer, designer, stylist...)

    Title or Description of Work

    Date of Work

    Medium (photograph, digital photograph, painting, sculpture, installation, drawing, poster, artists' book)


    - Architecture & Interior Design

    architect or designer, type of illustration (e.g., interior, exterior, plan, elevation, drawing), location (street address, intersection, neighborhood, city, state/province, region), year built, year designed, year pictured, block & lot, GPS coordinates, official name of site.

    - Fashion

    model or person, label or house, type of garment, fabric or material, collection or season, runway look number, location.

    - Photography

    type of print, name of series, location.

    Credit Line

    Suggested terms to credit a source: "From..." "Collection of ..." "Courtesy ..."

    The credit line can be brief if you are also including a full citation in your paper or project.

    For books and periodicals, it helps to include a date of publication.  You can also include the author, title, and page number.

    * When reposting digital images publicly, you must follow any stated rules in a source's "Terms of Use," Image Credits," or "Image Permissions" section.


    Name. Title (or Description). Year.  Source.

    A citation appears in a note or in a bibliography and should follow the conventions provided in a style guide.  However, there is no standard format for citations, either.  The key to a good citation is that provides enough information to help readers locate the image.

    Name: If the creator is unknown, you can substitute the name of the entity that commissioned the image (e.g., Paramount Studios, Chicago Public Library, NASA).

    If source is an image database: include identifying numbers and collection information.

    URLs can be included but with the recognition that they are unstable and may become invalid in a few years.

    If the source is a book, periodical, or website: cite using Chicago style.

    Chicago Manual of Style

    The online Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.


    Harder to Find than Nemo: the Elusive Image Citation Standard (article)

    Article written by librarian Jennifer Yao Weinraub, published by College & Research Libraries.

    LinkedIn Learning: Citing Images

    A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian; Joseph Bizup (Revised by); Wayne C. Booth (Revised by); Gregory G. Colomb (Revised by); William T. FitzGerald (Revised by); University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff (Revised by); Joseph M. Williams (Revised by)

    ISBN: 9780226494425

    Publication Date: 2018-04-16

    When Kate L. Turabian first put her famous guidelines to paper, she could hardly have imagined the world in which today's students would be conducting research. Yet while the ways in which we research and compose papers may have changed, the fundamentals remain the same: writers need to have a strong research question, construct an evidence-based argument, cite their sources, and structure their work in a logical way. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations--also known as "Turabian"--remains one of the most popular books for writers because of its timeless focus on achieving these goals. This new edition filters decades of expertise into modern standards. While previous editions incorporated digital forms of research and writing, this edition goes even further to build information literacy, recognizing that most students will be doing their work largely or entirely online and on screens. Chapters include updated advice on finding, evaluating, and citing a wide range of digital sources and also recognize the evolving use of software for citation management, graphics, and paper format and submission. The ninth edition is fully aligned with the recently released Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, as well as with the latest edition of The Craft of Research. Teachers and users of the previous editions will recognize the familiar three-part structure. Part 1 covers every step of the research and writing process, including drafting and revising. Part 2 offers a comprehensive guide to Chicago's two methods of source citation: notes-bibliography and author-date. Part 3 gets into matters of editorial style and the correct way to present quotations and visual material.  A Manual for Writers also covers an issue familiar to writers of all levels: how to conquer the fear of tackling a major writing project. Through eight decades and millions of copies, A Manual for Writers has helped generations shape their ideas into compelling research papers. This new edition will continue to be the gold standard for college and graduate students in virtually all academic disciplines.

    Source : guides.library.newschool.edu

    Writing photo captions

    Photo captions are often the first elements of a publication to be read.

    A project of

    Writing photo captions

    byJohn SmockOct 30, 2018 in Journalism Basics

    Photo captions are often the first elements of a publication to be read. Writing photo captions is an essential part of the news photographer’s job. A photo caption should provide the reader basic information needed to understand a photograph and its relevance to the news. It should be written in a consistent, concise format that allows news organizations to move the photo to publication without delay.

    Professional standards of clarity, accuracy and completeness in caption writing should be as high or higher than any other writing that appears in a publication. A poorly written caption that is uninformative or worse, misleading, can diminish the impact of a good photo and undermine its credibility as journalism. If readers can’t trust the accuracy of the simple information included in a caption, why should they trust what they read in the rest of the publication?

    Writing captions

    In most photo captions, the first sentence identifies the people and place in the photograph, and the date and location where it was taken. The second (and perhaps third) sentence should provide contextual information to help readers understand what they are looking at.

    The exact format for captions vary from publication to publication, but a basic photo captions should:

    Clearly identify the people and locations that appear in the photo. Professional titles should be included as well as the formal name of the location. SPELL NAMES CORRECTLY (check against the spellings in the article if necessary). For photographs of more than one person, identifications typically go from left to right. In the case of large groups, identifications of only notable people may be required and sometimes no identifications are required at all. Your publication should establish a standard for its photographers.Include the date and day the photograph was taken. This is essential information for a news publication. The more current a photo is, the better. If an archive photograph or photograph taken prior to the event being illustrated is used, the caption should make it clear that it is a “file photo.”Provide some context or background to the reader so he or she can understand the news value of the photograph. A sentence or two is usually sufficient.Photo captions should be written in complete sentences and in the present tense. The present tense gives the image a sense of immediacy. When it is not logical to write the entire caption in the present tense, the first sentence is written in the present tense and the following sentences are not.Be brief. Most captions are one or two short, declarative sentences. Some may extend to a third sentence if complex contextual information is needed to explain the image completely.

    Here are a few examples:

    New York City Police Officers check subway cars at Columbus Circle on Friday, Oct. 7, 2005. Security in the city's mass transit system has been increased following yesterday's announcement of a specific terrorist threat to the subway system. (AP Photo/John Smock)

    A school bus is towed following a collision with a car on the Major Deagan Expressway (I-87) in the Bronx on Friday, Sept. 30, 2005. There were no major injuries reported among the 42 students and eight adults on board from St. Joseph School in the Bronx. (AP Photo/John Smock)

    General Pervez Musharraf, President of Pakistan, addresses the audience at the Columbia University World Leadership Forum in New York on Friday, Sept. 16, 2005. In town for the United Nations World Summit this week, several heads of state are speaking at the university . (AP Photo/John Smock)

    (L-R) New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, New York City Schools Chancellor Joel Klein and Deputy Mayor for Education Denis Wolcott at PS 40 in Brooklyn on Thursday, Sept. 22, 2005, announce the highest scores for New York City public school 4th graders on state math exams since standards-based testing began four years ago.

    9 Nov. - Cairo, Egypt - A woman displays her ink-stained finger after voting. Egyptians took to the polls today for the first round of parliamentary election. President Hosni Mubarak and his ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) have allowed several opposition groups, most notably the formerly banned Muslim Brotherhood party, to be among the 5,000 candidates campaigning for more than 400 seats. Photo credit: John Smock/SIPA

    9 June, 2005 – Kabul, Afghanistan -- A child severely burned by a car bomb yesterday receives care at the Indira Gandi Institute of Child Medicine. Doctors are struggling with limited medicines to treat the growing number of child victims, whose injuries are often compounded by other medical problems such as poor nutrition that diminish a child's ability to heal. John Smock/SIPA.

    Musician Phil Stewart uses software by Ejamming Inc. to play online with musicians (pictured on the screen) in other parts of New York City at the DigitalLife Expo on Friday, Oct. 14, 2005. The three-day DigitalLIfe Expo features cutting-edge technology for work, home and play. (AP Photo/John Smock)

    Source : ijnet.org

    Images as Primary Sources

    LibGuides: Photographs: Research & Ordering: Images as Primary Sources

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    Minnesota Historical Society LibraryLibGuidesPhotographs: Research & OrderingImages as Primary Sources

    Photographs: Research & Ordering

    Subjects: How-To Guides

    Tags: arts, how-to, photos


    Searching Online Photos

    Other Ways to Find Photos

    Images as Primary Sources

    Ordering Copies

    Permissions & Licensing

    Community Support Help & More

    Strengths and Weaknesses


    Captures a moment in time in a visual medium

    Quickly and concisely informs about people, places, objects, and events

    Provides information that is difficult to convey through written formats (fashion, decor, art, etc.)

    Sometimes records details of everyday life of people that are not captured in written records

    Can evoke memories and/or emotions in the viewer


    People, place, date, and the name of the photographer are often not identified

    May reflect the bias or perspective of the photographer

    Photographs must be studied in conjunction with other evidence. Without context, a photo may be interesting but not informative.

    Photographs are taken for different purposes.  Not all photographs were taken with documentary intent and some are heavily manipulated

    Many decades of photographs are in black-and-white or the color has faded and is no longer accurate

    Reading Photographs

    Photos can be great primary sources, but they require more than a quick glance.  To get the most out of an image, the researcher needs to engage with image and "read" it in a critical way.

    Some good questions to ask while looking at a photo are:

    What do you already know about the photo?

    Photographer? Location? Date?

    Caption or other written description?

    Look at the entire photograph

    What is the subject matter? (Portrait, building, event, etc.)

    What is happening in the photo?

    Look at individual parts of the photograph

    What is in the Foreground? The Background?

    Where is your eye drawn first?  What less-obvious things do you notice.

    Examine people, objects, signage, setting, time, etc...

    What does the photo say to you? To others?

    Are the people in the photo expressing certain emotions?

    Does it evoke certain emotions in the viewer?

    Why was the photograph taken and who is the audience?

    For a documentary or journalism purpose?

    For sale (as a postcard, poster, etc.)?

    To advertise something?

    As an artistic expression?

    What decisions did the photographer make when taking this picture?

    Is it posed?

    Why did they take the photo at that exact moment?  What happened right before the photo was taken?  Right after?

    Did the photographer make the choices they did (perspective, focus, angles, etc.)?

    Was the photo edited, cropped, or colorized?  What did that change?

    What questions do you have after viewing the photo?

    Citing Photographs

    The goal of citing research sources is to enable researchers to locate the exact item which is being referenced.  The most basic information needed for citing a source from MNHS collections includes:

    Title Creator Date

    Page numbers (when applicable)

    Collection name

    Photographer is known:

    Photographer. Title. Date. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    Enstrom, Louis. Cat in Doll Bed. ca. 1915. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    Photographer is known, and image is part of a larger collection:

    Photographer. Title. Date. Collection Name. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    Robert McNeely. Walter Mondale holds a meeting in the Vice President's Office in the West Wing of the White House. 9 February 1977.  Vice President's Photographer negatives, Vice Presidential Papers, Walter F. Mondale Papers. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    Photographer is unknown, but image is in a larger collection:

    Title. Date. Collection Name. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    Chimp with a Graflex Camera. 1937. Minneapolis and St. Paul Newspaper Negative Collection. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    Photographer is unknown:

    Title. Date. Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

    For more examples of citations for different types of materials, please visit our website at sites.mnhs.org/library/citing-materials

    Images as Primary Sources

    Strengths and Weaknesses

    Reading Photographs Citing Photographs

    What are primary sources?

    Primary sources are materials from the time of the person or event being researched.  Letters, diaries, artifacts, photographs, and other types of first-hand accounts and records are all primary sources.

    Source : libguides.mnhs.org

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