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    which elements make up the structure of a speech presenting an argument? claim, reason, evidence rhythm, logic, rhetoric claim, logic, rhetoric rhythm, reason, evidence

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    "The American Dream" Quiz Review

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    QUIZ

    "The American Dream" Quiz Review

    "The American Dream" Quiz Review 50%

    172 8th English Danielle Patterson 1 year

    10 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Read the excerpt from President Clinton's 2001 farewell address.

    Our economy is breaking records with more than 22 million new jobs, the lowest unemployment in 30 years, the highest homeownership ever, the longest expansion in history.

    Which rhetorical appeal does Clinton primarily use in this excerpt?

    answer choices

    an appeal based on emotion

    an appeal based on credibility

    an appeal based on character

    an appeal based on logic

    2. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Rhythm is defined as

    answer choices

    a set of ideas used to support a greater claim.

    a set of words used to make an effective point.

    a pattern of stressed and unstressed sounds.

    a pattern of speech or writing that supports a claim.

    3. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Read this passage from "The American Dream."

    One of the first things we notice in this dream is an amazing universalism. It does not say some men, but it says all men. It does not say all white men, but it says all men, which includes black men. It does not say all Gentiles, but it says all men, which includes Jews. It does not say all Protestants, but it says all men, which includes Catholics.

    Which phrase helps create rhythm in the passage?

    answer choices “all men” “white men” “black men” “some men” 4. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Read this passage from "The American Dream."

    It does not say all white men, but it says all men. . . .

    How does the second part of the sentence relate to the first part?

    answer choices

    It clarifies the first part.

    It makes a claim.

    It restates the first part.

    It adds an argument.

    5. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A way to create rhythm in a speech is to use

    answer choices

    long words and phrases.

    short words and phrases.

    different words and phrases.

    repeated words and phrases.

    6. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Rhetoric is defined as

    answer choices

    rational ideas used to support a claim.

    written or spoken words used to make a point.

    patterns of stressed and unstressed sounds.

    patterns of repeated words and phrases.

    7. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Read this passage from "The American Dream."

    One of the first things we notice in this dream is an amazing universalism. It does not say some men, but it says all men. It does not say all white men, but it says all men, which includes black men. It does not say all Gentiles, but it says all men, which includes Jews. It does not say all Protestants, but it says all men, which includes Catholics.

    Which states the rhetorical appeal that the passage uses?

    answer choices

    The passage appeals to logos.

    The passage appeals to ethos.

    The passage appeals to pathos.

    The passage appeals to argument.

    8. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Read this line from "The American Dream."

    America is essentially a dream, a dream as yet unfulfilled.

    Which choice states the rhetorical appeal that the line uses?

    answer choices

    The line appeals to logos.

    The line appeals to ethos.

    The line appeals to pathos.

    The line appeals to argument.

    9. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which elements make up the structure of a speech presenting an argument?

    answer choices

    claim, reason, evidence

    rhythm, logic, rhetoric

    claim, logic, rhetoric

    rhythm, reason, evidence

    10. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The “umbrella statement” for all parts of an argument in a speech is called the

    answer choices claim. reason. evidence. rhetoric.

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    Source : quizizz.com

    Writing Arguments: Quiz 2 Flashcards

    Start studying Writing Arguments: Quiz 2. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Writing Arguments: Quiz 2

    5.0 1 Review Introduction

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Writers of classical argument typically begin by connecting the audience to the issue by showing how it arises out of a current event or by using an illustrative story, memorable scene, or startling statistic - something that grabs the audience's attention.

    1. Attention grabber (often a memorable scene)

    2. Explanation of issue and needed background

    3. Writer's thesis (claim)

    4. Forecasting passage

    Click again to see term 👆

    Presentation of the Writer's Position

    Click card to see definition 👆

    The presentation of the writes own position is usually the longest part of a classical argument. Here writers present the reasons and evidence supporting their claims, typically choosing reasons that tie into their audience's values, beliefs, and assumptions.

    1. Main body of essay

    2. Presents and supports each reason in turn

    3. Each reason is tied to a value or belief held by the audience

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/16 Created by Halley_Ortega

    Terms in this set (16)

    Introduction

    Writers of classical argument typically begin by connecting the audience to the issue by showing how it arises out of a current event or by using an illustrative story, memorable scene, or startling statistic - something that grabs the audience's attention.

    1. Attention grabber (often a memorable scene)

    2. Explanation of issue and needed background

    3. Writer's thesis (claim)

    4. Forecasting passage

    Presentation of the Writer's Position

    The presentation of the writes own position is usually the longest part of a classical argument. Here writers present the reasons and evidence supporting their claims, typically choosing reasons that tie into their audience's values, beliefs, and assumptions.

    1. Main body of essay

    2. Presents and supports each reason in turn

    3. Each reason is tied to a value or belief held by the audience

    Summary and Response to Opposing Views

    When summarizing and responding to opposing views, writers have several options.

    1. Summary of views differing form writer's (should be fair and complete)

    1. Refutes or concedes to opposing views

    2. Shows weaknesses in opposing views

    3. May concede to some strengths

    Conclusion

    Finally, in their conclusion, writers sum up their argument, often restating the stakes in the argument and calling for some kind of action, thereby creating a sense of closure and leaving a strong final impression.

    1. Brings essay to closure

    2. Often sums up argument

    3. Leaves strong last impression

    4. Often calls for action or relates topic to a larger context of issues

    Logos

    Focuses attention on the quality of the MESSAGE - that is, on the internal consistency and clarity of the argument itself and on the logic of its reasons and support. / Logical Appeal

    Message (Rhetorical Triangle)

    LOGOS: How can I make the argument internally consistent and logical? How can I best find the best reasons and support them with the best evidence?

    Ethos

    Focuses on the WRITER'S (or SPEAKER'S) CHARACTER as it is projected in the message. It refers to the credibility of the writer. / Ethical Appeal or Appeal from Credibility

    Writer or Speaker (Rhetorical Triangle)

    ETHOS: How can I present myself effectively? How can i enhance my credibility and trustworthiness?

    Pathos

    Focuses attention on the values and beliefs of the intended audience./ Emotional Appeal

    Audience (Rhetorical Triangle)

    PATHOS: How can I make the reader open to my message? How can I best appeal to my reader's values and interests? How can I engage my reader emotionally and imaginatively?

    Reason (Premise or Because-Clause)

    Is a claim used to support another claim. In speaking or writing , a reason is usually linked to the claim with connecting words such as - because, since, for, so, thus, consequently, and therefore, - indicating that the claim follows logically from the reason.

    Sufficiency (STAR)

    Is there enough evidence?

    Typicality (STAR)

    Is the chosen evidence representative and typical? / Whenever you select evidence, readers need to believe the evidence is typical and representative rather than extreme instances.

    Accuracy (STAR)

    Is the evidence accurate and up-to-date? / Evidence can't be used ethically unless it is accurate and up-to-date, and it can't be persuasive unless the audience believes in the credibility of the writer's source.

    Relevance (STAR)

    Is the evidence relevant to the claim? / Finally, evidence will be persuasive only if the reader considers it relevant to what is at stake in the dispute.

    Fair, honest, and open to uncertainty

    Besides supplying evidence that meets the STAR criteria, you can make your evidence more persuasive by being ___, ___, and ___. / Establish a trustworthy ethos (the appeal to ethos - see chapter 6, pages 106-107)

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    Source : quizlet.com

    Rhetorical Strategies // Purdue Writing Lab

    The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.

    Using Rhetorical Strategies for Persuasion

    These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing.

    There are three types of rhetorical appeals, or persuasive strategies, used in arguments to support claims and respond to opposing arguments. A good argument will generally use a combination of all three appeals to make its case.

    Logos

    Logos or the appeal to reason relies on logic or reason. Logos often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning.Inductive reasoning takes a specific representative case or facts and then draws generalizations or conclusions from them. Inductive reasoning must be based on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence. In other words, the facts you draw on must fairly represent the larger situation or population. Example:

    Fair trade agreements have raised the quality of life for coffee producers, so fair trade agreements could be used to help other farmers as well.

    In this example the specific case of fair trade agreements with coffee producers is being used as the starting point for the claim. Because these agreements have worked the author concludes that it could work for other farmers as well.

    Deductive reasoning begins with a generalization and then applies it to a specific case. The generalization you start with must have been based on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence.Example:

    Genetically modified seeds have caused poverty, hunger, and a decline in bio-diversity everywhere they have been introduced, so there is no reason the same thing will not occur when genetically modified corn seeds are introduced in Mexico.

    In this example the author starts with a large claim, that genetically modified seeds have been problematic everywhere, and from this draws the more localized or specific conclusion that Mexico will be affected in the same way.

    Avoid Logical Fallacies

    These are some common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Also, watch out for these slips in other people's arguments.

    Slippery slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur A must not be allowed to occur either. Example:

    If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.

    In this example the author is equating banning Hummers with banning all cars, which is not the same thing.

    Hasty Generalization: This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. Example:

    Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course.

    In this example the author is basing their evaluation of the entire course on only one class, and on the first day which is notoriously boring and full of housekeeping tasks for most courses. To make a fair and reasonable evaluation the author must attend several classes, and possibly even examine the textbook, talk to the professor, or talk to others who have previously finished the course in order to have sufficient evidence to base a conclusion on.

    Post hoc ergo propter hoc: This is a conclusion that assumes that if 'A' occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.' Example:

    I drank bottled water and now I am sick, so the water must have made me sick.

    In this example the author assumes that if one event chronologically follows another the first event must have caused the second. But the illness could have been caused by the burrito the night before, a flu bug that had been working on the body for days, or a chemical spill across campus. There is no reason, without more evidence, to assume the water caused the person to be sick.

    Genetic Fallacy: A conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of a person, idea, institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or worth. Example:

    The Volkswagen Beetle is an evil car because it was originally designed by Hitler's army.

    In this example the author is equating the character of a car with the character of the people who built the car.

    Begging the Claim: The conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim. Example:

    Filthy and polluting coal should be banned.

    Arguing that coal pollutes the earth and thus should be banned would be logical. But the very conclusion that should be proved, that coal causes enough pollution to warrant banning its use, is already assumed in the claim by referring to it as "filthy and polluting."

    Circular Argument: This restates the argument rather than actually proving it. Example:

    George Bush is a good communicator because he speaks effectively.

    In this example the conclusion that Bush is a "good communicator" and the evidence used to prove it "he speaks effectively" are basically the same idea. Specific evidence such as using everyday language, breaking down complex problems, or illustrating his points with humorous stories would be needed to prove either half of the sentence.

    Either/or: This is a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only two sides or choices. Example:

    Source : owl.purdue.edu

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