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    Your Body's Systems

    Systems of the body including circulatory, digestive, endocrine, immune, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, and urinary.

    / Math & Science / Biology / The Human Body


    Your Body's Systems

    Updated February 21, 2017 | Factmonster Staff

    Circulatory System

    The circulatory system is the body's transport system. It is made up of a group of organs that transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and the arteries and veins transport it. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the biggest artery, called the aorta. The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels, which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste. The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and bring blood back to the heart , which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste carbon dioxide.

    Digestive System

    The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food into protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair. After food is chewed and swallowed, it goes down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is further broken down by powerful stomach acids. From the stomach the food travels into the small intestine. This is where your food is broken down into nutrients that can enter the bloodstream through tiny hair-like projections. The excess food that the body doesn't need or can't digest is turned into waste and is eliminated from the body.

    Endocrine System

    The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long-distance messengers, or hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions, such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The glands, which include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes, release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and tissues throughout the body.

    Immune System

    The immune system is our body's defense system against infections and diseases. Organs, tissues, cells, and cell products work together to respond to dangerous organisms (like viruses or bacteria) and substances that may enter the body from the environment. There are three types of response systems in the immune system: the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune response.

    The anatomic response physically prevents threatening substances from entering your body. Examples of the anatomic system include the mucous membranes and the skin. If substances do get by, the inflammatory response goes on attack.

    The inflammatory system works by excreting the invaders from your body. Sneezing, runny noses, and fever are examples of the inflammatory system at work. Sometimes, even though you don't feel well while it's happening, your body is fighting illness.

    When the inflammatory response fails, the immune response goes to work. This is the central part of the immune system and is made up of white blood cells, which fight infection by gobbling up antigens. About a quarter of white blood cells, called the lymphocytes, migrate to the lymph nodes and produce antibodies, which fight disease.

    Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system is also a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease-fighting antibodies. It also distributes fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of vessels that help circulate body fluids. These vessels carry excess fluid away from the spaces between tissues and organs and return it to the bloodstream.

    Muscular System

    The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some muscles?like the ones in your arms and legs?are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other organs, are involuntary. This means that they are controlled automatically by the nervous system and hormones?you often don't even realize they're at work.

    The body is made up of three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Each of these has the ability to contract and expand, which allows the body to move and function. .

    Skeletal muscles help the body move.

    Smooth muscles, which are involuntary, are located inside organs, such as the stomach and intestines.

    Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Its motion is involuntary

    Nervous System

    The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most important systems in your body, the nervous system is your body's control system. It sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout the body. These nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do and how to respond to the environment. There are three parts of your nervous system that work together: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Source : www.factmonster.com

    Neuroscience Resources for Kids

    Body System Interaction


    The skeletal system makes up the framework of the body and allows us to move when our muscles contract. It stores minerals (e.g. calcium, phosphorous) and releases them into the body when they are needed. The skeletal system also protects internal organs and produces blood cells. Bones (e.g., skull, vertebrae)

    Bones provide calcium that is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system.

    The skull protects the brain from injury.

    The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from injury.

    Sensory receptors in joints between bones send signals about body position to the brain.

    The brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles.

    Cardiovascular System

    The cardiovascular system delivers oxygen, hormones, nutrients and white blood cells around the body by pumping blood, and it removes waste products. Heart, blood vessels

    Endothelial cells maintain the blood-brain barrier.

    Baroreceptors send information to the brain about blood pressure.

    Cerebrospinal fluid drains into the venous blood supply.

    The brain regulates heart rate and blood pressure.

    Muscular System

    Different types of muscles enable motion, generate heat to maintain body temperature, move food through digestive tract and contract the heart. Muscles (smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscles)

    Receptors in muscles provide the brain with information about body position and movement.

    The brain controls the contraction of skeletal muscle.

    The nervous system regulates the speed at which food moves through the digestive tract.

    Endocrine System

    The endocrine system secretes hormones into blood and other body fluids. These chemicals are important for metabolism, growth, water and mineral balance, and the response to stress. Pineal body, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, pancreas, stomach, intestines, ovary

    Hormones provide feedback to the brain to affect neural processing.

    Reproductive hormones affect the development of the nervous system.

    The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and other endocrine glands.

    Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system protects the body from infection. Adenoid, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen

    The brain can stimulate defense mechanisms against infection.

    Respiratory System

    The respiratory system supplies oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide. Lungs, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchi

    The brain monitors respiratory volume and blood gas levels.

    The brain regulates respiratory rate.

    Digestive System

    The digestive system stores and digests foods, transfers nutrients to the body, eliminates waste and absorbs water. Stomach, esophagus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines

    Digestive processes provide the building blocks for some neurotransmitters.

    The autonomic nervous system controls the tone of the digestive tract.

    The brain controls drinking and feeding behavior.

    The brain controls muscles for eating and elimination.

    The digestive system sends sensory information to the brain.

    Reproductive System

    The reproductive system is responsible for producing new life. Testes, vas deferens, prostate gland, ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix

    Reproductive hormones affect brain development and sexual behavior.

    The brain controls mating behavior.

    Urinary System

    The urinary system eliminates waste products and maintains water balance and chemical balance. Bladder, urethra, kidney

    The bladder sends sensory information to the brain.

    The brain controls urination.

    Integumentary System

    The integumentary system reduces water loss, contains receptors that respond to touch, regulates body temperature, and protects the inside of the body from damage. Skin, hair

    Receptors in skin send sensory information to the brain.

    The autonomic nervous system regulates peripheral blood flow and sweat glands.

    Nerves control muscles connected to hair follicles.

    Source : faculty.washington.edu

    How does your body move? – Wellesley Community Children's Center

    How does your body move?

    Posted on April 21, 2020

    Last week, someone told us they want to learn about the body and how it moves!

    We all have a lot of bones in our body. When a human is born, they have about 300 bones in their body. As they grow up, these bones attached (or fuse) together to make larger bones. When you become an adult, you will have 206 bones in your body!!! These bones together make up your SKELETON.

    *How many bones do you think you have in your skeleton right now?*

    The Human Skeleton

    However, the skeleton is not the only thing inside of our body. We are able to move because attached to our skeleton (or skeletal system) is our muscular system! When these two systems work together, they make up the musculoskeletal system.

    The muscular system is made up of muscles, joints, tendons, and ligaments. You have 600 muscles!!! Muscles are the largest of these four helpers, but they would not be able to move the bones without joints, tendons, or ligaments.

    Aaron was wondering: “How do our muscles make us stronger?” Our muscles make us stronger when THEY get stronger! To get strong muscles it is important to keep your body healthy by eating yummy foods, drinking water, and moving your body around. Attached, I have pictures of my nieces showing us how to keep our bodies healthy!

    Activity ideas

    – Journal entry… How many bones do you think your body has right now? Try to draw a picture of what you think your skeleton looks like right now at 4 or 5 years old. Then write the number!

    – Share a picture or video (on the Classroom Stream or SeeSaw page) of your favorite yummy food, favorite way to drink water, or favorite way to move your body!

    – MOVE YOUR BODY!! In the Red Room, I like to ask the children to start running. Every thirty seconds or so, I will yell out a different movement for them to switch to! This gets their heart pumping while keeping their attention! Here are some different moves to consider.

    – Running! A favorite.

    – Bear walk on all fours

    – Skip – Gallop – Hop – Roll – Jumping Jacks – Squats

    – Create a list of movements for your parents, grandparents, or siblings to do. It can be like a challenge!

    Here are some video links to deeper explain the muscular system if your child is interested!

    Posted in At Home, Early Childhood, Nature, Orange Room, Pre-schoolers, STEM.

    Source : www.wccc.wellesley.edu

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