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    which body system forms a protective barrier between the external environment and the internal body systems?

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    Physiology, Integument

    The integumentary system is the largest organ of the body that forms a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that it serves to protect and maintain. The integumentary system includes the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, associated glands, hair, and nails. In addition to its barrier function, this system performs many intricate functions such as body temperature regulation, cell fluid maintenance, synthesis of Vitamin D, and detection of stimuli. The various components of this system work in conjunction to carry out these functions—for example, body temperature regulation occurs through thermoreceptors that lead to the adjustment of peripheral blood flow, degree of perspiration, and body hair.

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    StatPearls [Internet].

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    Physiology, Integument

    Joyce Y. Kim; Harry Dao.

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    Last Update: May 9, 2021.

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    Introduction

    The integumentary system is the largest organ of the body that forms a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that it serves to protect and maintain. The integumentary system includes the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, associated glands, hair, and nails. In addition to its barrier function, this system performs many intricate functions such as body temperature regulation, cell fluid maintenance, synthesis of Vitamin D, and detection of stimuli. The various components of this system work in conjunction to carry out these functions—for example, body temperature regulation occurs through thermoreceptors that lead to the adjustment of peripheral blood flow, degree of perspiration, and body hair.

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    Organ Systems Involved

    Components of the Integumentary SystemSkin: The skin is made up of two layers—the superficial epidermis and the deeper dermis.

    The epidermis is the tough outer layer that acts as the first line of defense against the external environment. It is composed of stratified squamous epithelial cells that further break down into four to five layers. From superficial to deep, the primary layers are the stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. In the palms and soles, where the skin is thicker, there is an additional layer of skin between the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum called the stratum lucidum. The epidermis regenerates from stem cells located in the basal layer that grow up towards the corneum. The epidermis itself is devoid of blood supply and derives its nutrition from the underlying dermis.

    The dermis is the underlying connective tissue framework that supports the epidermis. It further subdivides into two layers—the superficial papillary dermis and the deep reticular layer. The papillary layer forms finger-like projections into the epidermis, known as dermal papillae, and consists of highly vascularized, loose connective tissue. The reticular layer has dense connective tissue that forms a strong network.[1] The dermis as a whole contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, sweat glands, hair follicles, and various other structures embedded within the connective tissue.

    Hypodermis: The hypodermis lies between the dermis and underlying organs. It is commonly referred to as subcutaneous tissue and is composed of loose areolar tissue and adipose tissue. This layer provides additional cushion and insulation through its fat storage function and connects the skin to underlying structures such as muscle.Hair: Hair is derived from the epidermis but grows its roots deep into the dermis. Its structure divides into the externally visible hair shaft and the hair follicle within the skin. The hair follicle has an intricate structure that contains the hair bulb that actively divides to extend the hair shaft vertically.[2] Hair generally categorizes into hormone-dependent, thicker terminal hairs in regions such as the axilla, pubic areas, scalp, chest, etc., and androgen-independent vellus hairs that cover the rest of the areas.[2] Hair growth has multiple phases called anagen (growth phase), catagen (nonproliferative phase), and telogen (resting phase) that cycles depending on hormones and nutrients.[3] Hair covers the majority of the body with the few exceptions of the palms, soles, lips, and portions of external genitalia. Hair serves as mechanical protection for the skin, increases sensory function, and aids in regulating body temperature. Arrector pili muscles located in the dermis attach to hair follicles, helping the shaft to stand and trap air close to the epidermis for temperature control.Nails: Nails form as layers of keratin and appear at the dorsal tips of the fingers and toes.[4] The nail growth begins at the nail matrix that creates new cells and pushes old cells out distally. The visible portion of the nail is the nail plate covering the nail bed, where it adheres to the finger. Nails function to protect the fingers and toes while increasing the precision of movements and enhancing sensation.Associated Glands: There are four types of exocrine glands within human skin—sudoriferous, sebaceous, ceruminous, and mammary glands.

    Sudoriferous glands, also known as sweat glands, are further divided into eccrine and apocrine glands. Eccrine glands are distributed throughout the body and primarily produce serous fluid to regulate body temperature.[5] Apocrine glands are present in the axilla and pubic area and produce milky protein-rich sweat.[5] These glands are responsible for odor as bacteria break down the secreted organic substances.

    Sebaceous glands are part of the pilosebaceous unit, including the hair, hair follicle, and arrector pili muscle.[6] It secretes an oily substance called sebum, a mixture of lipids that forms a thin film on the skin. This layer adds a protective layer, prevents fluid loss, and also plays an antimicrobial role.[7][8]

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    Function

    Physical protection: Given that the integumentary is the covering of the human body, its most apparent function is physical protection. The skin itself is a tightly knit network of cells, with each layer contributing to its strength. The epidermis has an outermost layer created by layers of dead keratin that can withstand wear and tear of the outer environment, while the dermis provides the epidermis with blood supply and has nerves that bring danger to attention amongst other functions. The hypodermis provides physical cushioning to any mechanical trauma through adipose storage, and the glands secrete protective films throughout the body. The nails protect the digits, which are prone to repeated trauma by creating a hard covering, and hairs throughout the body filter harmful particles from entering the eyes, ears, nose, etc.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Human Body Systems II

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    QUIZ

    Human Body Systems II--- Review_all...

    Human Body Systems II--- Review_all... 60%

    154 7th Science Carin Huneycutt 3 years

    30 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The diagram below illustrates a vital process that occurs in the human body. What two body systems are interacting in the above diagram?

    answer choices

    Integumentary-excretory

    Digestive-circulatory

    Nervous-endocrine

    Respiratory-circulatory

    2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds

    Q.

    This drawing shows a human body system. What is the primary function of this body system?

    answer choices

    The protection of vital organs from injury

    The chemical breakdown of food into smaller pieces

    The transport of nutrients, water, and oxygen to body cells

    The production of hormones that regulate growth and metabolism

    3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    A cook touches a hot stove and quickly moves his hand away. What are the two primary body systems that work together to produce this response?

    answer choices

    Integumentary and endocrine systems

    Muscular and respiratory systems

    Nervous and muscular systems

    Skeletal and nervous systems

    4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which two systems work together to provide oxygen to cells?

    answer choices

    Immune and respiratory systems

    Digestive and skeletal systems

    Respiratory and circulatory systems

    Lymphatic and nervous systems

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which organ system is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the organism?

    answer choices Endocrine system Respiratory system Excretory system Circulatory system 6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What body systems are described in the concept map above?

    answer choices

    Circulatory and excretory

    Endocrine and circulatory

    Excretory and endocrine

    Respiratory and excretory

    7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The main function of the excretory system is to -

    answer choices

    produce enzymes to help digest food

    collect and remove waste products from the body

    prevent disease and fight infections

    carry oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells

    8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Two body systems work together to help remove waste products from blood. What are these two systems?

    answer choices

    Circulatory and excretory

    Skeletal and digestive

    Circulatory and integumentary

    Muscular and excretory

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The human body has specialized organs called glands which collect and process substances from the blood. The concentrated substances are then secreted as hormones to regulate body processes. These specialized organs are part of which body system?

    answer choices circulatory endocrine integumentary nervous 10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which two body systems represented in the diagram above help the body to break down molecules and absorb nutrients, and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide?

    answer choices

    Respiratory and reproductive

    Muscular and skeletal

    Digestive and respiratory

    Circulatory and endocrine

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The largest human body organ, which regulates temperature and serves as a barrier against harmful microorganisms, belongs to the -

    answer choices circulatory system nervous system digestive system

    integumentary system

    12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which statement best describes the function of the human body system in the above diagram?

    answer choices

    Breaks down food into nutrients and wastes

    Supplies oxygen to blood and removes carbon dioxide from blood

    Provides support and movement for the body

    Produces and secretes hormones which regulate metabolism, growth, and development

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The main function of the muscular system is -

    answer choices support of the body break down of food

    movement of the body

    removal of waste 14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which body system is described in Column D?

    answer choices circulatory system endocrine system digestive system skeletal system 15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which body system is described in Column C?

    answer choices circulatory system endocrine system digestive system skeletal system 16. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which body system is described in Column B?

    answer choices circulatory system endocrine system digestive system skeletal system 17. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which body system is described in Column A?

    answer choices circulatory system endocrine system digestive system skeletal system 18. Multiple-choice 30 seconds

    Source : quizizz.com

    Functions of the Integumentary System

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    Integumentary System

    Functions of the Integumentary System

    Functions of the Integumentary System Protection

    The skin provides an overlaying protective barrier from the environment and pathogens while contributing to the adaptive immune system.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVE

    Describe the ways in which the integumentary system protects the body

    KEY TAKEAWAYS

    Key Points

    The skin provides a protective barrier from the external environment and prevents dehydration.

    Langerhans cells in the skin also contribute to protection as they are part of the adaptive immune system.

    The integumentary system protects the body’s internal living tissues and organs, protects against invasion by infectious organism, and protects the body from dehydration.

    Key Terms

    vitamin D: An important vitamin synthesized thanks to the skin.melanocytes: Cells that help protect our body from radiological damage.Langerhans cells: Langerhans cells are dendritic cells (antigen-presenting immune cells) of the skin and mucosa that contain large granules.

    The skin helps protect our body’s internal structures from physical, chemical, biological, radiological, and thermal damage as well as damage from starvation and malnutrition.

    Physical and Chemical Damage

    Human skin: A diagram of human skin.

    The skin is composed of tough skin cells as well as a tough protein called keratin that guard tissues, organs, and structures underneath the skin against physical damage from minor cuts, scratches, and abrasions. Because our skin is tough and largely waterproof, it helps protect internal structures from chemical irritants such as man-made detergents or even natural irritants like poison ivy.

    Otherwise, these dangerous chemicals would seep into our sensitive internal environment. The waterproof nature of our skin also ensures that important molecules stay within our body.

    Biological Damage

    The skin also contains important cells called Langerhans cells. These cells help our immune system fight off infectious biological agents, like bacteria that try to get further into our body through skin that may have been compromised by physical damage.

    Sebaceous glands associated with the skin secrete substances that help fight off potentially dangerous microorganisms as well. These glands also secrete substances that help keep our skin hydrated, and thus more resistant to bacterial invasion.

    Radiological Damage

    Our skin also contains melanocytes that produce a pigment called melanin. This protects the body from radiological damage via the sun’s UV radiation (or that from tanning beds).

    Other Protective Roles

    Part of our skin is made up of fat. This fat serves three large purposes:

    It helps cushion internal structures against any physical blows.

    It acts as a food source, protecting our body from the effects of starvation.

    It helps insulate us against cold temperatures.

    Our skin is also closely associated with sweat glands that help protect us from high temperatures by cooling us off through the process of evaporation. These glands also help to excrete potentially dangerous substances, like urea, out of the body.

    All sorts of sensory receptors are found within the skin as well. These help move our body parts away from potential sources of damage, like hot stoves, when they sense danger, thereby protecting our body from great harm.

    Finally, the skin is also important for the synthesis of vitamin D, which is an important vitamin for the building of strong and healthy bones. Ergo, the skin protects the body from fractures if we do not otherwise get enough of this vitamin from food-based sources.

    Thermoregulation

    The integumentary system keeps body temperature within limits even when environmental temperature varies; this is called thermoregulation.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVE

    Explain the skin’s role in thermoregulation

    KEY TAKEAWAYS

    Key Points

    The skin’s immense blood supply helps regulate temperature: dilated vessels allow for heat loss, while constricted vessels retain heat.

    The skin regulates body temperature with its blood supply.

    The skin assists in homeostasis.

    Humidity affects thermoregulation by limiting sweat evaporation and thus heat loss.

    Key Terms

    Evaporation: What happens when water crosses the skin via sweat glands and then dissipates into the air; this process cools body temperature to within the body’s tolerance range.homeostasis: The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium; such as the ability of warm-blooded animals to maintain a constant temperature.vasoconstriction: The constriction (narrowing) of a blood vessel.arrector pili: Any of the small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals; when the muscles contract they cause the hairs to stand on end.

    The integumentary system functions in thermoregulation—the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries—even when the surrounding temperature is very different. This process is one aspect of homeostasis: a dynamic state of stability between an animal’s internal and external environment.

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

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