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    Physiology, Blood Plasma

    Plasma, also known as blood plasma, appears light-yellowish or straw-colored. It serves as the liquid base for whole blood. Whole blood minus erythrocytes (RBCs), leukocytes (WBCs), and thrombocytes (platelets) make up the plasma. Serum, sometimes mistakenly considered synonymous with plasma, consists of plasma without fibrinogen. Plasma contains 91% to 92% of water and 8% to 9% of solids. It mainly comprises of:

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    StatPearls [Internet].

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    Physiology, Blood Plasma

    Joscilin Mathew; Parvathy Sankar; Matthew Varacallo.

    Author Information

    Last Update: April 28, 2022.

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    Introduction

    Plasma, also known as blood plasma, appears light-yellowish or straw-colored. It serves as the liquid base for whole blood. Whole blood minus erythrocytes (RBCs), leukocytes (WBCs), and thrombocytes (platelets) make up the plasma. Serum, sometimes mistakenly considered synonymous with plasma, consists of plasma without fibrinogen. Plasma contains 91% to 92% of water and 8% to 9% of solids. It mainly comprises of:

    Coagulants, mainly fibrinogen, aid in blood clotting

    Plasma proteins, such as albumin and globulin, that help maintain the colloidal osmotic pressure at about 25 mmHg

    Electrolytes like sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, and calcium help maintain blood pH

    Immunoglobulins help fight infection and various other small amounts of enzymes, hormones, and vitamins

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    Issues of Concern

    Extraction of Plasma

    It can be separated from whole blood by the process of centrifugation, i.e., spinning whole blood with an anticoagulant in a centrifuge. Plasma is lighter, forming the upper yellowish layer while the denser blood cells fall to the bottom. The plasma collected is frozen within 24 hours to preserve the functionality of the various clotting factors and immunoglobulins; it is thawed before use and has a shelf life of 1 year. Interestingly, while O- is the preferred universal donor for blood, the plasma of AB blood groups is the most preferred because their plasma does not contain antibodies, making it acceptable for everyone without fear of an adverse reaction.

    Plasma, like whole blood, is initially tested to ensure the safety of recipients. As per the FDA regulations, the collected plasma undergoes a battery of tests to identify transmittable diseases, mainly hepatitis A, B, and C, along with syphilis and HIV. The process of fractionation separates individual plasma proteins.[1]

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    Cellular

    The specific gravity of plasma is 1.022 to 1.026 compared to the specific gravity of blood which is 1.052 to 1.061. Plasma forms 55%, and red blood cells form 45% of the total blood. Four major products derived from the plasma which can be used are fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), plasma frozen within 24 hours of phlebotomy (FP24), cryoprecipitate-poor plasma (CPP), and thawed plasma. FP24, CPP, and thawed plasma contain varying amounts of clotting factors.[2]

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    Development

    Plasma proteins, on the other hand, have distinct organs that produce them based on an individual's stage of development. In Embryo

    In the embryonic stage, the mesenchymal cells are responsible for plasma cell production. The first protein to be synthesized is albumin, followed by globulin and the other plasma proteins.

    In Adults

    The reticuloendothelial cells of the liver are in charge of plasma protein synthesis in adults. The bone marrow, degenerating blood cells, general body tissue cells, and the spleen also contribute to the formation of plasma proteins. Gamma globulins originate from B lymphocytes, which in turn form immunoglobulins.

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    Organ Systems Involved

    The origin of plasma, which constitutes 55% of total blood, is interesting because no organ produces it. Instead, it is formed from water and salts absorbed through the digestive tract.

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    Function

    As plasma forms the liquid base of blood, the functions carried out by plasma and blood overlap. The multitude of functions include:

    : fibrinogen plays a major role in blood clotting along with other procoagulants like thrombin and factor X.

    : immunoglobulins and antibodies in plasma play an important role in the body’s defense against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

    : the colloidal osmotic pressure is maintained at around 25 mmHg by the plasma proteins like albumin synthesized by the liver.

    : transportation of nutrients like glucose, amino acids, lipids, and vitamins absorbed from the digestive tract to different parts of the body act as a source of fuel for growth and development.

    : transportation of respiratory gases, i.e., carrying oxygen to the various organs and carrying carbon dioxide back to the lungs for excretion.

    : the blood removes nitrogenous waste products produced after cellular metabolism and transports them to the kidney, lungs, and skin for excretion.

    : hormones are released into the blood and transported to their target organs.

    : plasma proteins contribute to acid-base balance through their buffering action.

    : this is maintained by balancing heat loss and heat gain in the body.

    : fibrinogen, an acute phase reactant, increases during acute inflammatory conditions and contributes to the increase in ESR, which is used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.[3]

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    Related Testing

    Water constitutes about two-thirds of the human body. In an adult man weighing 70 kg, the body water content is about 42L. This water content is divided into two major compartments:

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    polymer

    serum albumin, protein found in blood plasma that helps maintain the osmotic pressure between the blood vessels and tissues. Serum albumin accounts for 55 percent of the total protein in blood plasma. Circulating blood tends to force fluid out of the blood vessels and into the tissues, where it results in edema (swelling from excess fluid). The colloid nature of albumin—and, to a lesser extent, of other blood proteins called globulins—keeps the fluid within the blood vessels. Albumin also acts as a carrier for two materials necessary for the control of blood clotting: (1) antithrombin, which keeps the clotting enzyme

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    chemistry

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    chemical structure of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

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    Top Questions What is a polymer?

    Why are organic polymers important?

    What are the examples of natural polymers?

    Summary

    Read a brief summary of this topic

    polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins, cellulose, and nucleic acids. Moreover, they constitute the basis of such minerals as diamond, quartz, and feldspar and such man-made materials as concrete, glass, paper, plastics, and rubbers.

    The word polymer designates an unspecified number of monomer units. When the number of monomers is very large, the compound is sometimes called a high polymer. Polymers are not restricted to monomers of the same chemical composition or molecular weight and structure. Some natural polymers are composed of one kind of monomer. Most natural and synthetic polymers, however, are made up of two or more different types of monomers; such polymers are known as copolymers.

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    Natural polymers: organic and inorganic

    Organic polymers play a crucial role in living things, providing basic structural materials and participating in vital life processes. For example, the solid parts of all plants are made up of polymers. These include cellulose, lignin, and various resins. Cellulose is a polysaccharide, a polymer that is composed of sugar molecules. Lignin consists of a complicated three-dimensional network of polymers. Wood resins are polymers of a simple hydrocarbon, isoprene. Another familiar isoprene polymer is rubber.

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    Other important natural polymers include the proteins, which are polymers of amino acids, and the nucleic acids, which are polymers of nucleotides—complex molecules composed of nitrogen-containing bases, sugars, and phosphoric acid. The nucleic acids carry genetic information in the cell. Starches, important sources of food energy derived from plants, are natural polymers composed of glucose.

    polynucleotide chain of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

    Portion of polynucleotide chain of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The inset shows the corresponding pentose sugar and pyrimidine base in ribonucleic acid (RNA).

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    Many inorganic polymers also are found in nature, including diamond and graphite. Both are composed of carbon. In diamond, carbon atoms are linked in a three-dimensional network that gives the material its hardness. In graphite, used as a lubricant and in pencil “leads,” the carbon atoms link in planes that can slide across one another.

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    Chapter 17: Blood Flashcards

    Start studying Chapter 17: Blood. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Chapter 17: Blood

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    Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to clotting?

    beta globulins alpha globulins fibrinogen

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    fibrinogen

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    Which of the following is NOT a normal characteristic of blood?

    more viscous than water

    tastes metallic, or salty

    neutral pH of 7.0

    5 million erythrocytes per microliter

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    Blood pH is 7.35-7.45

    Blood with pH of 7.0 would be a sign of acidosis

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    1/11 Created by crbeisel

    Terms in this set (11)

    Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to clotting?

    beta globulins alpha globulins fibrinogen fibrinogen

    Which of the following is NOT a normal characteristic of blood?

    more viscous than water

    tastes metallic, or salty

    neutral pH of 7.0

    5 million erythrocytes per microliter

    Blood pH is 7.35-7.45

    Blood with pH of 7.0 would be a sign of acidosis

    Part complete

    Which part of the hemoglobin molecule binds carbon dioxide for transport?

    iron heme group spectrin

    amino acids of the globin

    Residues of the globin

    Which of the following is true of the structure of an erythrocyte?

    Erythrocytes are larger than other cells in the blood.

    Erythrocytes are nucleated cells.

    Erythrocytes can bend and twist to fit through vessels.

    Erythrocytes are cell fragments.

    Erythrocytes can bend and twist to fit through vessels.

    Which of the following is not a function of blood?

    homeostatic regulation

    hormone production

    transport of metabolic wastes

    protection from infection

    hormone production

    In a centrifuged sample of blood, what should not be in the plasma portion of the sample?

    fibrinogen platelets electrolytes albumin

    Platelets are too dense to be in the plasma

    Which blood component primarily contributes to plasma osmotic pressure?

    electrolytes

    blood borne nutrients

    albumin gamma globulin Albumin

    What is a young, anucleate erythrocyte called?

    reticulocyte proerythroblast

    polychromatic erythroblast

    hemopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)

    reticulocyte

    Which of the formed elements is present in the greatest concentration?

    granular leukocytes

    agranular leukocytes

    erythrocytes platelets erythrocytes

    Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?

    hyperventilating testosterone

    a drop in blood oxygen levels

    erythropoietin hyperventilating

    Hyperventilating causes elevated oxygen levels

    Which of the following anemias is correctly matched with its description?

    hemorrhagic anemia: results from red blood cells rupturing

    hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake

    pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

    aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss

    ...

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