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    which best explains a primary reason for the inability of life to exist in earth’s early atmosphere? there was insufficient energy from material collisions to change their density. high temperatures during precambrian time caused surface water evaporation. volcanic eruptions and comet collisions added different gases to the atmosphere. available oxygen was used to help create an ozone layer within earth’s atmosphere.

    James

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    get which best explains a primary reason for the inability of life to exist in earth’s early atmosphere? there was insufficient energy from material collisions to change their density. high temperatures during precambrian time caused surface water evaporation. volcanic eruptions and comet collisions added different gases to the atmosphere. available oxygen was used to help create an ozone layer within earth’s atmosphere. from EN Bilgi.

    which best explains a primary reason for the inability of life to exist in earth’s early atmosphere? there was insufficient energy from material collisions to change their density. high temperatures during precambrian time caused surface water evaporation. volcanic eruptions and comet collisions added different gases to the atmosphere. available oxygen was used to help create an ozone layer within earth’s atmosphere.

    get which best explains a primary reason for the inability of life to exist in earth’s early atmosphere? there was insufficient energy from material collisions to change their density. high temperatures during precambrian time caused surface water evaporation. volcanic eruptions and comet collisions added different gases to the atmosphere. available oxygen was used to help create an ozone layer within earth’s atmosphere. from EN Bilgi.

    James

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get which best explains a primary reason for the inability of life to exist in earth’s early atmosphere? there was insufficient energy from material collisions to change their density. high temperatures during precambrian time caused surface water evaporation. volcanic eruptions and comet collisions added different gases to the atmosphere. available oxygen was used to help create an ozone layer within earth’s atmosphere. from EN Bilgi.

    History of the Earth Review

    Find and create gamified quizzes, lessons, presentations, and flashcards for students, employees, and everyone else. Get started for free!

    The image shows flat sedimentary rock layers in the foreground and angled sedimentary rock layers in the background.

    According to the principle of original horizontality, what most likely happened to the rock layers in the background?

    They cracked at an angle.

    They were deposited at an angle.

    They were deposited vertically and then shifted by a geologic event.

    They were deposited horizontally and then shifted by a geologic event.

    History of the Earth Review

    evolution of the atmosphere

    evolution of the atmosphere - evolution of the atmosphere - Outgassing of the solid planet: The release of gases during volcanic eruptions is one example of outgassing; releases at submarine hydrothermal vents are another. Although the gas in modern volcanic emanations commonly derives from rocks that have picked up volatiles at Earth’s surface and then have been buried to depths at which high temperatures remobilize the volatile material, a very different situation must have prevailed at the earliest stages of Earth’s history. The planet accreted from solid particles that formed as the primordial gas cloud cooled. Long before the volatile components of the cloud began to condense to form massive solid phases (that is, long

    Outgassing of the solid planet

    The release of gases during volcanic eruptions is one example of outgassing; releases at submarine hydrothermal vents are another. Although the gas in modern volcanic emanations commonly derives from rocks that have picked up volatiles at Earth’s surface and then have been buried to depths at which high temperatures remobilize the volatile material, a very different situation must have prevailed at the earliest stages of Earth’s history.

    Mount Pinatubo

    The planet accreted from solid particles that formed as the primordial gas cloud cooled. Long before the volatile components of the cloud began to condense to form massive solid phases (that is, long before water vapour condensed to form ice), their molecules would have coated the surfaces of the solid particles of rocky material that were forming. As these solid particles continued to grow, a portion of the volatiles coating their surfaces would have been trapped and carried thereafter by the particles. If the solids were not remelted by impact as they collected to form the planet, the volatiles they carried would have been incorporated in the solid planet. In this way, even without collecting an enveloping gaseous atmosphere, a newly formed planet could include—as material occluded in its constituent grains—a substantial inventory of volatiles.

    At some point in its early history, Earth became so hot that much of the iron dispersed among the solid particles melted, became mobile, and collected to form the core. Related events led to the formation of rocky layers that were the precursors of Earth’s present-day mantle and crust. As part of this process of differentiation, volatiles present in the particles would have been released through outgassing. The outgassing must have occurred on a colossal scale if the accreting particles had retained their volatiles right up to the time of differentiation.

    An atmosphere created by retention of these outgassing products would derive ultimately from nebular gases. Its chemical composition, however, would be expected to differ in two principal respects from that of an atmosphere formed by the capture of primordial gases: (1) whereas the captured atmosphere would contain all gases that were moving slowly enough (that is, that were sufficiently cold and/or of sufficient molecular weight) so that it was possible for the planet to retain them gravitationally, the outgassed atmosphere would contain only those gases “sticky” enough to have been significantly retained in the rocky particles from which the planet formed; and (2) methane and ammonia, two presumed components of a captured atmosphere, would probably not be stable under the conditions involved in outgassing. Thus, the noble gases, which would be poorly held by particles, would be of low abundance relative to gases derived from chemically active elements. Further, the principal forms of carbon and nitrogen in an outgassed atmosphere would be carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide together with molecular nitrogen.

    Importation

    A compromise between the extremes of direct capture and outgassing proposes that Earth’s inventory of volatiles was delivered to the planet late in its accretionary history—possibly after differentiation was nearly complete—by impact of a “last-minute” crop of solid bodies that were very strongly enriched in volatile materials (these were the last substances to condense as the solar nebula cooled). Such bodies might have had compositions similar to those of comets that still can be observed in the solar system. These last-minute condensates may have coated the planet as a surface veneer that yielded gases only when heated during differentiation, or they may have released their volatiles on impact.

    Because such bodies would have been relatively small, they would not have been able to retain primordial gases by means of a substantial gravitational field. Their complement of volatiles, retained by cold trapping in ices and on particle surfaces, would be expected to resemble the “sticky” (that is, polar and reactive) gases occluded by solid particles at earlier stages of cooling of the gas cloud but possibly lost during earlier higher temperature phases of Earth’s accretion.

    evolution of the atmosphere

    which best explains a primary reason for the inability of life to exist in earth’s early atmosphere? there was insufficient energy from material collisions to change their density. high temperatures during precambrian time caused surface water evaporation. volcanic eruptions and comet collisions added different gases to the atmosphere. available oxygen was used to help create an ozone layer within earth’s atmosphere.

    Source : enbilgi.ir

    History of the Earth Review

    Find and create gamified quizzes, lessons, presentations, and flashcards for students, employees, and everyone else. Get started for free!

    The image shows flat sedimentary rock layers in the foreground and angled sedimentary rock layers in the background.

    According to the principle of original horizontality, what most likely happened to the rock layers in the background?

    They cracked at an angle.

    They were deposited at an angle.

    They were deposited vertically and then shifted by a geologic event.

    They were deposited horizontally and then shifted by a geologic event.

    History of the Earth Review

    Source : quizizz.com

    Volcanic gases can be harmful to health, vegetation and infrastructure

    Carbon dioxide gas can collect in low-lying volcanic areas, posing ...

    Magma contains dissolved gases, which provide the driving force that causes most volcanic eruptions. As magma rises towards the surface and pressure decreases, gases are released from the liquid portion of the magma (melt) and continue to travel upward and are eventually released into the atmosphere. Large eruptions can release enormous amounts of gas in a short time. The 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is thought to have injected more than 250 megatons of gas into the upper atmosphere on a single day. However, even if magma never reaches the surface, gases can often escape continuously into the atmosphere from the soil, volcanic vents, fumaroles, and hydrothermal systems.

    By far the most abundant volcanic gas is water vapor, which is harmless. However, significant amounts of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen halides can also be emitted from volcanoes. Depending on their concentrations, these gases are all potentially hazardous to people, animals, agriculture, and property.

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) trapped in low-lying areas can be lethal to people and animals

    Carbon dioxide constitutes approximately 0.04% of the air in the Earth's atmosphere. In an average year, volcanoes release between about 180 and 440 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. When this colorless, odorless gas is emitted from volcanoes, it typically becomes diluted to low concentrations very quickly and is not life threatening. However, because cold carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air it can flow into in low-lying areas where it can reach much higher concentrations in certain, very stable atmospheric conditions. This can pose serious risks to people and animals. Breathing air with more than 3% CO2 can quickly lead to headaches, dizziness, increased heart rate and difficulty breathing. At mixing ratios exceeding about 15%, carbon dioxide quickly causes unconsciousness and death.

    Volcanic Smog (vog) is produced from SO2 gas and is a hazard in Haw...

    In volcanic or other areas where CO2emissions occur, it is important to avoid small depressions and low areas that might be CO2 traps. The boundary between healthy air and lethal gas can be extremely sharp; even a single step upslope may be adequate to escape death. In 2006, three ski patrol members were killed at Mammoth Mountain ski resort after falling into a snow depression surrounding a volcanic fumarole and filled with cool CO2 gas. High concentrations of CO2 gas in soils can also damage or destroy vegetation, as is visible in several areas on Mammoth Mountain.

    In addition to their direct hazard, volcanic CO2 emissions also have the capacity to affect the global climate, but scientific studies indicate that the average global volcanic output is insignificant when compared to emissions from human activity.

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory system

    Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that irritates skin and the tissues and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat. SO2 emissions can cause acid rain and air pollution downwind of a volcano—at Kīlauea volcano in Hawaii, high concentrations of sulfur dioxide produce volcanic smog (VOG) causing persistent health problems for downwind populations. During very large eruptions, SO2 can be injected to altitudes of greater than 10km into the stratosphere. Here, SO2is converted to sulfate aerosols which reflect sunlight and therefore have a cooling effect on the Earth's climate. They also have a role in ozone depletion, as many of the reactions that destroy ozone occur on the surface of such aerosols.

    Please see our discussion of volcanic gases and climate change for additional information.

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is very toxic in high concentrations

    Sun seen through gas plume from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, viewed from Uwekahuna ov...

    Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless, flammable gas with a strong, offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive to H2S than any gas monitoring instrument we have today: air mixtures with as little as 0.000001% H2S are associated with a rotten egg smell. Unfortunately, however, our sense of smell is not a reliable alarm - at mixing ratios above about 0.01%, H2S becomes odorless and very toxic, causing irritation of the upper respiratory tract and, during long exposure, pulmonary edema. Exposure to 500 ppm can cause a human to fall unconscious in 5 minutes and die in an hour or less.

    Hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, HBr) are toxic acids

    When magma ascends close to the surface, volcanoes can emit the halogens fluorine, chlorine and bromine in the form of hydrogen halides (HF, HCl and HBr). These species have high solubility; therefore they rapidly dissolve in water droplets within volcanic plumes or the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash-producing eruption, ash particles are also often coated with hydrogen halides. Once deposited, these coated ash particles can poison drinking water supplies, agricultural crops, and grazing land.

    Volcanic gases can be harmful to health, vegetation and infrastructure

    Source : www.usgs.gov

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