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    which best describes why making political allies is a key strategy for lobbyists? it reduces competition between opposing lobbyists. it enables multiple issues to be addressed at once. it places more pressure on lawmakers to vote a certain way. it increases the number of supporting votes for pending legislation.

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    get which best describes why making political allies is a key strategy for lobbyists? it reduces competition between opposing lobbyists. it enables multiple issues to be addressed at once. it places more pressure on lawmakers to vote a certain way. it increases the number of supporting votes for pending legislation. from EN Bilgi.

    interest group

    As discussed above, lobbying involves working to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain favourable policy outcomes. In order to accomplish their goals, interest groups develop a strategy or plan of action and execute it through specific tactics. The particular strategies developed and the specific tactics used, however, vary widely both among and within political systems. Three factors are of particular importance in shaping lobbying strategies and tactics. One is whether the political system is democratic or authoritarian. Because there generally are few restrictions on interest groups in democratic societies, they have more options available (e.g., hiring lobbyists,

    Lobbying strategies and tactics

    As discussed above, lobbying involves working to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain favourable policy outcomes. In order to accomplish their goals, interest groups develop a strategy or plan of action and execute it through specific tactics. The particular strategies developed and the specific tactics used, however, vary widely both among and within political systems.

    Three factors are of particular importance in shaping lobbying strategies and tactics. One is whether the political system is democratic or authoritarian. Because there generally are few restrictions on interest groups in democratic societies, they have more options available (e.g., hiring lobbyists, using the press, and staging public demonstrations). Thus, strategies and tactics are more formalized and open than in authoritarian societies, where they must be more ad hoc and less publicly visible.

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    public opinion: Interest groups

    Interest groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), religious groups, and labour unions (trade unions) cultivate the formation and spread...

    A second factor is the structure of the policy process. As indicated above, in democratic parliamentary systems, where the executive is drawn from the major political party or party coalition in the parliament (e.g., Finland, India, and Ireland), the legislative branch is less important than the prime minister and the cabinet in policy making. In contrast, because of the power placed in the U.S. Congress and state legislatures, the United States is one of the few countries in which legislative lobbying is a major strategy of interest groups. The courts in most parliamentary systems also play a minor role in policy making. Again, in contrast, in the United States the separation-of-powers system has provided the courts, which have the power to invalidate legislation, with a major role in policy making, and, as a result, litigation strategies are often vital to American interest groups.

    A third factor is political culture as it relates to group activity and lobbying. In the United States, for example, the use of contract lobbyists—those hired by contract specifically to lobby government—is much more accepted than in most other Western democracies, including those of the European Union, where public officials usually prefer to deal directly with the members of the concerned group, organization, or business.

    Three major factors can also be identified to explain why lobbying strategies and tactics vary within a political system. One is the nature of the group and its resources. “Insider” groups—those older and more traditional business, labour, and professional groups with extensive resources, including money and established access to public officials—are more able to pursue “insider tactics,” utilizing their close friends and associates in government to promote their goals, and generally have many more options available to them than do “outsider” groups. Such outsider groups tend to be newer and sometimes promote radical causes; they usually lack key contacts with policy makers and major financial resources, and they often focus their energy on grassroots efforts, which may include letter writing or Internet campaigns or public demonstrations to gain media coverage (insider groups may also use such methods). Second, whether the purpose is to promote or defeat a legislative proposal helps to explain variations in strategies and tactics across different political systems. For instance, in the United States, a system that was designed by its founders to prevent government action, the so-called “advantage of the defense” operates. All an interest has to do to stop a proposal is to get a sympathetic committee chair in the legislature to oppose it or a president or governor to veto it. To get a proposal enacted requires that it clear hurdles in both houses of the legislature and be signed by the executive. In contrast, in parliamentary systems, with power concentrated in an executive committed to the platform of the major party or party coalition in parliament, it is much harder to defeat something if it has been agreed upon by the party beforehand. Third, a country’s political climate influences strategies taken by interest groups. Which party is in power (such as one favourably disposed to an interest group’s agenda), the major issues facing the government, and the country’s budget circumstances will influence the types of strategies an interest group uses. For example, the National Education Association (NEA) in the United States pursues a different strategy when the Republicans are in power in Washington, D.C., and in the states than when the Democrats are in power. The NEA has “insider status” with the Democrats but generally not with the Republicans.

    demonstration by fast-food workers in Tokyo

    Fast-food workers demonstrating for higher pay and better working conditions in Tokyo in 2014 as part of a worldwide movement.

    Rodrigo Reyes Marin—AFLO/Alamy

    Although strategies and tactics vary between and within political systems, there is one aspect of lobbying that is common in all systems, whether democratic or authoritarian: building close personal contacts between group representatives and public officials to foster trust and credibility and to persuade the government that it needs the group. In democracies, tactics are usually broad-ranging, but building relationships is universal regardless of the type of democratic system. In authoritarian and developing political systems, personal contacts between political elites within and outside of government are often the major tactic (and sometimes the only tactic available). For example, patron-client networks, which are modern manifestations of court cliques in traditional monarchies, are based not on a shared interest (as set out in the definition of an interest group above) but on the personal benefit of the patron and clients. However, patron-client connections can work to represent and gain benefits for a group, such as merchants or landowners.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Interest Groups & Lobbying Flashcards

    Start studying Interest Groups & Lobbying. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Interest Groups & Lobbying

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    How does lobbying benefit the government?

    Lobbying simplifies the decision-making process for lawmakers.

    Lobbying presents all interests equally.

    Lobbying helps educate and inform lawmakers.

    Lobbying ensures all citizens' opinions inform government decisions.

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    C

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    Which of these is considered a benefit of lobbying?

    Lobbying ensures that lawmakers are well funded for the next election.

    Lobbying facilitates communication between the public and lawmakers.

    Lobbying creates an advantage in government for wealthier citizens and corporations.

    Lobbying reduces opportunities for corruption in government because it reduces the role of money.

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    B

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    1/10 Created by aftermists

    Terms in this set (10)

    How does lobbying benefit the government?

    Lobbying simplifies the decision-making process for lawmakers.

    Lobbying presents all interests equally.

    Lobbying helps educate and inform lawmakers.

    Lobbying ensures all citizens' opinions inform government decisions.

    C

    Which of these is considered a benefit of lobbying?

    Lobbying ensures that lawmakers are well funded for the next election.

    Lobbying facilitates communication between the public and lawmakers.

    Lobbying creates an advantage in government for wealthier citizens and corporations.

    Lobbying reduces opportunities for corruption in government because it reduces the role of money.

    B

    The ____________ is the governmental body that regulates political action committees (PACs).

    Federal Election Commission

    Which of these are true of political action committees (PACs) but not of interest groups? Select all that apply.

    PACs promote social causes.

    PACs provide financial support to political campaigns.

    PACs are international organizations.

    PACs are supported by corporate interests.

    PACs are regulated by the Federal Election Commission.

    PACs provide financial support to political campaigns.

    PACs are regulated by the Federal Election Commission.

    Which best describes what economic interest groups generally support?

    tax reform

    government subsidies

    business interests international trade C

    Which best describes how the information lobbyists provide to lawmakers is significant?

    Lobbyists are allowed to provide false information to undermine opponents.

    Lobbyists have access to information that may not be available to others, even politicians.

    Lobbyists offer precise information on voter positions, which politicians can use in elections.

    Lobbyists can present information in a way that supports their clients' positions.

    D

    A lobbyist's job includes

    researching and understanding issues being considered by lawmakers.

    practicing law and defending clients in court.

    registering with the government and getting a specialized license.

    making political connections and giving gifts to lawmakers in exchange for support.

    A

    Why must lobbyists register with the government and report their activities annually?

    to provide transparency on how lobbyists and government officials interact

    to ensure that corrupt practices can be tracked and taxed appropriately

    to make sure that government employees are in the right buildings during working hours

    to track which lobbyists are the most successful at influencing changes in policy

    A

    Which best describes why making political allies is a key strategy for lobbyists?

    It reduces competition between opposing lobbyists.

    It enables multiple issues to be addressed at once.

    It places more pressure on lawmakers to vote a certain way.

    It increases the number of supporting votes for pending legislation.

    C

    Do lobbyists exert influence among all three branches of government? Why or why not?

    Yes, they advise on rules and legislation and file briefs with the courts.

    No, they focus on developing legislation.

    Yes, they influence the election of officials to all three branches.

    No, the courts are immune to outside influences.

    A

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