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    which best describes what forms in nuclear fusion? two smaller, more stable nuclei two larger, less stable nuclei one smaller, less stable nucleus one larger, more stable nucleus

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    Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion Flashcards

    Start studying Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

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    Research into nuclear fusion will likely require a large investment of time and money before it might be used as an energy source.

    Which statement best describes the benefits that would make the investment worthwhile?

    Fusion requires a large amount of energy and occurs in stars.

    Fusion produces large amounts of energy, and the fuel is found on Earth.

    Fusion produces no radioactive waste, and the fuel is plentiful.

    Fusion requires little energy to begin and would continue through a chain reaction.

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    NOT D B

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    Which is most likely why many scientists reject the cold fusion theory?

    There is too much waste involved in the process.

    Cold fusion experiments have been conducted at room temperature only.

    The process does not produce enough energy to meet the needs of modern humans.

    The original results have not been replicated consistently and reliably.

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    D

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    Terms in this set (14)

    Research into nuclear fusion will likely require a large investment of time and money before it might be used as an energy source.

    Which statement best describes the benefits that would make the investment worthwhile?

    Fusion requires a large amount of energy and occurs in stars.

    Fusion produces large amounts of energy, and the fuel is found on Earth.

    Fusion produces no radioactive waste, and the fuel is plentiful.

    Fusion requires little energy to begin and would continue through a chain reaction.

    NOT D B

    Which is most likely why many scientists reject the cold fusion theory?

    There is too much waste involved in the process.

    Cold fusion experiments have been conducted at room temperature only.

    The process does not produce enough energy to meet the needs of modern humans.

    The original results have not been replicated consistently and reliably.

    D

    Which statement is true about nuclear fusion?

    It is caused by the same process that causes nuclear fission.

    It does not occur naturally in the solar system.

    It has very low activation energy.

    It produces nearly all the elements that are heavier than helium.

    NOT A

    How does critical mass play a role in nuclear reactions?

    It is the minimum amount of material needed to start a fission reaction.

    It is the minimum amount of material needed to start a fusion reaction.

    It is the minimum amount of material needed to sustain a fission reaction.

    It is the minimum amount of material needed to sustain a fusion reaction.

    C

    Which is a characteristic of nuclear fusion?

    produces radioactive waste

    involves the collision of two nuclei

    commonly used by humans as an energy source

    requires very little activation energy

    B

    Why is it important for scientists to replicate each other's experiments?

    to determine if important scientific results are repeatable

    to help the research of other scientists

    to determine if slight alterations in the experiment can affect the result

    to further their own research

    A

    Which equation demonstrates that nuclear fusion forms elements that are heavier than helium?

    B

    Which element is nuclear fusion least likely to produce?

    hydrogen, which has an approximate mass of 1

    chlorine, which has an approximate mass of 35

    argon, which has an approximate mass of 39

    silicon, which has an approximate mass of 28

    A

    Which type of reaction does this diagram represent?

    mc007-1.jpg

    nuclear fusion because nuclei combine to form a heavy nucleus

    nuclear fission because an atom is splitting into two large fragments of comparable mass

    nuclear fusion because a large amount of energy is

    being released

    nuclear fission because the resulting products are not radioactive

    B

    Which is a characteristic of nuclear fusion but NOT nuclear fission?

    releases large amounts of energy

    is the energy source of stars

    is used in electric power plants

    requires little energy to occur

    B

    Which best describes what forms in nuclear fusion?

    two smaller, more stable nuclei

    two larger, less stable nuclei

    one smaller, less stable nucleus

    one larger, more stable nucleus

    NOT A

    Which best describes nuclear fission?

    A nucleus spontaneously splits and absorbs energy.

    Two nuclei spontaneously combine and absorb energy.

    A nucleus collides with a neutron and splits, releasing energy.

    Nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy.

    NOT A

    Which statement is true about nuclear fusion?

    It is caused by the same process that causes nuclear fission.

    It does not occur naturally in the solar system.

    It has very low activation energy.

    It produces nearly all the elements that are heavier than helium.

    D

    Which statement is true about this reaction?

    mc016-1.jpg

    It is a practical source of energy on Earth.

    It occurs only outside the solar system.

    Its product is heavier than each of its reactants.

    It shows the critical mass of an element.

    Source : quizlet.com

    DOE Explains...Nuclear Fusion Reactions

    DOE Explains...Nuclear Fusion Reactions

    DOE Explains...Nuclear Fusion Reactions

    Office of Science

    Depiction of the deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fusion reaction, which produces a helium nucleus (or alpha particle) and a high energy neutron.

    Nuclear Fusion reactions power the Sun and other stars. In a fusion reaction, two light nuclei merge to form a single heavier nucleus. The process releases energy because the total mass of the resulting single nucleus is less than the mass of the two original nuclei. The leftover mass becomes energy. Einstein’s equation (E=mc2), which says in part that mass and energy can be converted into each other, explains why this process occurs. If scientists develop a way to harness energy from fusion in machines on Earth, it could be an important method of energy production.

    Fusion can involve many different elements in the periodic table. However, researchers working on fusion energy applications are especially interested in the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction. DT fusion produces a neutron and a helium nucleus. In the process, it also releases much more energy than most fusion reactions. In a potential future fusion power plant such as a tokamak or stellarator, neutrons from DT reactions would generate power for our use. Researchers focus on DT reactions both because they produce large amounts of energy and they occur at lower temperatures than other elements.

    DOE Office of Science & Fusion Reactions

    The Department of Energy Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program seeks to develop a practical fusion energy source. To do so, FES partners with other Office of Science programs. They work with the Advanced Scientific Computing Research program to use scientific computing to advance fusion science as well as the Nuclear Physics program on nuclear reaction databases, generation of nuclear isotopes, and research in nucleosynthesis. FES also partners with the DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration to pursue fundamental research on fusion reactions in support of DOE’s nuclear stockpile stewardship mission.

    Fusion Reaction Facts

    The ITER international fusion energy experiment will be scientists’ first attempt at creating a self-sustained fusion reaction for long durations. “Burning plasmas” in ITER will be heated by the fusion reactions occurring in the plasma itself.

    Fusion reaction experiments at the DOE’s National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory require 192 laser beams to align on a DT target smaller than a pea. This is like throwing a perfect strike in baseball from a pitcher’s mound 350 miles away from the plate.

    Resources and Related Terms

    How does fusion energy work?

    U.S. DOE Office of Science Fusion Energy Sciences program

    Science Up-Close: Developing a Cookbook for Efficient Fusion Energy

    Fusion Research Ignites Innovation

    Acknowledgements

    Matthew Lanctot (U.S. DOE Office of Science)

    Scientific terms can be confusing. DOE Explains offers straightforward explanations of key words and concepts in fundamental science. It also describes how these concepts apply to the work that the Department of Energy’s Office of Science conducts as it helps the United States excel in research across the scientific spectrum.

    Source : www.energy.gov

    Fission and Fusion

    The energy harnessed in nuclei is released in nuclear reactions. Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and fusion is the combining of nuclei to form a bigger and heavier …

    Fission and Fusion

    Last updated Sep 22, 2020

    Contrasting Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

    Fission Chain Reaction

    The energy harnessed in nuclei is released in nuclear reactions. Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and fusion is the combining of nuclei to form a bigger and heavier nucleus. The consequence of fission or fusion is the absorption or release of energy.

    Introduction

    Protons and neutrons make up a nucleus, which is the foundation of nuclear science. Fission and fusion involves the dispersal and combination of elemental nucleus and isotopes, and part of nuclear science is to understand the process behind this phenomenon. Adding up the individual masses of each of these subatomic particles of any given element will always give you a greater mass than the mass of the nucleus as a whole. The missing idea in this observation is the concept called nuclear binding energy. Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to keep the protons and neutrons of a nucleus intact, and the energy that is released during a nuclear fission or fusion is nuclear power. There are some things to consider however. The mass of an element's nucleus as a whole is less than the total mass of its individual protons and neutrons. The difference in mass can be attributed to the nuclear binding energy. Basically, nuclear binding energy is considered as mass, and that mass becomes "missing". This missing mass is called mass defect, which is the nuclear energy, also known as the mass released from the reaction as neutrons, photons, or any other trajectories. In short, mass defect and nuclear binding energy are interchangeable terms.

    Nuclear Fission and Fusion

    Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter ones. Fission was discovered in 1938 by the German scientists Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann, who bombarded a sample of uranium with neutrons in an attempt to produce new elements with Z > 92. They observed that lighter elements such as barium (Z = 56) were formed during the reaction, and they realized that such products had to originate from the neutron-induced fission of uranium-235:

    235 92 U+ 1 0 n→ 141 56 Ba+ 92 36 Kr+ 3 1 0 n (1)

    (1)92235U+01n→56141Ba+3692Kr+301n

    This hypothesis was confirmed by detecting the krypton-92 fission product. As discussed in Section 20.2, the nucleus usually divides asymmetrically rather than into two equal parts, and the fission of a given nuclide does not give the same products every time.

    In a typical nuclear fission reaction, more than one neutron is released by each dividing nucleus. When these neutrons collide with and induce fission in other neighboring nuclei, a self-sustaining series of nuclear fission reactions known as a nuclear chain reaction can result (Figure 21.6.2). For example, the fission of 235U releases two to three neutrons per fission event. If absorbed by other 235U nuclei, those neutrons induce additional fission events, and the rate of the fission reaction increases geometrically. Each series of events is called a generation. Experimentally, it is found that some minimum mass of a fissile isotope is required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction; if the mass is too low, too many neutrons are able to escape without being captured and inducing a fission reaction. The minimum mass capable of supporting sustained fission is called the critical mass. This amount depends on the purity of the material and the shape of the mass, which corresponds to the amount of surface area available from which neutrons can escape, and on the identity of the isotope. If the mass of the fissile isotope is greater than the critical mass, then under the right conditions, the resulting supercritical mass can release energy explosively. The enormous energy released from nuclear chain reactions is responsible for the massive destruction caused by the detonation of nuclear weapons such as fission bombs, but it also forms the basis of the nuclear power industry.

    Nuclear fusion, in which two light nuclei combine to produce a heavier, more stable nucleus, is the opposite of nuclear fission. As in the nuclear transmutation reactions discussed in Section 20.2, the positive charge on both nuclei results in a large electrostatic energy barrier to fusion. This barrier can be overcome if one or both particles have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsions, allowing the two nuclei to approach close enough for a fusion reaction to occur. The principle is similar to adding heat to increase the rate of a chemical reaction. As shown in the plot of nuclear binding energy per nucleon versus atomic number in Figure 21.6.3, fusion reactions are most exothermic for the lightest element. For example, in a typical fusion reaction, two deuterium atoms combine to produce helium-3, a process known as deuterium–deuterium fusion (D–D fusion):

    2 2 1 H→ 3 2 He+ 1 0 n (2) (2)212H→23He+01n

    Figure

    Source : chem.libretexts.org

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